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ewpn-oraKT to the aoahsmy, i 



THE ACADEMY. 



A WEEKLY REVIEW OF LITEBATUBE, SOIENCK, 
AND ART. 



JULY — DECEMBER. 



Volume Vm. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED BY BOBEBT SCOTT WALEEB, 43 WELLINGTON S T E E E T, STBAND. 

1875. 



Digitized by ^ OOQ IC 



LoKDOS : Pbqted bi 
iK & Co,, 87 CnuEOinT Labk ; 30 P«iiuui>i>t Stbeet ; It Botal Ixce^os; 

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srpPl^HESr TO THB ACi.BBlIT,-1 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII. 



LITERATURE. 



BB VIEWS. 

.Mlict' (T. W.) ni FormaHon ef 0irlim- 

Atti'i^n'rifor the EsfKtmm'^ \iii '.'. 1 
in-.oUa (Matthew) Oed oirf «* BIWt .. MS 

ji'Idj. rAf £4Arafy ., .. SJ9 

A-Win't (J.> i«lKr«on /m-flp""''"" ■■ V'\ 
E.-i'XJ.) iiSii-frofHpHomm if. Ciiit,brHI 

Ciy!ntE.Goaid'i (Rev. ^})Thi Lok and lliii- 

■i-Otap'lt !9 

K.iRter'f(G.C.T.) TluPartA .Vrt .. .. M 

£<^iaiT'>(Q.a) Xeie UlaliiptriaH Dltliea- 

ifn' <ita(aHaai BM 

liiuM-i (:s.yCarlo UaHnal I ritalladrl 

ISn. I'fflbrt) Aria/Crnmln^i CiS 

!^,-t»'> (Bit. H.) Atari' and n>rrfii>«n- 

/"or of Stimrl f^pi »1J 

Sr-^naax't IR.) Ti' iBi AOam Ui 

Ci-lr/JfimtrKtrasd Olirtr Cramntt 13S 
Bjffibffm'i (C. A.) bnUcli' Lfrit .. .. *3i 
I:3cklui4*9 (F.) Log-BBot t/ a FUUrmaH 

a'JZIxAifiil iS 

Bcjton'i (liabel) nr Iin'r Lift ff Sfrta IH 
<R. F.) A Sue ffl'm tf Srerd 

Eirrrltr/ar Im/^ntrf MS 

CIHuu TIati I BT, n ;Siiiinu>r in 

/■rTnnd 0« 

C::mt;iQ.)EanfiAiMlliHleal .. ,. 11» 
•1^11 Jliitfllaitf. ITie l-roi. tii.i .. .. ms 
I .vnnDTs {Uliw) mria drila BrpiOUmi dl 

l\,'-:r ISS 

i.Rvilght'i (J.J.) i!dJtk>aaI Ximtlno/ 

'"..*« tud Japan, Ltttert fronit Br 

i.n.s. sni 

C;-jrtKF.) m Agrletiiniral iact-oai 0/ 

<. 'v-.tMl^ fI p'J llBfti'itr ihi lliarm 

t "-litre's (MaiT|iilsdclC'ifH<iw£iNa- 

Cogtt', MoKpb'lr) kellaim'ind'aeinct '.'. SC 
ij'jn— '(J. U.) /.'nniii OB Caihtlkiui, Li- 

l.-CiOMd/HrCalnllt '.'. '.. '.'. ".".134 
( iii»t-' (P. df) llUtolit drt ynifinKiwii 

-.^lor Spliinaliim BW 

I .rv,'> (E. A.) Sftrotta, Oi Adianta}ii, 

r^Ktrrri. and Drarliacti ITl 

Ii'-lisitfa'ii and Otltmj't 1/arii AMa/atrif S3 

yi-.- -■( (B«ren Cb.) ^(« 4M 

:-t:.L. (Ret. W.) Ci>iamt»larj on fA» 

.v.'.o'fJW.Anoffft* tSS 

" .;,-.i-irC.W.) raiflJptri'V'aO'Hfr.. :9 

DiTL'4 (Borotth Cbunder) 3^ Pramtiy 
' ' BtK'/ni . . . . . . . . . . . . 3M 

Kwirotth'a (J. W.) WalmliuUr Di-Mtriri M 

Jiftr™ 1/ntltiy Cbm- 

ftal MS 

Ei:M>«MrH.».)/rifrfrvi>rjii4In.. .. S3 
b-<>]ta'ii (T.) ABC OaUi ta Duunnrl, 

^'M'H&a.AyEaaiteallkakaptitrt .. .. S'i 
f.,-i;ag Forril Cammiule'i, PnHmlnarf 

nrjxrt <.f Ihi Ml 

EnliL-i <A. (.'.) nt Ufi aad Ttmn nf 

l\iKt <-hnrla Slitarl fl»l 

nctcr'i- (Ur. J.) Fariehimftn nr ReUht. 

■nJ KirMveKAIeliU IfaHaii .. .. MS, XK 
7orb«»'a{L[Hon)ncar«r>hif{ff .. .. 89 
FocTst'i (J.J Etflaralloiu in AtMrella . . CM 
f«r>tar'> (J.) Thi Ll/i lifJonantm Sirin .. tl» 
frti-aiaiemrw.nt Stent Warfkre^.iiaalnl 

ClumiandXal' STl 

Pmhfield'i (D. W.) llaliatAlpt .. .. M 
Furie^'l (R.) J/ltf(»va/Mf iriaUq^A'nK OS 
(rtTTinnf (Dr. O. G.) aiMtapfi-f Can- 

fnUria I7B 

f:tBnfd',(W.)J!Wiront» (>/■*• y«MM .. Ul 
UUdMane'i (V.E.) Adw and Ijli .Vflmt 

FaHimiliiHrllgloii tU 



BEVIEWS-coMlHtd. 

Oordon'g (l*lj Doll) £aif Ltttiit /rom 

EWJ" 133 

OoBtwlclt's (J.) 0*™w» ftwrt 10» 

GTshuii*! (J. M.) Aaiialt ud Cbrivvisii- 

Orunont'! (Dnc de) Aiw'fl /'fVinif.. .. MS 
QmanXKl'i (J.) 7»< Wlida <^ Ltnda* .. iSi 
onffliU'e (Ciipt. jL.i Mr:imiaU tf Hill- 

OroBwt'i {R«T." A." b!) /•™«"iroi-ij ij' 

Oo\tat't L'Jlltlein dr F^itte '.'. '.'. ■'.'. 314 

Haltea, Lad' Anne, at AnUUntniiihf af' AM 
Btrtim-BtF.yiirdrraml fngrta.. .. Stt 

Hurrey'i (Mn.) rtufUt iypsAs/oi .. '.! 110 
Bansntb'i (Dr. A.) .VrnltilaiiiallKlu ZHI- 

gaeliltlilt BK 

SiaUtt'i NABteipmn'i Utrafii 106 

Heckethoni't (C. W.l Jlaia d-llalia .. ..MS 
Hertilet'i (£.) 1U« Hap «■ fnrmv t« 

t™w 4M 

Hill's (<)MsTla) fiDivf B/lht Latdon Pour 190 
Hlllctannd** (Kuril WSHtkaaadlHalrl^ilV! 
Holjonke'i |0, J.) tfiito/jr of Co-operalioj. 

inEiglaid M; 

Book's (W. F.) Htfiof Oh AnUdibiipni/ 

OrJilrrtiH-ji 187 

Soiae't (R. a.) Coma dr' ilediri .. ..170 
HoglMs's (Ber. T. P.) .VoCn m IfuMmma- 

Hunler** (Dr.) Li/i'iifihr Earlifil'i^ .'. fittT 
la^eaBV:i{C.-) Ftari/ar DiiBiKnirt .. «17 
JugoT'i TVvKff fn fftf /^itipplHet . . -. £3tf 
Ja&r^iteh Jer [IfulKhta Skateaptoit-Oettit- 

Jiidm'b(H.) Ti^twrltiHie siiliAn '.'. '.'. iSS 
JertoWf (B.) T/n Final Belu/<Ht of Falltr 

JevOH' (W. S.) Uimf and Ot Mefkaalim 

of Exe/iamr 468 

Joba' /.a Frmer tout Laii, Qizl«it .. .. 1«3 

Joycs's (P. W.) nt Ci^fl an<f ///aW'^ «■ 

/rijA ,\'ojiiw of nocn S74 

KOiUlR'tlDr.J.i Uarlin Lullur .. .. Ill 
Kremer'ft <A. Ton) CnHtrstieJili/ae da 

OrltaU antrr drn Chalifm 38 

Kueneii'i (Dr. A.) Thr Jirlujlon ^a™| (o 

Hit FallofrAiJiirMHIitir 40S 

LuouchB'H (J.) Ti-artit in Faring ., . . »» 
Lourla'K (Col. W. F. B.) Wcnrlia of IMi- 

Uanutiktd .iafflo-Indian* .. .. .- -. S% 
Lki^re's (Emile de) Pmieiranilm ami 

CaOelltlm (DO 

Ltsar*! (L.) EiMda Elami rujniarj rt 

LHUralHre 18> 

lA!gf''(i>r. J.] niOiinaraatila .. W 
Lewln-s (Th.) L^i uji<l Epi^Ui of St. 

ftrnl W» 

Llojd'a (W. WelWM) niA^ir of IHrWn WO 

laOttMan !»T 

LoCtua'B (Ch.) Uf rouOi ifSra and land ttt 
Long'i (G.) 7^ DfeUue <^ ibt Roman 

Rtf«hlk 6t» 

LongfoUow'K (H. V.) TV Mai^at of Fan- 

LontMfi (B.) Tie irvnuil </ Cniaiir- 

Lorne'i (Uarqnli) Ouido ami Lila . . . . .'iia 
Lnard's (H. It.) Maldiaii t^rltlntU . . MS 

Didle of Cambtriaad .' «1 

Unannnan lod llorrlii's Tknt SorOHm 

Ltrt .'Voriti, Sic H 

Unbui'i (llav. A.) TlH Phatmtna of 

K»tnB'i(SirK!8.)'71to"fifi*I or Wtrrni- 
Hon or f'dia on Uodtrn EaroBtdn 
nwintr in 

Kkllwon'* (Col. G. B.) BWoriai m-erh tf 
lAe ffoHrr Staff I of India 188 

Ifrnwri (H.L.) niOnedHratrtnaaflht 
Fi'-MindSinniilCrHtMrltl 849 

Marltornifli, Uil^h of, Uutii of .. ,. iU 



ILE VI E W^-uUfiwai. 

Uanh'i <G. F.) Th- L'arlh ai 1/odiJlid bj 

Haman Anion 187 

Mii«luin'«(G. W.jTTuCniw/oiW ., ., 188 

(F.) lnM»aiUinat VanUin .. 873 

(F./L-iAlilud^HfJIfniUI.. .. K» 

UuadD'i <<Jh. de) La aniirr dt Fivurt, 

1878-71 184 

Kgrtade's I/anU i or a^abiftBri'i mie- 

loplm of Hi-lerv . . M» 

Michelcfi' (J.) tfrJ(../rf rfn ,V/.V" S*V» .. 671 
JOnnef. (M.) Jtiralilrdt PrantoU lirtldt 

jnkliBich'HDr.P.)'"'^c/*lt''WB '.'. »1 
Ulrabnn'B (CounKas iIc) atraOtcliau <if 

Col. dt ConHtrllk 4n 

Jflul/i. lit -Vnr fart and lltnfofd ,. . . 471 
Moran'a (Bight Bi'v. P. F.) aplriltglnM 

UnrMllV (U.p!) GHauH-tureerinudBli-k 

Frmrt'i-M IBT 

Mdiria'a (W.) nr Atntldt of nifa, deat 

HnnFo-BuUet-lolinBtDiiD'* A TWji up Uie 

Xetttenblp'B (H.) Kanentiom nii'od^'ii 

OX'lerf'a ((.'hevollcr) lluitort qflht tlallan 

OeblciiBOliliKrot'i li^'l Halmi t/itUifttg' ' ;f38 
PalU«' Jfodrrn Grrtt U^lholofn .. ..388 
Pitlcbanl's (H. B.) Btaalu !^lr of 'In 

Proctor's (E. W.) J/inmHul rj/" Itandtttir 

QMiaeft (Eiiat) I,- t'tp'tir .Vontrau .. .. 101 

Blecl'B (J.H. dp) /•(if " " !'. !! '.'. 83 
Bogetl' (J. E. II.) CoUirHon qf Ihr Prtlrm 

oft/liLord' M8 

BouKlM'B (L.I ixdia ma iit JIatiet 

Fnnrf 4S0 

a«nccis's (F. dc) ,SV"iVa iltHa Lflltramra 

Jtallana e 

Buyout' (E-llfv (if i^/iie. rt r^ojw rtiiniM 

dttnUIBtrr.d-i lloi-froli' Mi 

Bcarbonogh's (W.l A (Vlfarlin iifChintu 

Sobmldfa "(Ei^iii) 'lilt'hardwn. /tsIuwiM, 

Schtaer-ii (K. J.) DiV Dtamn't DkAtun-f di\ 
l«lrn JiiArhnmlrrli lAl 

Scudiniore't {F. J.) Thi Dan Dnamt cg/'ii 
tattpUuMan UK 

Rc^rt (J.) AWw* 'n dri- Aihtlirlirn TH/tri 310 

Bmte'B (M™. X.) £IIIIiW!fr>B ^^ Oli'to in 

lioniBfilr.Tiifn'll 84 

.•<krrmaf<. Otn-i-al 11'. T.. H'melno/.. .. 308 
Hheninga (Rev. M. A.) HUlori <tf /Vu- 

Bmedlej-'s (U, U,) lloafliag-o'iini^ fiuper 
.Vioob 81 

Smith and Qrorc's ilialoiical AlUi »/ .41- 
fifs't Gvyiitpliii ., .. .. .. .. .. 108 

HorBl'B (A.) Bluaif' IHplomaHqut dt la 
Gian-' f'-ana-.^lkmandt 8»» 

Ktotyxw. w.i.vrre ess 

StToUmiui's (J. W.l Paulm dt AtBUH tan 

JimChimiu 371 

StnblM'ii (W.) 31tinortait i^ Sdlnl Dm- 

Sirliilnirne's (A. C.) Euayi and fHadlf . , 4 
tirnumdi' (J. A.) Itrnaiimncr in llalf .. lOS 
TiUm'a (H.) L-i Oriylnadt la Franet <%■- 

IrmpBraint , S33 

TtiViodat^ The yiK Rtfarmation .. ,. 400 
Thompeon's edlUonof KainlAlban'iClu-o- 

Tonibng'lic.i'jVei-iiiw' '.'. '.'. «9 

TiSDCh't (UtM) TktLifi ^aaint nrrta.. 871 
TutntU'i (E. (^) Ubiervuliaiuan fhe lUpmi 

of ilrt. SnlBi- 84 

—' —•n-t-ilmplriil mrlU Sari'allt.. 418 
(Don Poifco) From Vlnifard to 

■iHB.)ne'mn'e$^llK World '.'. 813 



Vntu'efvr.L.VsnMmd, or iBtlaiid, ii 

AVonlBT'l (l^i) rBrUinBoen iUfer^uUr 
•prarfi BamlH 

WilMIl-S(A.)m»-4t«fco/SMB .. . 

Wright's (T.) niUoTTi of Oarkmttirt an. 
Wrlotholijj'g (C.) "cAi^cii lif Eiiilai, 



JSOVBLB. 

Andirlia; or.OitBritimaiidau.lazon .. M» 

Kjtim''»i.i-C,) A .laHrh Wooing .. ,. 474 

BeiKdlet'i (F. L.) .11. lamon'i SIttt ,. , . 34 

■BeeOs't Signed In Halt 403 

BliuKhatd'>(E. a)iuidC1*m(Sa' (A.A.) i 

Bovdolr Oaial, Tlu. Br the author of 

"TbaUcmbeiforFirb" e» 

Bmddon'e (Ulsa) /loitagn to Forlniu . . 838 
Braatton:! (}i.) Kalph ami Brum .. .. STt 
i:;tmplKiVsW.y Fair bat nolFalit .. .. !U 
L'annins'a (Hon. A. K. a.) tl(r iTaiinaifuti 

Lorlon.Barl lU 

CbHmhat'B (Augusta) idTfO'/f .. .. 377 

dargn' (Kathleen leabaUe) Lad^ LtmUe 403 
Cokridge'B (Cb. K.) Uii<j\ Crichtm't Itn- 

Collini'e(WilkJc)rftft^«Mi(tttiidj!: 1 

Cook's (Duttoo) Baimt'of Marriaue.'. .'. 4tt 
DerlDtf a (K H.) Slarboriu, or On Uoiutal 

Ou Font Wagi M8 

Diullfitrt, Tki Chroniclti qf. Bj the author 

of '■ Wheat and Tarea " 7 

BdnMo^ (Hn.) Leah, a Woman of 

Faihitn SIB 

Biloart'a(Un.).'<anKit^eiir air'j .. .. T 
Evioe'a (J. U.) SLt to aisUtn: a Stort/or 

Par]eon'B(B.L.)Z«f'»'l''cft]'rj;'. '.'. '.'. 34 

Fotbartilll's (Jeesle) llealry: n Romanet .. I«> 
Gibbon's (Ch.) HTUKinf/rtf irnWJio^f.. 34S 
Qitt'B (Tbeo.) Pi«H» 3liu Ilellta .. . . 578 
Habn-nahn'e ((MantaiB) DarBlhca Walde- 

HartleT'i (Uib!) ^ulferi m^ /7fVi '.'. '.'.474 
»t.fslMi>AV.'i-)_TluSqalrr-il.tgaft ..474 - 
HoUaud'a (Dr. J. O.) in< Slory of -•yren- 

oati MB 

Hnnfa CMC*. A. W.) TAU iadentnn llll- 

•KUrA 4» 

JoAn Holdnconk, Chitf UaU. By the 

Buthorol "Jilted" 8T7 

K«irj-'s (Annie) Toittc WelFi 190 

Klngeley's (B.i Simtrr t<rral-eii .. .. H 
Lorioffand Loth. By tbo .Utbor ot " Th* 

HlalciBlawltaa" .. .. 190 

^^^lald'a (G.) St. Oeorpt and St'. Mi- 
chael *m 

^aekenaie-Danld'B (Ur».) Ha- llaibaiiiei 

Ketptr 84 

Mni«iii<^'» (Th. a.) ZH..B' 488 

Thi HM Ett, and 

llliir Storltl 4>9 

Jitii-i (A.. E.A.i Helm lllanrprt .. ..698 

Mnjendlo'B (Udy M.) CJB«fnu 7 

Uarlltt'B(E.) 7%i&n«d.II'jA 474 

Marshall'B (BJ I*" fflmtoif of Ertidali . . 4(M 
HasOD's (0. W.) TV Bape of Ihr Uaiap , . 190 
Miller'i(J.)JVn.imBUIHtB(VS«r/ii«.. 34 

Jliu llanvmo^i Lneri 328 

UonteomeiT'e (Florance) tVUdHUe .. 688 
lloon'e (F. F.)_«!*mh'«" TogMer.. .. M8 
MwWock'a(J.B.).A ini'ff'™.*"!!'-'.. .. »4I 
Mt Lore 8heU Imi a Lanlr TrI. B; the 

Anthor of " (iDMnk." 4}.'- 

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'ConTuy.Mr.Moaciinb'. !' " '.'.ui.iOi 
Cooko, Piof. J. P., }on., (orthconilng new 

Coopei, Hr. W. B., dlotlDiurj of AnAtle 
DBioA In pnpontiDa by .. ,. •, ^, fiSO 

CopUcmrkabyF. BOt^sHm 191 

■CopjH^t, IntenatiDDkl , , 014 

Cordler, U. Hsnii.new workln pnoui^ 

tlonb; 4M 

ComlBh Ungoaefi, trmdltdoiu o( the . , . . A77 

■ — — -, m a nn acrtptB relating to BM 

-Cdi7, Llent^Ool. A., new work In pre- 

pazstioa by _. .. .. .. fi7i 

CMjilfdtma Id the Brttlali Liu SIT 

CfradnH. flffqcCe of uuRlAgflfl betwoHi 07 

Cowtea'i (B.J in< CK|r (/ Coitti^yrv ■■ US 

■CiDker. Thinnu aro[li)ii.l[3.of » work by tK 

CromwetU m itUne to. Bt UEUohatei .. Kl 
Cr^imlej,Ur.J..partmtot .. ., ill, in 
Orowfi uid OATAkaeellf'a IlUiorf ttf Paint- 

o.fortt 
„ - - -- .. ., >M 

CxBmowl^ UnlTenJtji Eoonuniui le&- 

tDTSlt Ul 

TMiD'a (FeUi) dnine JCAtl^ BaitriA .. «M 
Dkldy, Iiblner end Co., new vaAa wa- 

tMBtfolkoC CmnberiKad and Wotmon- 

laud.tba M 

S'AIl^^^ PleOn UuUn, enlde ea . . 180 
DanlEl'i (P. A..) Bn»ke'> JlenHHi and 

Julltt «i.4M 

T^BTtea, Dr. Benjunla, deftth of . . ,. .. lift 

-Duvtoa-tThi Dam, <,/ Lift.. US 

IMghtao, BeU end Co., new worki u- 

noancedbx HI 

Dallu, PnE., pepsn on ehukqieTe bj ..AM 
Dennli, Xr. Q„ woA la piniMiitlon t^ . . IM 
DI>1«( SodeQ, BngUdmrnbUcatioiu o[.'. tH 
Sldot, H,, ■)•■ works MmoBnced by „ US 
Dnrden^ (Prof.) SltattfeHi a Ctilical 

aiuilfoflUimmlmdArt STa 

T>nke, MT. B. Q^t deAtb AOd 'cvorki of , . AT 

iDTEHel, Dr. AUnt, death o[ Ml 

Dd Crne, Dr. H. BnnOiHi on *M 

DnoDker end Riunblot, HeKn.,iiewwi>ik 

■jmouaoad by .. .. 40a 

, Dr. Lmtwtg, denib of Ita 

DnnraTsn'e (tort) exempla* of udeat 

architecture inlrelmnd 114 

TtitOnalDMat .. SSO 

Bbel,Dr.Heitiiuiii.deithuidhl/itoiyot 930 
•Eehp. tranafer of, to Mr. Albert Grant . . 10 
EdocBtlon, (ootBly lor devdo^nmt of (be 

Idw«td.,Mlaa'M. B., n«w"Bo™ilii'piiJ- 
KgBelliui. 

Bmaratai, Mr. B. W-, om wwk In pre^ 

pantkra by MI,S7S,tM 

Eaeneltfiuila BHtiBalta, mxtiiSlM IB lid 

Bn^lah Itnimag* and lUaatnre, (ppaalfor' 

mOBDiaaaaDBit of (Cn^r t' ST 

StroaoaiiArtillr. A.S.Unnaj'rai.. ,. >T« 
langnage, uUola on. in Brit. 

ft™* va 

Xtbu, B*T. D. SUtu H7 

Bya^ (Tan) Boitw Oraniaar '.'. '.'. ',', Slf 

/VKitoriail, new BcBtod Jonma] est 

f anlM In A^a lllDor, ndief fond In aid 

fell.D^^lMter'br.'toBicL^llAeJe^^ HI 
TeW (Dr. A.l Mf aft Pami ef WlUUmi 
trarO tl HTlh lis 

Flrkawlu,H.,lC8. coUeotloiiof .. .. 10 
flaxman drawbgi, pbolograpba token 

FomC maBagoaimtl aitiole'ln idlni.' Ba. 

•m it* 

For>«D, Han, ewedlah wrltffl 11 

FmDOo-Oennau war, jooaognitbM <rf 

epiaodaot an 

Franklin. Lady, daetb of 8> 

ITee trad* In the Blaisyan proTlDcaa . . HI 
French woriu of art and arcWteanre, aale 

of sse 

Fnnerali, eatlaiu oaitom at, In Walei .. 471 
Furalf aU'a (Mr.) lectona on Siakapcre .. M3 
Calileo, dlioofery o( IcCleta wilttsn hy . , Sit 
Cartner, J. D,, Baq., nte of the library of MS 
Oatty, EOT, A.,Deirwork in pr^HuaUon 

by tOi 

OelgBT** (Dr. A.) XarJigrlaumr Bdvi/la IJf 
■ffmUnnaa'i Itagaimi, Cbilitmaa aamtxt 

(7«TWnlai. Bodleian ItSB. of the .. .'.IIS 
Gertnan lOaiJi. ke. CDlleBtJoD at .. ,. in 
aerold,tliaTl«uiipiinUn|[flmiaf .. .. 40« 
Ollca. Mr. Herbert A., new work In pi^M- 

Olprica. Kork by U. Paul Baialilard'oa ', ', 104 
Olnati, Otoaepve, Heyaa't traulatko el 

tlu poema of . . IT 

aiadMMH'a Olr.) ■• la Un Chnnh of Cog- 
land wmtb Pweerring V " II 

«Iady, lIeiBn.,newwai]iaDaDinMadbj.. Ml 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VHI. 



y 

NOTES AHD UBWa-nmHaued. 

Monli, dlvni^on on the k^ 
Uorrli'a (Dr. B.) edition t 

Moioo k. Btni,"iHiw w«k '■ 
UUUer, Mlklaa. d«th of 

, Dr. J. H. Jakob, death of .. .. £«T 

(Prof. M».),pnrfcwinhlpin Vienna 

UnlvcfTity offend to MB 

'a (Prof. Uai) Cnf;H; fOrtbcoming 

Uurray'a (Dr. J. A." 'si'TUi ai<iv'«y*' </ 

SaHlaiid Sll 

Uychokigy. Oreek, paper by Dr. B. Onrtliie 

on in 

Uytbi In India, paper on the origin of . . 3n 
National Art LtbnrT,porchaaca£Dr.. .. IW 

Tadluaof .. *. .". .. .. ™ .. IT 
NeiF Gulnfa, article In £niiirr y/aeroa .. lOT 
Mewa.1etter from Londoa, dated Joly 19, 

im *t» 

from Tarmontb, dated Dec. », 

Slefaolaoii, Dr., on the morbid pi}«taolo|]r 

ofolralnala t06 

yavdmiat, Giupil if, prlmlUTa edition* gl not 

Norway, the Ifiemwreot W 

XltAft, muutpliir, UeHimatf ■/ Me Tir*- 

O^an drcnlatioD, paper by Dr. Carpoat«r 

O'Connrll end Catbollc BmiuKlpaUon, a 

Oliphanf 1 '(Kri!) ne iuatiri if FhrrHV ItO 
OTleatBlpDb]lcaUona(SeuiltlBdepanDii>Dt) lit 
Osgood, J. B. and [;□., qcw worka an- 

iiounisdby tn 

rMaDlewamnray.ttae US 

PatnterV(W.) fUuimn a-d'JiMMii '.'. '.'. tO» 

by Mr. Brown .. .. ' MT 

Pnlaengmi^cid Society') pDblicallona .. OM 
Fallmpaeita dUcorerttl at OnttofeFTata 

Faplaa of Hler^nH), Prof, lightfool OD . . IHT 
Papuan rNalecti, Dr. Ton ilor OabelanU on Mt 
Parltian Joumnlt, CKtalo^ueoF .. .. ,. 343 

183. Mi.MT^iios, ia;,' ew 
PartridBB. 8. W. and CXl, new work* an- 

FauU'a (Dr. r!) workon Bngliah hlatiiry 3I& 
Pavla, L'nlTenltyor, beqneattfl .. .. MR 
rayne'a (W.) edition of Tuiaer^ "Fine 

himdredpofntaDtgDnd Huabaodiie".. ITT 
PenlkeK, looLoglcal itation on the liland 

PcinlM, a US. af,fonnd atCIaanno .. .. 411 

PfltElon from TlppPTVT, preaented to 

llonryVlIl ITS 

Petroleum end oil woUa. Prof. Owentm ,. R8» 

PljScr, Dr. Canlniir.doathof »M 

Plcctotto, Mr. J., new work in preparation 

by 44* 

FIndar'a OlymplDn and I^thlan >Mf*, 

Plactiel'aCDr.tpamuhleionSahiefani '.'. Ml 
Flontlii, nrchivee of the pilntingeelabUDi. 

mcntof .. 4» 

nattdentedi, worka and jonmal pnbUilwd 

I" S0« 

Poe.Sdgar Altan, poem by ("Alone") ., a;* 
.monument to, at Caltj- 

■■ FoUticnl-Boanamlo L'ongnaa." the Cer- 

nnn til 

Pcjic'a irorka. Dlcka'a shllllog edition of . . 37 

Porui. I'rol. Lulgl, beqneac by,"ta Pari* 

UnI.eralty »3 

PoaltlTlam, Mr. FRsderlo Harrlaon on . . 4;tl 
l>oti3, euKBCcd oa a iieir edition of Hum- 
boldt MT 

PiBiklll'a (B.) LlUr OimaumU or IVtr 

nr.jn.rniH IT* 

Pmlo.M.Bmnetde, death of 1114 

PricoB (iiTOf. Booani)') pampUot on Or- 

fuTAR-fiim «7T 

Prichard. niUol lownof a7» 

Prutictlcnlam, alli«ed. la tiermany nod 

Proodbon'a oorreapondeneB . . . . 

Faaller of Lonia tlie Good, olfcred fi 

Piifftiiilorf, a, paper on, by Hei 

Pittuiun, UoBi*., new worka oniK 

l.y .- 

[Jualln. Bnd the Cberokr* Indiana .. ..00* 
Ooaiiloh, Mr., new worka announoed by ti4lt 

Bap|]eraii7lChroolole,tba MT 

llaallain.Beiuaned, Ui.J.B.Henderaonoo W) 

"Beallatlc"Kbaa]. the M 

Itegnnud'a (Paol) " Ctnuievi ifi r/nift 

Sminnt* 1I> 

Balchitat, the German, grant to pvobaa* 



HOTBS A2ID NBWB-enUteBfd. 



"■fT". 



Oonlbom, Dean, collection o 

elte."by 

I^oald, Bev. B. Baring, coune 



-^ o^.i 



ilf IlK Eag- 



Ore(c'a(Mr.) "Behoof the AnOpodea " ., »T 






|Due do) eipedilioo 

HalUveU'a Life of Sakiptrt 
Hudenberg, Von, memolra ol 

igiutoa J. 0., forthcoming 



Cenfir- 






Harleian MSS., 



HattoD coHectJon 



8«tbot 

3rkB and biettvy of . . 



Heraldic MS., from tt 



Heredity, Mr. P. Oalton'sthHicy of .. 
Hensanaathal, F. H. too, death of .. 
Hermedea, tappoaod Ooancll of . . . . 
Hoddei and Stouglius, Mejua., now W4 



Hood-t (the lata Mr. Tom 





W invito* 1^ 


HUbner'a (Prof.) Jaatrl^io 


in Bribmalai 


Hngo'a (Victor) £• J rlrf-flw 


aro^-yin.. 


Hno.a.D.Tld.<;ii^''i;'wlthlio™e«,:: 
HunletlBn Club of QLaagow, worka iMned 


's^i-^i'i'-r^ " 




Hnnt and Bkckett, new WD 
by 


■ - *'MI«' 



India, Btatlatlcol lurrey of, in pteparaUon 846 

^^ , natLvea of, engaged In profeailon* 4M 

IntcrlpHoDB, Ajayrlan and Babykmlan, 



* Cypriote, in the Co*. 
«^ biennial prluof the.. 41 



Tukl 

J^frejB and^KlDg Jomoa 11. 



la Qoapel 



Johniton, Mr. 


M. B.. M J 




Jokal, Modta, 
doadl? 


nnmber of 


Tolomea pro. 


Mnewpoan 
"ISioSoi," 




''^^' 


stheAn^ta 


^r^S'rr 


f.,inLondon 



KeLy, Mr., and fhi Upptr Ttai Tluxuan 
Eemble, JoHn Mltchel, bit of blognphy of 171 

'a [Mra.) An Old Waman'i Uoulp Ul 

Eey, Prof,, Prof. F. Etlla'a accoont of . . «48 

,/«<<• /HOfinMrti of (41 

ling, Henry H, k (ki, new work* an- 



Klng'a {Xh. D.) Anna e< 



NOTES ASD KEWS-dMNna^. 
galey'e worki. Bar Jnllan l^tJuDldt'a 



Knox, Jobr, Educational Memorial Initi- 

KUhler.DrVuirich!. .. '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 101 
Ecpp, Frar.,aketclio( tbelifeof .. .. «M 
Kruae'e (H.) new ttagedy Bruli 



n I'FophtU and iVc{pAfc|r 



oatioaBl Idiw by 4i 

LamonC,Mr. I., uewwork tnr II 

Laocaahlie dielect, llat of book) tlloatrat- 



Laoge, Dr. F. A., death and worka of 
Idnntan, Mr. Charlca, new woric by. . 
Lannceaton, Priory of, cbartcra, Ac, r 



Snidra, tb* lithographed fao. 



dneee, of Uie building of a 



Lennoi, Lord Wmiam, new 
Loo, Prof., new edition of 

prepaimtlDQ hy 

l;«opald, Prince, gift by, to 

Leitio'a (CllSe) EnilM Ean'^ 



Llbraitea, pnbllc, la A 



.«, pnbbo, at Boma, plana fi 



Llndaay't '[W. 8.) iriil'aiv V Utrdian't 

Uterary amTentlan between Gennany and 

Locke, John, MS. In thehaAdwritiiwof.! BO 

'a oipnlalon from Orford 4T 

Looomotion, note on the biatory of, in thia 

tfOftLia, (]barlea, forthcouliig new work 

by Si 

London Tnatltutkin, Itctutea at IT 



Lam*, Marqoi) of 
LoaliXI., theletl 
Lowell'* aeoOEid )e 
LocrealA Borgia. C^rrgorovlna' 
Ladwlg-a (Dr ■ "'■-—'—. - 

MooOahaa, Mr., new 

tlonhy 

Uuilehoae, Mr., work) 
Macleod'a Thtorr apd 
MaCEUillan, Meain., at 



work on.. . 



Madron, regiateia of tbe pariah of .- .. 
MahalTy. Prof ., work* In preparation by., 
Maocheatar, tlie pnbllc lILrmrlei of , . 4tl, 

Field NalamlUti' Society . . 

Manuacript ctopartraent of Brttlxh Mo- 



Mjtthcr.Hlaa Helen, nt 



I. Dr., forthcsmlng 



.J.)Z./*oj 

— ', nnpubliabed » 



lutarf nf Iht Siiirlfmlh CValer* .. ,. 4i 
liohJ LoTJ FrfrM. now work announced 

[Itcnlio, (iritKhlt''. death of .'. . . '.'. i 

IlQtral.fort^iconilngnavpoemahy .. U 
EoliammBdanlim and the negro rti^ , . 41 
[DiUie'a play), tranalatlan of. In prepan^ 

tlon 8' 

Money for Sclanoe," article In CorKhta » 
looKlet'alCh.Muilud'r'iiM .. .. U 
loatalgoe, book* which tcrmcrty bekmgvl 



Ui 



adiiwTBisiPs 'm sTOtQ-reas 



rigrtw,B**ail«froiii tha Jmlldal 



SVU1Q]0H1. 



Jw^oCbfoMbiDyac^ ^>6»f. 






li»n:»iwi>iiii:» „ .. f, .,iiii«i,.ijjn.llia« 



RBiftiuxti'aM^wfMntp'iiC'iniihB'ta < 



J ,u«: 



lUUwbfiDtuiBMiaifltiiHiwllodJ . 

BUh1,'F»>^ikMM4..:.,-^'.i.vU.^iu.lIr»llW 



Soiiden. Mr. WtlUun. OitUh o( 6ST 

Bi»irl»trp»(lll'H (Rov. W.l J Collml™ qT 
»UlcH..Xirptr:i J.-.i'lU].'' 

SotOHtVMnrlV.tn XdBM4aPtwL<»)<u' jm 
SoU>i)tMr'i.(I>c. aj SlnuAmmwlt •ItttHiiib:- 

■Hi^i»/iiai»«r.--"i-.;" -{[jriiiiftti 

i<c4uli;builC,DE.Huc.>.iDJSM^VanBiui,>BHtt: 
- --■*)«oi«.«.^i»ii 

imionaitiUMx i. 



K«, Pnncb. A 
— f^^-. AiwrloD AviKiallon foe ItaJthi.,- 



&*tlftfliliiiulei;tJtJteAciU.t*.tM,P4irJi», -, 
Ec(«>Ti«[, AmniuwiK, wd CD..fiMii| nook*!- 



— " MBTohnol ot Veal™," tnn>- 

r. Prederlolt, thB death it ,. . . 

Tlnliailt]. M Tomik 

l.Roniulon 

V, ille^bla, ot Fiwcb offlelub . . 

it (BsT. Cuuin) iJf Fvlfi Uaa 



U'l edition ot BtiHkapeie'i uid FM- 

ler'B rwJ JfoMr flrinim™ iW3,» 

tb, George Bamett, new work In pr«- 

iniionby K 

, Kldsr, ud Co., aea- woika to be 



- sing flt^«j^}W-'jgf''«'*t'''i*^^"^'^ 
BIwK;' Dr..' mmi'.''VTm">5 preiiring ^^^ TO 



Blnmabura LI!!.— J. _- - . 

wipdHlinoiiB, West IihHbq vi*eSi 



'ftBi!ftTilc.)_bi»kLi 



reprinlH am 



TteED*. P., cwprtloni. Dl 

I (atcertiiiniho^M ju,Y..i. .w h.^j-j^/.. km 

'riTiil^(BnilAeEVMBi^iKv,iintt«'n.;.^. : 

'tortefi^cCa a^tiisglrit, MlilEiii'iaLUU J-lMr) 
'«Mo1. Cwnt AtoilKiiMaieUII M1 V j .'iilUiMA' 
'«railHD>Kthvcta«Aii>uaglaa.. ui-i:<.U i«i.' 
Tnti^ pf toffluid.Skelcbto otj Jn>nW'.u .Mli 

rTi(oBilBMnt-«lnaie4iiUtoiiDb-Al/A)Mli' -H.' 

rN*.£divu>, dra'ti.or ^kjim^ifiTt 

, .--(.f I.,.:,,.'.. .l-MWai-MOi" 

ronEcXC.EJ.aiKtJn.fA Awiiiipriialrr- 




nJnlvenitlMi .iKnclUhrHtHloBaT. j .InzMtlr ' ' i 

«MoK betinvn-.. — .. .- ... .i.t< 

j-fftrTtrr-T:, ajvK^lnlsSonot womm- 

bnnln, gCiiiipnv: iDMtlnM I ..1111. !..[.< 
|riilk>'M.»i,;^unastkHt«ti!HaI''iii««itri i 
|*i(ltij(iirBf/r (ifl), Mw.ir.-cUjMriew .1 .>.M 
yiB((Hwi.>|r..oowwortali)- u. ■ ... ,1 .6 

VitU.IT.VMUullltllfaCDniOt., .^ L.t't 
Vl!«lWsil*««y«« B» UnltenUtj D( ,, 6U 

WtWyfOaMwK.ild)- DaiBlii>iw«(*ti*~- 

1 *«*'(''- I'll-"'! l"-" ■■-■"■ '■• '-■' ■•■'■*■ 

w*kcfip:ii..ti».UM.usiiD. .a^i^n*!*** -> 

i bMtfrf ,. V.-..j„.,,V ,u..« 

Wanl, Loclt. Knd Co,, Item*., uow woAe 

nnoonntrdbT a 

Wanwr'i (Sr I 
Warren. MiB.,1 

:»T, B.) p. 



editionot 

Wddmore'a {Mr.) J'ronm >if CnUk: a 

I'm/on! UO 

Wailey Famllyr fortbcomlnf work nepeot- 




VUii. Dr.. mi tbe lihyiiologj o(' tbe':^£CI}»' TtTtl^.T iS^T , 
WllllBOjs, Limit, B. E., plur by 1 We i^is " ■ ■ " 






AbM*W«ei* 



Ql!0«,.Elbib,.M."> 

! .jyc U tion fa 
nptoTetlon ot. 




^beWtl 
bMMeU.l 

Ibp:.!... 



bl«tU„g«oliwii:»lBlu;v*^I*i.:i,-,'J.' ,J/ . 
Cidtci, laatero.jirUclebr Di.TiaUUvH 
" - at'tai<I«M|IIUcUi8 



Ciingo.aiicave 



^fUU. QodlnlUidBuiiipponddlKanrj'lDt ' 

&anBoI^,''iouriuiTl>]iir.CjrnfVln<;-. '.' i. 
0*ilgn)iMaia'«(W>ilienlnPBrM ".I ^..^s; 
Gil«*>n,CQl., oii.obmni«lonjiin thBMIta I'M 
OOHf.TMKlrjawti'attd, In Hiutf-SorMei -1 

pinhanmr>'a^aaHiw«nviiutfi' byi ki >' 







,Uie, Ln 
mlionof 






Hayde 


in. L« Plata river 


-inr 


of' Slim, the' 
IribeMJurtoiH 


eiT»eth<^ 


(veU- 








Einn 


wmcnlan 


npect- 


Kentucky o»t 


H,t»«. 


othnaui 


oceapa- 



lArtBffwo- 

UaiUleifibitif'Gliat^ aii.i«fnie/ «I Beer ., 
Xcleiis 'NuM* ■,■ " 

MaUaj-^Mikl3aift,«( 



J .1 1.* ' J ^. li'jin VI Liii: ji'innfljiui, ,. 



TedeMNWirtl CbrtVa ,,'„ .', , . , « f Manlpb, fleograpllWl Boci«y o( ., ,. 1« 






;fejlp:g,*(; 4iHW(i!ir.iH(>, ^:f^':l 



u -A i.M .v;. -■.■!■. I'.-] : I»'<ie<lw.^,.i..„,„A 



.. CDS 

*»,■,■ , 

l.iili^p, ,e^<^tlD9.'^Lijedlt)on,iltM^„. a" 
i'««SHK'SM,''wh-«I|'' 



Sow.)»JniH>^ i BWlWi W i« IH » l Qftl ito,W 
<llre.ciilUiatleiaa Bpiln .....irm 

Paiemi^e<»iwi>ii'i tfV. ^J-^iia, 8 7 8, ' « 3 », <a 

Aetdora Ajwc.expedJtkm .... 1m^^ .\i ..,.,<■«&■ 
' ml .. .iWBMifeJBWPulfathiJ. -..' IB 

.nmta.r«ttaBM#a«acUiimik«ii.'. ■■ ..«k 

I iWrsnuiieDL.. .. .. .. .. .. •.^'Ue, 

"'- '— i"YiniiTnin.i'wi^Tniiin ui .u ■ w 

CMm- .aiploEaUan, ooauDialDn JDRoed nb . 

TMgkliar, JL<i«p)BMti*ssft.iw.Heri4t' - 
«UstB ,. imW'.Vl'.m.w.Vij-J .„ -..--■it 

Ptitt*.itnit<Seli« pn^autiH MNUerr. *n 

■ «M*l«b*in»-..iiJv...V..Ai.r,rj..vi:J -.-.-11 
Kxin. *iti^U<ii>tnIaic«6r,.diiriai tb* '' 

Bta^-^Uckatatti 
Bot8le^«Dr.)iU 

- *tf» ^ ■ ..f raadi nga on Aiilo*a j en t ob '-M 

KiMfan . GawnpUoil Sudetj^iotMOngi i.- 

<a.i I.. ,'.\ ...iM.i ..\,..\.«o»,*< 

BaHA attack oasoMl^ngiflM^aluJ J -.1 «1 

Stherla. a Tatar route to M 

Soenotiky'i eipodiiloD ttanagb North- 

I treitOlilna .. .. -n — rt U 

Sotooha, neat rabuln tbeDclebboorbood 
; ol W 

ttiinl<iffUr:d..lti,titCallittiMem.i !< H 

i. una , — ,jccplara(don ol CaSc 

W4(otlaNymiim»iiiii.iV. ujn.'.ii..' ij«lt,«l 
>taa«.aettleipniti..ctM»-e«intTy M« e» j .\ 
Tlo.*he. ., .J -I. -I. 'J- ..■-". i i-'-Lj. M 
etumnftf itfJaiA) .liiliii Up t On^Mini is-'. 

faDiMt^^ DiitetrwnMntfMiM'eiiilditNrM 
Tittiesi . Dr.- Kiiai^«-»ttnilligin^ii«e - 
r toi«l.«:Wei-uJ W'''-.f^ fu...,-,.'"!..!'., W 
Tiehtajkl JoegD, joamey by U-MaignlK- 

TM#i»i. llillui.\b|.'Jii«M .KX^iiutdii' 

IHii^tbf .ii'.i.\«-'ui' '.;■ ■■,-.'.•..■ l.'M 
VaMaJi^HU, SBOued br Hr.-WMbi.t V. -H 
T«n«™iino,.the-mJto4t ij;\ .'.-j.i.'.l -..-»t 
VwH,.Pn>r.4fi.>Mian<M<ft«*ifhe'Nlco- ' 
bM-lilanda .. . , '^'W .■ !■. ..'W" -v. --..'■ 1 

WriUn«uMi<'MalBiiB*l<M)iDtftidM" ,',' II 
ZdiniiBi'Hl Oardons, article in Uie Btt. id ■ ■ 
I tltfaM_^ 'i.'".'. .>l'.^-'u.'--i'.i'U. .:. ') 



BXOBNT TXBaX. 

Acton'H (Ph.) .SMuU and 1A< CbiugiaCia 

Bennetfil'w. C.)ii^'jfi«' .'" 
ConHnin-B (W. C) ^I^AI. Morfr, md IM 
Claok'B (T. B.) M'utarut: a TaU .. . 

R^Li. By". F. C, andL-'c. ." '.'. '. 

Olldei'i (B. W.) 7A< JTrv Zlof 

Ooddaid'i (JuUa) ne (Miten /nawir, ok 

Oreg-B (Poroy) ftUfriMM 

HaUy'i (itsT. S.) JMid *iul cIlHr Ftmu . 

Hnll'i(A.'w.i Clart PrtUi Oiarr .. . 
LeMi'i (A.) T^ Nr<B MumatnTtT , . . 
Mscphall'> (K.) rail World aid Iht Sua. 
MuBfly'ii (Lacy) Songt qf Me Koontia 

^■orrta■.(A.)■/a«(a^a*l/ll»JJ^^. 

Roee-B i V. !& 1 .^tmiifinit, Ktim- 

BrtM^*"!*.- (I.'*™ :; -.1 -■ 

eincl>i^*,fi]10.n<^>HiWr.v-i ■>' ... 
BtmnlV" W.)£w«™W.*«- ..■■■.-* ... 

Bt«»h«<««^a».«»R*liW.. •-. .;* .. 
Btorges;u(lt.)J^^iif(JVA°*>«''*4«rkH- 

rft("M \7 ,.' ■ 

Irhoini»oa;st*.-C»ftrii|i(«„,.,.,i.-, -r 
3'«MrB (H,l Arrai,! BT.Vlf iHorf qftlu 

VttWittf't fi'"" ''"'.' ''":'" '.'-■i. '■'■ 

Veitcb'MJ^^I 



tji; 



o:.-.':'"8ddd6i.'.';bo^S^7 



bgSVxa A-'xifiwewi'^fewl^i 14* 



acD^rmsn^ 'iffl' awBHTraiD 




" i« Saair, On J D— .■_„„____,.. ... 

litl'MLill, !«IJ [n'.T)4|rMfc«M,'MlfU«;«a 

filltHL«hiMlM.N«Ba<7 Uu t.ul -i,.:,>Jtt 

Wid^HuiM. .. 'L-'l."«n 

~- \<«IUtali'l]M«h(<tl<Wi;l'' .Ui.vMfi 
PoM,)«W««n3'*f«"-' iL" .ili"-':j Mf 

and' Q«ea BUulieUi'i. Fk- ' i' 

.■RMwrd.n,. -, ... .„Ut,«fi . 

B M » l»r J«Mr'ur''. ! ■; ■ ' "J i''- ..p'n.. ■>,%'! ^.-iMfl 

' *- ' - '-'■ ^'0t'4]l*^-^ -■'A 

„ ,_ 1 ,-.I ... M»l 

llueos, Pntairtoibt AMIM>i II 

DivWUUgf, ud th* Iridi B»U" ri 

J^MinXhgUnd' 

VUlta, Ib» TUMJoHlotul'VMbii'n.'Jl.. I'l' 
•'Wil«Hfcicto,.L^nri«iui 

■ ■ ■ —wasi-ifno.--:-- ■ . '■ 

.AHtm^naZcitiina ',.*'.v~".j ..Hi' 

iSUrt»»*i»' t..i-.t....J\,./,..wMl;«M-!< 

, ,i*W,*Ot-- 

«i,BI,«I»,M*,*M'? 

EdlntM^RHM*.'."",'.' ij).:ii... m,w - 

FdrtUiiitir. .. .. i;,j«i,ns,Mi^><n,M 

"^— ■■ - ■■ ■'.«iII8i*7»,W- •" 

m;iit',» 

tinr^QouterlTT. 

MJ Wt Ant» ltigfc^ i'.'i :; ' ;i .. m» 

QDOHarlrBn'-- --' -- 

ttByl«U*>»q, .. _ 

" ~ UoBdoi .. .. «S,MI>«U 

,__li'<, ■.:' .;, .w' .^ .J IM - 

ToirtfW WJ-i;.l.v ■/.■ A-; ••,«a<.i 
miaHtdUAntow . .. .^< .,'4U 



gua^'^ ;>. •"V'y- .'!'■ i".'' if ■-'.' ii'i ■..-»•) 






'mktVltfW«''4!MWiHIMl< 

, iWf»ji»iioM)i«i ..■ ., ., ,. ,,. .; i*t 

HrtMhBlcj-i. (H.i. ni We Sanimmt vf 
fW-'Oi a MuiMMrMf' BoMi' Jii' iHi - ' ' 



„2&',*y?^ 






„_,i. ii.-v-.^.^,.. .J ■,;;- -.j.F.Ji'., ..;■ 
bAtrfBiB.> Dr.Vrc-tDinimargifArli, ^l 

ireiiHng'i-<»:-*.VlSa».««C«fW,'fi.f !».■■■■■ "■, 



■S.'a'ti),sr"a,Tr«flf,««fsi«i-,i,i 






*. 



■4'iftfotf'ftint?"®*-" ■ ^S-*^ 






BloJSbaoa-ltB.'W.f on ^;ulM - ..'- .. MT' 



■vui 

omaiSAL ABTICCLBB. 

Brtltol, the BsobgT of 1*T 

Bbdhih Aahocu'rciM, nmtlng oC, tt 
Brtatol:— 
fltijtlfi A, — HattaamatloAl Knd Fltfnlcal 

enelimB.-Cbniil«iT lM,lSt 

BMtKn 0.-a«log7 Ut,3W 

SM4on U.— SloloiieBl Anthropologr 

Zoolocr end 

Boun; 3S7,3U 

' PhTriologT IM.jSi 

BbUod E.— Q«(i|niita7 3M,18T 

BiclIoD F.— Eoonomla Bdeoce ud B(a- 

UiUoi tue.IST 

Swtton O.— UectauiliBl Bdaius . . IDS, MT 
CftTsncUih Labomtory, Cunbrldn .. ..110 
OoldKhnddt'i (Dr.) Report on Ceylon In- 

nriptloni . . . . All 

£bv uvdeDi— Diractor'B Heport ,, .. in 

Bam* OelUqae Ul 

Bdaattlo ImtrucUoD, ind Admuwrnent 
at Bdenn, Boyd Commlulon oa 1S9. 

MJ,M1 

nU>ul,»MT«ttof UT 

mutMoiu, sir Cltulsi iM 

NOTBB. 

AblMdl^ l^tods of MO 

Atwnptlon baudi, podtlOD and mf*- 
le^ifthff MM.mg 

AIoAoL. pcnjentflgg of» In vinct. . .. .. 97 

, cilatmoe of. In tlw boay .. ..IW 

Alaiuid«i\ ckllod FolylilgUu', blitoilcal 

Algu, oOkfloisg mittom of tbe red gronpA 
of MS 

of BpltitWBen US 

A^sbnlc eqnUloiii CDimtcteil irltli UmI- 
fHtti'H ptoblem . . SU 

Alkdold, B Dsv, phyilologlal utlon of . . MS 

AUe^uni awI-Bald, tb* tISl 

Amuou Valley, geologlal itmctnn of . . SSI 

Amoliaui lootaBy M 

ABodatioD lot tlie Adnnoeauene 

irfSctBDoa Ill, «U 

Ampblonu, ttia UBtomy ot 18 

■ - M /tM-A*, new (OirtlUid 
itomICK] mi 
loo indun 

tm«Ii.Hiok 

Anttinpaloay 

Ante, woA br K. AncnM Feiel on . . 

, ban, uid nnia, babits of . . .. 

J^ertoreB, pzoprvnona of an^lea of .. 

Anllc KiiADgy 

mBteorologr 

Ajtitotte-and FbllDlaoa, srtlclo by a Z 

Anot, ProL d'. oljiUiaiy DoUoo (]< '.. 
Al^Mt^ (AaBlflcaUoii of tfae .. 

.- JOO.»l»,'*li| 

, a self <resn]ating 

Babykmlan 

Baritrla, UcsDL Calllnger and Di^^d^ 

BakK'a (J. O.) Hmmbuy ituem to 

ffotimicai Qeo^tvpht . . . . 

Baromi>trlcal deprnkiDiia 

Barometric roadlngi, lonurln on the redn^ 

Buque language, pamphlet by U. Paul 

Baitley and Tiimen'i JMkifloI Hoi^i *ii, 

DC OB the 
. , . .ortloii at 

»«aT« at Cnaimll Onvia 

BMOawen'a (V.) monognfib OaaafOrJf 
ChoMHtnIna^ptieA.. .. .. .. .. . 

Bot toHffifrtrntt Bpedmen of, fnnd In Lon- 

Botanlca] Sichuee Clnb, dlatrlbotlon of ' 

Bonrlie'a (Ksr. V. J.l The Aryan OHyn «/ 
I'M tJattie Race and Lanffvafft .. .. .. 

BtUHe of Cambrldgeehlre 

~taRii""ia ■"' ~ 7.~Tr " 7.".. ,. 

Cabbage tilbe, iwaillnig In the roole of .. 

CMcntta, ibe rainfall at 

OaUarl. Ki.T, E., on tin knUqnltT of man 

Oolli, iuorgimlc. the gnwth of 

OartralPbydealOttrratoiTofBt Petna- 

Oepba] poda. ebnotlo '. '.'. 

C«n*l«,tJuf«MlllMtloDor 



CONTENTS OF VOL. Tm. 




OetADcan lamalna In Panna Unlrvl^ 

Hiiaeuin K3 

Ohameleon, oolour-changea of tha .. .^ 608 

Oiaia, gsminatloa of 32S 

OUwtuIrvWf U» 

CkrftHMta arafCt, captnnd iDdlTldoala of 71 
aUmats; (Obct* of. on the ihdb ipshIh . . B9 

of the earth, paat and pnaaat . . SS3 

Cold In TlaUr, ciWn of 149 

CMaDptars.Dc. LeCooMon 4M 

CWfffcWHmi/ndfauauii ,. IB 

OoUodlou Uma m 

OolDiariki, report on (be votabnta paUaon- 

. Dr. H^des'anirTiy portyln .. iM 

Comet, D'AiTBrt's periodit*! «» 

, PogKm'a, of 1871 ill 

, notloeola'erjaiidBot 8S* 

OoadnoUon, slaactolyUc, In bot glaiB .. U8 
Conadouincu In evolution, Pcoftaeor E. D. 

Copeou «3i 

Couper'a (Ur. W. X.) lectnna on Aaeyila 

and Herolziea of tbo PMt S33 

CopTdatlon, pbmomona of, otBerred In 

oartainpazailtea.. .. M 

Corpnicleo of iron In ntmospherle durt . . 608 

CWrMn-ma »M 

Oawall'i (Prat.) littnxtaclimi U lU PraiHI 

llf ItuBaiutrUDramat M» 

CrTltala, needle-ebaped, prodnction of . . 4fi 
CdroUo, Hpedmeoa of, attacked by a 

Cyohnxa, theory of 18 

CypdotalnscilMlaiuot Dall « Idalioin. . 301 
■ ■ ■- ■ — inaaipUoni In the Oeenola col- 
lection ass 

Damon, Ur. S. 11., on Morth American 
molocy KS 

Deluge, tablet G BrlUih 3Iuaenin lelatlDS 

Dethayn, Pcof. a-. P., deathof 18 

Dlapcailiiwe. the U6 

DUtov Uiica,Dr.Bcbuniann'afoniuilaafor *6 
Dlnurphiam, leaaana], In Inaecta .. .. tUI 
Meeaee, acquired, beredltaty tnoamlMlon 

Dogi, ancient Bcyptlu Sti 

Donbled*y,tb*laCal£r. H.,of Epiiing .. 98 
j>nrfoTt, animal and nsetabla ramaiha 

(oondat KS.tSf 

DuKt,«tmoapbaTlc,ferniglnaiBpartlclBeln 90B 
Dynamic, deTekiiniHnt of, br mtan) ol 

(tatlo elaccncin St6 

Scllpaa, the, of 1U» fi« 

Eni, the pnOefaotdon of < . . . . . - - 6M 
^Wldtr and light, a new relation b» 

tween KB 

' , Ktatlc, dflTelOTonent of dyoa- 

mlobymeaiuot BM 

EUpAat imttrmBdiut, ipedmen of . . . . K3 
EUuieawan eipeditloD in Keir Guinea .. SM 
BmbalmlnE, dlStrant prooeouH of .. .. GIO 
Bpamlnondoa, an emendation In the Life of BSi 
bdnae, Chaileede I', biography of .. .. US 
Bthiutoglcal Feitedi, Ur. L. H. Mccsan 

BraporatkiD-gaaga, a new 6S3 

ETObltlDn, ProfeMor Danaon'i paperffii,. HU 

Sxoffifn virifmta lAO 

FaUtiDWitfl, Dr. 18 

FermentatiouB, InAoeiiceof alrpranxaon 4fi 
Fanr ot ooU-Uoodad animal*, tba . . • ■ ITt 
Ftlka, dla ai T agl In China Profa ,. . . MS 

niMiM Aumttga M 

nek.embryogenyottlw tW 

IMacher. Dr., Notea oa Da Bacy*! Arable 

arWDmai t^ 301 

,HTeatzeatiiea dedicated to S08 

Flora, cnlaoeoua. of natem U.S. larrl- 

'of Sneos, Ut. W. B.Hcmeley on .. MS 

, Tegrtable.'ofllwdmit— .. .. 
, Btitlih, work by Ur. W. S. Ball; 

from the Wt&t Cooat of Sumaba . . 

,ntli«l'ii [TV.l W-H-ndfinAiBfiiiHm.. vu 
an Anglr>.aaion 

30 

uu^lo^of .. .. W? 

attacUng bollyhocki' ".. ".. .. 411 

Fungou) bllgtata 4S0 

OniUUiir, a new mineral ipecdea .. ..Ml 
Uender-fomu, paper by Ur. C. B. Cayloy 

OsolDglea] Bnrrar. woite lm»d t^ .. ..ISO 

of the United Kingdom Kt 

<3t6\nts IS, 14*. «ei. 484, S83 

Oerman Katnral and Pbyalaal AaaodaUon >T 
Qoby, growth of tho^nea of the .. .. ITS 
QtaptoliWa, a nav canu of tSS 

Onek pronunciation', andant '.'. '.'. '.'. BIO 

, Uw aduMl and col. 

I««e •» 

Oolana, BrlUah, gaidoglcal aiplontloiLof IM 
Ojga^ article bJGalMcanUuaaaof .. M 



Hecr*! (Dr.) ^Isrw /'•KtUi ^rcnea .. .. « 
HelnieVt OaehiiNi Utr aitdtrfrOiituam 

QraefiSifUMpraiM . . . , 7 

Heredity, a thawy of, papei on, by Ur. 

Hextiria, Thr, Meld'e ed'lUon'irf '.'. '.'. « 

Hygrometrlcal calculatlona . . . . . . I 

HaE, origin of 4t 

Hol^vy'a C J.J 7d friltadtu Lanffm ^Aeead, 



ObearratoiieB, Italian, i»«rgBiiiaat 



er IrirtlB wUh teeth 



wrt'a (Dr.) obiaotiYea £> 

irrbigflcat church, Angment of etalned 



■all. Cypriote Ingcrlption 
fonnd near Hants Barbai 
rt of geological mrray oj 



itUlnouri 
eelf-regiiHring 



KflntiKlcy, Bketchof theprebifltcTiaarohaa- 
Kaw. the botanioal labontory at . . .. ti 
Kldneya, pointa conneoted with the func. 

JCaDrrlB. new QAClu of 41 

Eranta. Dr. A., mincralogia] osbinet of.. I 

Lekedislilct.grmnitlo, iM-.TOoksot,. .. SI 

Leaf g'anda. inCemal, atracbnre of .. .. 4: 





. H^Uon of. on the electric 00 


duc 


and decCrldty, a new relatio 


b^ 


^ras™*"-'- ■■ '». 











Logan. Sir W. E., death and work of 
Uagnete formed by eompreaeed powden. 
Maimonidea- Oudt- qf Uir Pnyltird . . 
MdlilidUaiviriSl.- tin '-■■-- "-i- '■- 






Uannf 




tcuai 


oncropj .. 


Murtin 


of, 1M7 

diOon at the Jfrtaowt 


Vflo-o 


id«T(,,aa« 


mlneral-.p«le. .. 


Si'S 


ndlCkm 
from a 


of tha planet 
eir J. Tidi^'. 


Ueteo 








Jaetlot 


.■in France .. 
QftfaeBritUi 













T, ue,H3,49t.»ei 






.Canadian .'. ..' ..' ..' 












Micros' 


^jlcBl notes. . ..44.171, *li.H)8. 
Ota, geological and natanj bletory 


Uommaen'e and atudamand'i ^anlnSa 
imam 

Uoon'i aurfaqe, podtlcn of oertato poluB 


Uorph 
MoUi, 




nunknowD.tJ>oprobc«cii*of.. 411, 







10 Duke of Sad 



Keptnne. eatal 






_ ._ . kuatjon, hjidiotlo Id 

fluoDca ot the producLe of . . . . . 
Hew Qntnea, mlnlDiui; aipadltlan la . 

Nile, Upper. cHmate of the 

jmniralMa/eUort 

OMiik, the proatrata. In Sgypt .. . 
Objec^'e, new, oonitructed by Hcrr Haiei 



Palm Honie, thalu^.atKew.. 
Paplai. evidenca of , ai to Soipt 
Penldlllnm, Uft-hiitory of ['. 









PhilologT .. . 
PbOBphareaoaDa 

Ph^lUarra, the i 



their Alllee, p^nc on, by 
e, the. of decoying Of^en- 
plnca daaaeed 



. . 4t. 174. 38 



Plants, new. from Tarkeati 
, insBCiivonnu 

'. Inflnenca of heat w 



Potato fun 



, rotatory, of qnarta 



diomof 62.1 

ftvfnim pefrsM, new fceaa II 

Faalter. the Hataaw, Bav. W. S. Bnrgcaa 

Punjab, olhnale of tbe St 

Quarta. rotetory polarlAtlon of 6i 

Rainfallof theBritiihlfdee It 

Balb'e (Prof. Tom) " Bdtrttge lur Pebv- 



KecoriU of lie J'ail,-vo\. -r. S3t 

Ra^nber. HerrA., dnihof Ul 

Bbone, faunaottbeba^of the ,. .. 3a 
Bocke. metunatpbb, of Che iEa.Cambrinn 

or Laurmtlao aga 18 

Kotifor. remarkaUe. dlaooTered In tba 

Pblllppioae .. ..^ m 



Hotae«.Dr 


Hndaon'a 


Doneotion of draw. 


Ro^&odety.newliac 
Sa/amanOrtUa.. .. 


-• " 


"^fr^a'^s 


(ait-'k 


L)'he'ai,i^'<tf- 



BoLaoTy ImpnailonB, tranamiiaion of . , IM 

Seyyld of Zaniibur, nc Oaogrkphical 

Rocietv'a mee'tlng * 

RuiUmnUerei 



F^orthun, ollmata of 
Mon the Lu^e Pttii 



Rpartallls 

Spectra of atari . . . . . . 

^pectiwcope with two aUta. . 



a exploration of Lake Victoria 



~ croailDg the Atlantic . . sr 

. ancient codex of the geography of K 
ealden Exploration Committee, Be- 



IpertodloalTarii^DDf htatot! 

Bote and pros 



KElibatiira itf CM 

)e,dlaaov(tlHontheahargaaf 414 , 

ilto, mtcToacopio itnMuta of ., IW j 



aJwrosiBs ijr grojaTOSH) 



jKfirGXiLu''>Mfnnt> 



^^HwjHh 



MM(rM((«MOUPiH«l^ii.-vi^>Jt( 

-^"""" ."f ..■■-.■■■■■■ n-tol.mi-. ■.[—..■# 



^nnttM«R|«t,«h|i4iitktvl»'jili.ii .v.ilf.nOP 












i K-ilfOIW'.V 

, WBifeaite, oi.iiiiily)>1n1e(itlavl . .. 
Y«llWdA»«41iM[i.«aII«MlMMVI 
hZMtoaiL light, tl|<; ... .. 



UMET^IKiW^^iSiiTSTISB. 



i(t^[40c'«eMri>urM s;(i;b<'. _ 

<«bUciiiAKb*»l«Ry, BMitv«CvUifli( iiHdteaa 

-eoqKnii)bIc«L f^ode VnnKPu.l. ilVtMuMiUWt 

i.>aHtKigK»]a«:leCy JtO..«HhiWUi4«IUMe 

Llawwaipli l lHitMTiJl nBJM|'U|)i)««l[«fl 
j-VslbBmstTctd Bocleif, luuMdSM 

'■Mtcn>«(iii[c«l SaMn^'iri^'l ,'ii-rtik-a .rrnMt 

;NEW.B<WkiW!»jeaaM]ki.>v «.)<.. t.3u^S*T"SM 
'Jlaiit<>in<Mafwlnfl ,'.fi<l<vu.^ii.i['.j»ilibi«H 

lZb}Tl«l8»^t7 Mk«W>eM 




■■ -- .■■ ."' *'" - - 

^- ' Mri. - fiT-Mw ilMM-M ' A Alti^lMhM^ ' ' 1 1 
" utrnl dtt Sitammu .it Id^WMlttMM'lfHl'- 

■ *Um4 tnil Bilaimm ■ ■ .,- ..- .,■ }y -.I'ltn 

BUI*"'-?,' ■« C* -fl -Jilt' 'I.' ';<;•:. .r-iuy. 

'■1tnambm^»fS^y FrMca^an-of dteu^M^ i 
"' 111. kul CbaitH V. ..Mr'>'<H'i':-:-'<V!i0U\ 
' IhtiH'KF. B )-fV<ni>dt 4^«H>»bniniJ- - 

■ 'irf..: ... .,. .,.^»j".ij^.-<ly-':(,^-*g; 
-Hiiv'mJ't' JoUhj nM^Si-AiihiWi'' si. e>H i 

'Hguna'* (A.) -Anrltnl ■Hlon vnHiM'^ 

-ap_J .ImiJ^i ji/tvB, lAe!}" iii'ij.' :! I 
j,Bafti-irX W lllafclgg&w i tw^ jMnt'IMi' 

•3rt.- ,■ .. wi'-'Wy.'-yi/^m' 

■^ .'. }y "inKtaiVa.irr-itr.'-y. ','.''.'■•'■ 

'.. iainvi ulifiJTiaJ aiJJ ivi ■-■■*;l .:! ■.'. 

J»llflLJl* ,.ll-tl. ■!„- ,^. 

.. -AaT-BOOKS," ■>.'il. '".I-: 
i*".-.i-(1i",.'«la d tntTiJJi! n'.ijvwi 

H.mthmijt't./lBiit, 1U. By "-De'MMVLiMei 
BaAriri. (Vr.) &M'lD»n«iijii,li-'«*ii*)i '-. 



l"J—hookJ".^'"V-. "■-'." ■'•.V'l,'':'; '■.'. '".'; 
<i^teT*(«« ';:■■ "■:<■■".: '■'].; -"■"-■,-.' '■:-.' 

SKsiW™'™*™'!''' \'''-,/'-- '.'■'" ■■'■. "° 
.Btabt'Sni ■iriiM' ■i«Bi)itloii' ««.tan./|i- 
'■«wiqBeiiaiw*«i!ftftlw^ ' ■-;"■■■:';■■' 

^KIM Aicb«oltC|mlnllmie -.'.'' ' 

'fhUnt'Woriu. 
D.ilWgH»i((W* . __ 



aMun-n i3i».T.)f a M ft ih r i/-g»«».gitfw 



^ .-lMlU.««aai^A).Uuit«I<'[llr.H.P': 



<■'- .xi:aii[aTSA,TBD sookb^u 

iiiii;* (& BJ istticiimt' »* .iUKtrit^j — - 

»-da^AMiir|r... t».aollRM»n.9riJ.3niil('M« 



fUboomtlTe Art'.-P'uBraa -of the ''■.'.''' .'!"'*84 

«i«nrwSji nw ' ■ .■■."■■■.':■ ■ .:— : .-« " " " 

.BT^Wtt'jM4([itii&««bHMatMs*t .— -. 



iCiiUtednI,S'newf 



IHiutntH] Book* .1- ,.'-;;■■',.- ■.-; — ;; M.l 
CWnijtbeHiihaoo.;' ..'"■.':''■,.'■'.;'■ .I'iW 
-niiMMirftkciAJn^iUbMeri'U'ffielCilve^'-" 

p«i'W*l«iaB'"""'T^;-;".'-i.'!'-".'.'.i*ii 



;;'*<*fl*i*«.iHi*-t»frtiiwi:' -'JW'ji'>i'jii'.Ji"ait 

I A«HeMWW^ <|t(e«)l) tBmftM'of :>l> ,vl""vl'.at 

!'-'IVln.T«l«A, air. end ]IM,l(IDMUiMaU»3 
'.''i^twtpol- ...- ./- ..-. .,. ;/'ll.-i'lI.,-4«87«7 
"%inatenluii,.1iTa}eM« wW '*faM]'ttitiMDW:ri_ 

>■ : i^'dltHiif ntHhriiMfiJWar . > ''j . ' '"M >>«! / >"Vk->VD 
> A^inlti4fi4"f )»;) '4Mn« '<» rvunwf 'tMi i^i 
i"AMm»»>"-:»-'-.'.-"l.t"'TtTiirj.-+iijimra» 



, ., .. ..... -. ')FH"Jt»l*J 

"UiiUaJb.-DHMiuu«tal nU» nU'lV'' 




■iOoltsM.. 



*hiB«oite4«(«itfaiM«t» .. .. , 

iSeyi,L»-M»i»9n-- ,,- ,.- ..■ .,■ W.:'' 41, '' tnUIsby -- 
'Uv«rVBii<^M4LU^IW»IH(lll)MM)"'''.'."K«| MBavuiiu CeM 



dcla, 

Bkun^U>tl««iH(iMii,'lfeid[ a>*bli>Ji*rc«- -» 
Ilk»tiUar, AitaMlnn, JI.JtuulMnli^aditiqiMl 

j|.-,vi-„.., ., ... w'l^'-'ii.' — -m 

I, )ldiH.J«tclt«lir«iNate)'Tid»M'^ 



^thrills aollagr, tM - ' ,.' '' ■>- ■:" .':"i«(i 



T.firtUgh lD>tlCut(«i,^e ' ..' .. .I'MgI '•:; 4°. 
liMiijptb'A>aM&<ir.'i,'-''.'l'''i.'.-''^,.'''':j't*ii, i'WbUe 



IMdWieill U/ ^IWvtMiiMr . 
"--'- iiroj«tffliuew.CatheUn...«. ... .v...« 
i(MBiltli)«otwl>»iUl>4- all ><MJ 49 0. W> 



■Ja — Notes- ..■ .,- ., .,. ,. 

'Wrtar«0iHl«7,iKi0W, MoUjcu ., j!"MS 
•TOw|*n,*iVwllt*'T-U-r .■!;■■■ '.."I.. -,, tM 

lii'th»RiHlimon.. ....'■'.'■''l.,' 

'-Bk», thg OnmaPr^M ". . 

>UutaMna ot-Ot' PanhMoB 
W.Mr.Co(olir.lnitlldW%»w"l!,i"l'I'' .(li 




Cu*n,filec«* cC KnlptBrc ■aid lo'ttl tfpJ'iAr 



tlMX. 

inv-Kk iiBiiaUE 
' Xdtuug... -i)i"><.''ji) ,,^iipiiMaeB3 

...._ molmS IHa^S^M* 

MtftttKbnaJtKbTini.. ... ... ..^notiia- ^1 

tIMntfaadiar ... nu.ii. tiz 

'!tlUU»iik[bBtwip^tv'l|>MliiU%tei>M<tMe 

t5heologl«li TijaBOhritt.... ..■'"iri';i ii%i'<*l 



•i.ldtlu'l IsIliKi .WiUUllA 




tii'^!io4ia 



.■«t nSfltttfW'' P. ■"'!/' fi'i'lU^te 

—.^heiJni'tl; ■,-,■'' ;';■" .<■■', -i'.'^ f'."*3 

uu¥pfiM>MHl' biMMlIKM'l jf^'il/ iMI< «|T 

■mem Aam»)(WtW<;'iiIitHdiinMt -{>»*>' A. 
"'tbegnmmt.i ■■ ^., .1 i.' '.-yi'l-ak* 

"HuH, wuit 4fVi)iwUB' bf, W'nnilM< *! .- -tiT 
'i'lH;. at hiilUMi'tiHIHtlHiltli''RnUt)PlA 
"" MbeMforUklni-. .:■ ..\-t'-r^at-/^lK 

*M ..■ .. .. •.Tr: .. ».Ti.i, "p.w«[«fti 

'-0*11 te*Mg4i«il}gln W ni4i'«lM^Ue'l ' "vi'W 
>'«liHibiifl, C^mUW^MgrMMlof ';.'! ''■ :']*'|3 
' £Bhii«ipll»i»T'« /WBMrft*w-(«I*iM(' .'v,'''.".'"!** 

""■E^T".,. ... .,. .;. .,. .;. ..'-r.'«(lS7 
°t*IM>da^gDM, Mdiim, l«i>»Cby;^XeA^-^ 

<*lfoe.Bouii, piotareWMwi 'fWB'(!h»ii*'i^ *|0 

"flWtrf NOMMUTU ^fi'MObn--""'.':'' 'Tms 

'"^1 — of-HvBenulLuteciI-,.:;, ,; 'I'.'WR 
■■OMWfWMrtlj^aiwr,^; .■,■■'■%"# 



s-niwrt. -i--i',„.v- .,'>■-,;,,.."■, -.Ui'.fO 



i 






CONTENTS OF VOL. Vm. 



HCTBB ASD NEWS— omMslKd. 

Dubr, Ur. J. F.,dathot UI 

Sanlili Tmr-gBlleTi vnck *d, Js tlu liTer 

Hunbla .. MT 

Pkvld. LoDlitdaeammUnlstliiglD,. .. K 
tacontloag, Fccooh alUtUT, BtMUtlan 

c4 »e 

Seloja, OnRsie, tbs Frsiid!! aailitor . . ISO 
Dnigiu, Khoola of, in Fnius, prliea 

Dtirt, Qaitvn, wloul palnUng In ptepa- 
rACionbj -- " - Mi 

WldBd 

mlkictbin ■■ ■' -■ ^- '■ >■ -> zin 

DnndK, bUto- bilfpainT colaed at . ■ . . 74 
IMlTer'i (Altoectat) nroodcnUot " Tha Ufe 
ot tbo TlTrin," flciiDiUea of 138 

BcoledeiBaHzi-Alta.«nl:rt«aat !! *S» 

BUla. Mr. WjiiD, oollKtlon of idctnns ot 

Ep]brold«7» FlorantlDC, work by iti. 

Enniniann, M. Jfiui,dc4thof .- .. .. 41A 
^lacopl, diwovery af Euet&I orllcld Ht . . 4S8 
Erdtn, U., mittaW* by, on Michel Angela U1 
Btchlngi from tho Kmtloiwl Qnllei?, nev 

Ett;, Ut. p. 0. Hunejtoa'i oltldon of . . TG 

in tbe Lower KUne district 411 

ta FompPiL . . . . . . . . 7fi 

ODlfaeEnnaiDe H>4.«9T 

■toiTmpia li7,»t^,^w,^w 

In Nemj'-nir.BiUTioBeon MS 

at M'ellerbach near Ealumlaiitan . . Jiltl 

>t3t,u>iixnt '.'. '.'. '.'. " !! laa 

BtFelilnaondClilu^ StS 

□o ttia Via Latina imd at Sarteano . . $31 
EXHminoiia :— 

plctnrea at Uropool Si 

warka of pupUi of the School of Komg 

forthooming German Art and Indiu- 

trial, at Unnlch 13 

ln« ait, at Kancf IS 

Rojal IJanlah Aeailemy . . AO 

floe-*rtt loan at Drodan 10 

Frederick Valier'i mrka 100 

Academjr of Fin« Am at Vliuinq ■ ■ .. 101 
praduotaof oeramlc induatrrat Oobnrff 117 
■■AmIideiAitiidarAabe" IN 

hWodal and art, at FnnUBrt !!l»,M(l 

art and IndnatrW, at Pnaton Kl 

Munich High Art and TeebnoloBlcal Ai- 
ndation . . . . . . . - . . . , f9< 

Blnnlngham Bofal Sodet)- af Artiita . . ItS 

wotkaot Tanaert ns 

French mffitaif deooratloni M« 

pnpoied anlrenal. In Brnwda, In 19B0 M7 

I^efiiraa at UsncbMtn IK 

modttn pictnTCfl at Brl^iton .. .. .. ?flS 

uitanm» at LlTcrpool 9Bfi 

irorki of D»Ttd foi JOT, 3W, 4M 

Womnter China Work> ISt 

Kaulbiioh'i works at NUmbcrg . . . , Si; 
painting at Termonde 311 

Union Centrale ilea Beaui-Arta .. .. 'Hi 
Obl«ctB of indlgeni: 

Hani(JapaB) 

" AlnlB da Arte de Beloe et Oil 
wood engiaTinm at Bertln 
Photographic Bodety . . . 
triennlaJ, of workfl of art at Bi 
works ot J, RnmhCT^, at Honcr 
flne-art loBjif a" "" ■-"--■■ 

black and v;bll 

work! of Earyc at tJie Bode dee Beani- 

irorkB of'TV~ni| hi'parhi '.'. 

** Amlfl dee Arte de Lyon " . - ,. 

at Uimlcli next year 

wotki of U. Pill 

works el JvMph Bi-UenK 

dedEin for plate. utWestmlnotcT .. ,. 

woiki itf 1&. MIgnot 

Cercle ArtlstiqiM d'AnTov . . . . . . 

piotuna and scolpCorM at Oa» . . . . 

Old Moateri at BnrUngtro Hcuae , . . . 
FameM palace at Bome, and the Fmch 

Tay, JtsCTih, death and works of . . . . 
nsAer. 0«ir» Jobann Panl. denUi of . . 
FlUwinlam Mioeam, annaal teport of the 
TjoUdDoe, oonUmU of a " )nt«Eiu "at . . 
FlnoT.lk.Bohaoltde, death of .. .. 

Ftoreocflt letter from . . 

.^ ' — , thenatkmat mnmm of 

, congm of srchluoai and a>. 

Fould pri». the. claims of eandldates for . . 
Frankland. air J., moDnneut to, tnWen- 
^aUlardi If ., onMed chevalier of Order 
OeLfiTegnrOMSraM 



NOTES AND NKWS-l 

OallDri'B (Sis. E.) statneof t1 

Nbo 

Qallo-Roman archlt«ctLin 
OmiM, gitt to, by thg Dii 
Gerril, mlardnfi plctnna f o 

GraeckhTl, dlscvTery of antlqcltb 
GnmsQ. David do, a petition by .. 
Orean'i nfrs.l OUmtlar ofBUU F 



QiBn. Piilaleln Hedwlg, hidjr ponralt 


OriheaaTal,Ge^'erald 
Gnif^ianl, M., voA In 
Onichaidot's oollulio 




utoH 




Hartley InHltntion, 




ILrt 








lection of drawUigi 
Helmet, andent Greek 
Hen and CMokens, ec 










Iden, robbery o 


.at 




"in S™rf John 


Hlldebra^, Dr. Hai 


s, iterating 


djs. 








Holbere, coVwsal alat 


eof 1 

leath of . . . . U». M 
works and hWory 









John iHDoke of Brittany, it 



LancHcapos, EiiBllsb, photographs of 
ijuidaHr, CBlal^ufr of the vorka a' 
Id BochFlIc, niuaomn of, plctun 

I^umns' plctaro, L'Inltnitt.. .. 
LeKToa. M. Alphonse, brochnro 






3n unhH«olegy by a>7 



NOTES AND KB«S-«Hfl«ini. 



■n, poonllar p^oel-paJ n tl n gs by AflS 



, pirtlenlars of tlio i»lTnt« 

Umikli Society ol ArU, dicular imiMl by 17 
Miownm, oriental, (qjonod at Vienna .. 41 

, at the HMel dee Fu«[i», Berlin ..41 

Nancy, HatmapocUTe Maaeuin at 
Hcderlandich MiiKom. the . . , . 



Hewton, Mr. C.T^ordi 


itofC.B.confemd 


Hlebuhr, letlen writt« 


by Cornell 
Internatlo 


H^ssi 


Nurembeig, deatmctlo 


ofthcwn 
f Allgn.lLn^ 


sof .. 




tcnlp^ 



Oppennanl], U., CD 



Sodet^'s tacsiiiilles c 



l^alaeograpblcal 

Paawvis, Ford.. hhLtorksJ jilctirei hi 
Fegnnl. Ealello, hMor " 



■e A. Bleri. archaeological 



Photography, latcit improrement In 

elmpllftcatien of 

PiOure-cleancni. ICallaB 



dons on the stataee In the 4«s 
apold, etchlnin by . . .'■O 

.) ffUnny of Arrhiimurr . . 4SJ 



I Polyi^roniF ornament, K. A. Raclo 

I ftirlftlfo, rif. and t'.4jY compared .. 

j BortmlCs offered for sale - - . . 

I Pmxii^Ua, gronp of Gnek aonlptnre at 



Mudoi-Brown, Itr. Pacd, plclnrw by, 
hlMLed nt HanchcAer 

Hakait, Huna, uhibitlon ot the pgJnEI 
of 

MantegTA, Andrea, new documenta re 

(Kurt) HUlBrt 0/ SniljKmi 






tr F. G. K 



Matejko. paintings by the pnplli .. .. 4 
Uaym'B (Mr.) collection of andcnt draw. 
XdvoDlei'V pidntdDg at tho " Cidrualcrs 



Prnpylca, demoUIion of the Trink tonw 

I outhe 

Qnren, portrait of the. by Mr. Barlow ,, 

I AB/' if 'fi' -'oiiiiw. (JkiTannl dl Eologna'a 
TutlsboD, reatoivtlnns of cathedral of 

;. Felin|"on"a mnWniii for 

i,'!ifo"ntLiverpooi' .'.' .',' 
nil, sketch™ by, presented to 






lel-mi 



Xsuel, Adolph, orltlqne on 49(> 

Men, Henri, death of n7 

Metropolitan Xnwam ot Art at New Tort 904 
Mlchaehs, Prof., report by, on collectfona 
Dt an Uqoitlee la England am 



BaUics, prehlatorlc. In the Smithaonlan 1 
BeUqoarr, ipletutid, of the Hftatnth a 



suppiJsioraT 1 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VHI. 



NOTES iSD SEWe—aKitimMBl. 

Eer, nederick, uUcle on tbo vork 



K'trinc'i (Mr, J. B.) dnnii^ at Kouing- 
VtUROIoan, liilntiog in, inaCtie i^ U. 



NOTKS AND NEWS— comiinwiJ. 
Uu, tUtne o(, at ValppclennM . .-«IJ, 



Ing .. ..' ' » 

Woolhop* Clab, tanrth BeM meeting ol .. II 



KOTES ASD KBWB-'CmUjiihiI. CONTENTS O] 

YgB, plctnia for deDoixUnx Clothlen' QueUm dM Bei 

YHDdjck, Antolnn thi. dnUi of 



Konit UDd XOiutleT 


























































THE STAGE. 




n PaJAce. dnuuatic fete a 
, dnuniUo pert. 

, wUj- arc good plajl . 

A^Luuium BJul wlntfr gankai nt West- 

m Like It! ftt tbe U^jnurkit .. .. 
Aofier, U. HmlLo, f oar*uct combly by . , 

BJ],t. Um. a pICL lor 

I^klnT, Friiulrtii, at Hunbuis .. .. 
buoiideL>II«ir(l«),M Ibe AmncAli .. 

Viljall (1*), »t lb» O) - 

£»tTicr^a (M<1lk.} oompuij 

bulk Fsole, I.*. M the BifflDClqae . . 

Bcrnhuilt. ttdlle., In PUdn . . . . 

, In L* nUo de Bolud 

<I 
Bcttoll, FannnlD, Dtw comedf b7 .. 



Oencvieve dv Bnbunt, i 
Oeovjui, TlK, at ttis FhlUnumai 

HaU-Ciown Duunonda, Tba, ut the 11 
Hunot, Sophte. dntb of 

Selr-at-Lav. The, at the Hajmnrkel 
Hen and Ohlckeni, at thi Globe. . . 
H3I1. Vr. W. J., at the Open Conilqa 
HoBmm Amphitheatre, rr '-' 

Hoiueufl, M. An^e 
"—*—'■ —Old, at the 

he Pabili Bof a] . 

nit-plade, at the Fuia vkiuieTlllf msj US 

Ladj of LyouB. a 

■" -■ t, MlM Aaolc, aa Hcitflr Gtaae- 

B'Gjni'na» " '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 1 
Homaiti itlth tba Clock," article 
'tria ) 

hr. of. tll» AdelpM < 

the Crynal Palaa .. I 

— • ' imot. BE iHe Oi 

Hsnled In Hsate, at tbo Haymarket 
llBitjTi de In Ghslii- ' ->— 1^-. 

' FiMW, at the Frinee ot Wain's 

Ustbom. ill. Ouuie 

Uardiant af Venice, i 

Uicsvber, Mr. Eldnd'i pcrtoi 

Uin i;ui[t, at LlTcrpoo! i 

Miia»dli]s,Tho.i>tIhcTh»tnUUtodqae f 

led for l^irisiaa 

playgoem i 

Nieknania appllc<3 to iiieo of faablon . . I 
Old Fhll'i Bb-thday. HttheCrltsilou.. .. f 
One Toucli of Xature. at the Cryital Palace { 

ue Praji^aii .. .. 4 

thc;FoUes D 

Pant. Hdnu.lBDiTnat'lliratniltol . 

Fan I-alln, I*, at the Cluny . . 

I'^richole, I*, at tlie Rojaltr . . 

_. Leclerc. at the Chiltelet 

I, U. Kmile .. .. 

Fetllc Plolc, Ls, at the Franfala 



FhllsHipbeiaiuIeSaTolr, >tthaPiuK*te 1» 
■"■-- — — '- -"1 Clan^MUnellanUge U* 
urtten, f^iweWMulM 

.„,itaie'oi^piii .1 '.'. BM 

Preote Veaiuailleiiz, at tin iKrii VanAe. 

iWc »» 

tra^Bliaofl In Ij^DifcH . , . , Al 
nn-", am gpodmen of, this jnar .. .. Hff 
IUgi>Dld,Mi. OeDige.in AmoaCkik.. .. IM 

Bol Candaule, Ls, at tbe Falali Hoyai . . ist 

Romantic Idea, at tiie Albambra . . 3X 

Otbello 417, MO 

Iloyal Duke's Thenre '.'. '.'. '.'. asa 
™, Les. at the Varittfle . . ..S9» 

Aidenoei, Lc, at the O jmnaae lUB 
>-pi?iiip<<ri,tbe. In Buhlati tMatra !4 

ipals^ at Llverjioill 3m 

lee d-Eler, Lea, nt the Parta Yaude- 

Udme., aatiod at law cancsrn- 

Scbool'tor Scandal, at oieBnyznarket '.'. IM 

Self, at the Wmr Ml 

Senritlre, Ia, at the Palala Royat . . . . 3U 
5olliein,Kr., attbe Hunnaikct .. .. S13 

"-^ •—. -■ thaHaymapkat .. 39a,*lT 

.^i-ac u_, nu j»n IfO tatt 

Strolling oompudea, oaimalgM of . . . . im 

Siranbonmgb, Kin, taaM&t at «13 

Talho«'* Trnit, at the OlotM »l» 

TaUaadieiai, Udlle., DlDH ot TT 

, at tlio GynmiMB. . .. Mt 

1 the Frantnii 3*8 

ThMtre-ntHKBli, plan (n- a. In Londen . . Itt 
"" — --»"' Fimd. ipeeehcfl at tlie dinner of JSl 

-■eeeoniCoOalBe of 77 

nita. name., aigBgeiD««it of, at Ebe 

lave ^ian, at the Olympic 13S,481 
e-appeajnnoc of , at tho Gaiety bib 

a, at the Gaiety M» 

Auujuuw luundatlona, boieOt for, at tbe 
Frnn^Bls 34 

Lyoenm ' .. .. 77 

Trcate MilUom de Oladlator, at the 

Trial by Juiy, at tbo Royalty 417 

■"— ■- Epicie™, Lea, at tlio'^'nrifttJle .. .. Xil3 

, _,a, at the Amtdgii ^16, MO 

' k la Lone, at tbe Paris OaMtfi .. 491 
- — - 'tbe CrjBtal Palace,. .. SI* 

_. y.tha Bbl 

White Bouquet, nt the Olobe lU 

Cat at the Qoeeo*. «14 

Widow ^nnt, The| at Che Uaymarkct '. '. K1 

Vorrm, U., Oltjiiaie primlir 3M 

Zco, at the Haymarket H 



Digitized by 



GooqIc 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VHI. 



raUPPLBMEHT TO THE ACAOEVY, 



MUSIC. 



AUon'n uiil OunUetta 




maMj^OL^^^^a 


Wi'j PianoforU 


HiuiiUdi'i <E.) .!*> dm 


■ iU llaJttr, and 


"rS'i &!■■'..■' ' 


imoir tf lllduul 




lUliter-4 (p. L.) «!«>,■» 
UclOm-KDr. A.} Srir/i 


«M UotXIi Haupl- 



HOW KVBIC. 

BUKm-s (HuiB Ttin> Oinwniin HtnV,«t. 

and Jfiw/W d« ln^iriaitx 

CanntohMl'a (li. O.) IVs iftuwjtu and 



OlhMD'a (Laalu) .1 ^irit Book m M' 

I»B.r» «-«•.;« » 

Innuu'l (Mn. F.) A /1cm /or IWWu 

J/wiEE»sC1UU ..* » 

LiuU]'B<Ch.) nunuaHiD*«i/Fi^K,. .. V 

ehnt Undo, nrioDa ... K 

Va«1 MiulCiTulau It 



liealaiid I'tltmlmt 



OBiaUVAZ. ASTICIiBS. 



Cul Bom Op«ni Canpuy, ths . 



u at Uw OaMj Tbeal 



Freocli Opou at ( 
Mgndiv Fiqniar O 

KorwtCh HlUkal ImiTai na, 

Bojal AcadouT <>f Uiulo— Studenti' Con- 



BaiAe.Ur.W., pEinotnte i«:llalor.. .. i»i 

BarbM. U., Inaur or ISO 

Bwnica ttawtn, dHtmcUoD ot, b; fln .. SI4 
BaTHrla. miuloal achooti [n . , . . . . . . 894 

Bivreutta, rebcarutaroriKxt |wrf<mniviGei 

at iH, 1«0. «W,»«.M1 

. ttw Vnni«r Ttieatn al .. ..IBU 

BnlLa. Bg>-al Opem UonM tn MS 

Berll«'a-'Bom«andJulict-' Slfl 

Ben. Ur., uid Ihe Uverpool Ton-u ConncU Wi 

Bolto'i <SlEii(>r)De>' Optra JVr/fiW/rli' .'. 4»I1 

Brabnu. Hen Johumea Wi 

Bnmbllk. Uart^Ila, death o[ f«0 

BrW«.Dr.J.F IM 

Bruch. Max. choral work bf Ml 

Bull, Olc, the NoTiregiuiTiaUnl^t .V '.'. K1 
Carman. ii«a' oper* br Mut .. .. ,. 181 

ChilM. Lf . at the (Jaleti- M 

Chapor, Mdlte.. InthcDomloDNoir .. SM 
Ohopln'E tamb In Uvt cnuMrry of P^re- 

ChoraKHtlTalin Wa>tDiin«ierAbbrv V. OIS 
Chri(U(iirl. Bartolumeo. inveiilDr »t Cho 
pianoforte ISI 

Alenndra PaLue 3.'>. 104. -118.4.11, £». UO 
CirOalPBlacj ..int.Mfl.ai;!). 3ii»,llT, M-', 

Han>, Ur. Jolin Thomas-s' .'. .'. ..' IV 

UutiOLt Artkit'B Society IG 

Welcli'i (Mr. J. B.) at Langhim HdII .. K 

PhlHunuoolc Bodet^'i «i 

WeMi Choral Union n 

OeaallKhaHdetUDalkCraDDdeatTiRina 411 

Sacred Harmonic Ksdety (M 

fiatnnteir Popular HI. Ml 

Uondar Popular SSE, KiO. 018, MO 

Fopolaiui^B. at Bmewla (*0 

dn Conaervatolre al Paris 040 

Conaemtolni. ItaUan. problbltton ra. 

ipactlna pcDfeiaorB Dt Isn 

Cocia'a ediaanot daalcal irianotorte muiio tUS 
Dame Blanohe, La, nt thp Op*ni ComUinc, 

DragoDi da Tinan. at the QoletT .. ., 33 
Duurlsna. eiidof theopcra H^asOD at ..190 

" Blnlacen " forMddsa br tlie Duke oE 

Ut» Ml 

Baipofl. Hdm*. AnnMM .. .. 4l1.(ice, 010 
Brtber, at tliK AJenndn Paboe 010 

FUla dn Bi^lnieat, La, at tlu Paris Optra 

FlUeule dn Bol,' La,' at tb* 'xh^Iro' do ia 

Btcal—noe ma 

FlUelbR (IS 

FalkODger. Die, at Lclpdg MS 

Oaik, Hlela, tlH Danlah Gonpuet .. .. Ml 
Osmao If uldani, Qcneral Aindatton oC MS 



ttOTES-TDiUaaKf. 

Geriiihelid.Frledrlah.DFVftTniphoiiJ by.. 4t1 
Gewnndhatu oonnrt In Lelpil^.. .. .. SIO 

GkJ"er, Mr. H^u■n^i, death of HH) 

Qounod. U., new opera In preparation by . . 2<vi 
- — ■ — -.-.. new oratorio oy . . . , iS3 
; , new opera by, " Ocorgij lian- 

,' accident lo" '.'. ..141.40;, 4W 

Grand Upera. Purl*. mnnJcal iibrarr of .. 3M 
QQllmant. ii., iwv oratorlo-aynipboniqno 

HooHa.i-e. U. Arrtiie .'.' .'.' ISO 

ItTro*iium.«tUiePrincc«'. 8»» 

Imtmnientallon. hlitory ol. prize ottered 

for belt work on 491 

Innndacionb Ii\ France, old for aafferera 

ttTKU 101 

Italian Opera, Royid.cdaM or acA.moI .. 101 
Jacquard. K-.anl Echnmann'aCjiiceno nvu 

Kretecbmir', Dr. Henunnu 309 

Law-aulcrMpeeliiig planofortB nuijlc .. tSG 
I^xt. Franz, tMi of, to Leipzig . . SU 

Lotwocrln, at the Bofopsnithcater In 

Lnooa, Udme.. engajteuien: ot. In Gcr- 

^. accident to . . ., .. 041 

MannacrlptB. collection of. pTVrfiitet to 

the Oeiman Bniperor SCO 

Marchlrlo, Autoni^ death Dt liM 

Malituu.. at the Prlncw-x 441 

llarriogv of Fiiraru. at tlie PtIuivi^'f . . m 

Martha, at the Prlnow'a 411 

lUaaenet. St„ new opera br teA 

MniTamlDoolietli, fvttaln hnniinrof .. IBl 
, removal of Uio 

McOuckln, Ur^i d«iwt D.', at liie Crjtti^ 

Palace 01 

Mehlig'a(lIdUe. Anna) iriauo recital .. 010 
Ueiopc. at the Tixrin Tcitro Nnzionnle . . 101 

Uoiartlnstttiitlon, Intiniatlonnl. concert 

Inside* K 

.theeknllof Ml 

HUUer, Herr, enga(Bl tor the IMrlin 

Royal OpiTB 34S 

. Theodor, daath oJ MJ 

»ualcal AHOciatloii,PrDaeeillnE<Dr tile ,. 3M 

festival at Hanfar.l Sll 

ArtlaU' Sodetr CM, (40 

fatlial at Obent IM 

Katlosal Uuilc Ueellngi at t:ie CrstM 
PalacB M,I8 

OpcrJL Houno, now, luius of flnt 

brlokOt 293 

Kocia de Jsinnettc, at the Oalcty .. .. M 

Nortnan. Ki^nHli. nt DC Jonua'a Rail . . ZkM 

Notation, 



KOTBB-^MIaHal. 

Ombre, L*. perfivfned at Dieppe .. .. 106 
Opera perfonnanni, Bn^ilab, at the 

OrgimMa, annual feativii of the L'olk^ of Aeu 

Paplnl,f-lgnor. inParia' '.'. '.'. .'.' oto 
Plaiti, Stgnor. in Italy ti4lt 

Parler of Havre, The, at the riinceaai .'.' SIC 
Pnene.lnaupiration of Academy of Mutlc 

Prii da Rome, compeUtion f« tlHJ '.'. '.'. !.-J 

Bagoer, Slgnor.accifleut to S»o 

Bameai. propoieditatiieol Kit 

Bendiitiu'i. Slgnor, piano'forto radtal'at Stl 

Janie.-.Hall M 

Roia, Mr. Cul, operatic pBrfomiaiicci of 

19, IU, Nu, at, ws. 4IB, ui, 4S«, *n 

nubinttcl»> opera. "The Demon" .. .. 4»j 

Schnhuiaiui. Udme. Clara, at Leipzig .. 61G 
Schunclc, Udme. Julie, dealt! ol .. ..606 
Seldt, Oabclel, qnctton ralnd conoeml^ ml 
BlegeofRacbeDcst the Prlocou's .. ..41s 

SlugeKe. J. B., death of ^4 

BojuA Uoilcale at noma I(>4 

Soptwclee' Antigone and Oeittpna at ColonoG M 

Spantinl'i opera La Veitale it 

SponUnlJuMIee atUaJDlatl :W9 

St. Cedlla, tosclvalot.ln l-aria 0>0 

etepbanne. U.. a neiv tenor ML 

TauuhUuier, dlapnte reifMtliig tba per- 
fonnancBof G40 

Taudg, Mdtue. Bemnhlne B60 

ThannbcT^'i (H. de) Li Cnimirr de 
BotrMlru Ca 

Training Achool for mudlc, natlooai, pnj- 

colle^, examination Iji muaJc, of 

atndenia of ISO 

" Union Inatrnmcntalc," Dravds .. ..602 

Vald*jo, H., new Moor W«. anj 

Ventadoar Theatre, Parli, talten ttf H. 

Tetdldcclinuinvitation'toUIchel Anaeia 

EeWlral M<t 

Tiardat.an[drt,l[duie., the vocalM.. .. AW 
Vogi. Herr, Uecman operatic tenor .. .. fltu 
Volttand, Herr AUrcl, ilepartnre of, trooi 

LcipilE jfti 

TiicntUiT, U., and the TtiUtro Lyrlquc .. MH> 
Wagner'ioperai, reluanalaof at Vumoa.. 1S8 

'■Tannhlluaet'' U the Vienna 

Waller, Jaa^,dc<iib at IHi 

Wcbcr"! " Eoryantha " at Ltipalv .. .. 44| 

.- Urtbd^, amtivseaiT of .. ofli 

Wilhclni, Xarl. munnmant to be encted to 412 
Wilbelnl.Harr, fUawaUooaartot .. .. «» 
Zaiulbar, Saltan ol, a good planM . . . . ISl 



Digitized by 



GooqIc 



Jolt 3, 1875.] 



THE ACABEMT. 



SATVJtDAr, JULY 3, 1875. 
No. 165, Sew Series. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE. 
On and after this day the price of (he AcAbxvT 

U KEDDCKD to 3(1. 

The Sditor eawnoi v,ndertake to retwm, or 
to correspond %nth the toritera of, ryected 
manuscript. 



LITERATURE. 



r 1875. 



ARCTIC PAPERS POK TRB SXPBSITION 

A Selection of Papers on Arctic Qeography 
and Ethnology, reprinted and presented to 
the Arctic Expedition of 1875 by the Pre- 
sident, Council and Fellows of the Boyal 
Oeographical Society. {London : John 
Murray, 1875.) 
Such is the title of a neat little volnme of 
Arctic papers, brought together,, some of 
them in a condensed form, bj the Geogra- 
graphical Society, for the use of the galknt 
expedition which hae bo recently left 
shores for the Far North. While we feel 
sore that this book will be of very great nse 
to those for whom it is specially intended, 
to those who remain at home and take an 
iatereat in Arctic research (and who does 
not P) it will be found an instmctive and 
valuable addition to their libraries, for it 
contains information to obtain which one 
had formerly to wade through nnmeroas 
pamphlets and journals, taking up more 
time and giving more trouble than one 
might be willing to bestow upon the search. 
Nearly the whole of the most important 
part of the work consists of reprints, chiefly 
from the records of the Koyal Oeographical 
Society ; but there is one special exception 
in the fnller details than have ever before 
been pablished of Admiral CoIlinBon's won- 
derfhlly long voyage from which after thi-ee 
winters he brought his ship the Enterprise 
safe back to England. 

The first portion of this work up to the 
73rd page is devoted to a very fall and lucid 
description of the geography of Qreenland, 
its coast line, its interior as fax as known, 
and scime of the more important glaciers 
and fjords ; the conSicting theories regard- 
ing the formation of these last receive par- 
ticnlar attention. This task was nnderttucen 
by Dr. Robert Brown. His descriptions may 
in some cases be thonght rather lengthy ; if 
GO, it is better to err on this, rather than in 
the opposite extreme of too much condensa- 
tion, which sometimes leads to want of 
clearness, an error specially to be avoided in 
this instance. 

The theory supported by Dr. Brown Uiat 
the Qords of Greenland have been shaped 
into their present ibrm 1^ ice action appears 
to be gaining strength among geologiats and 
others ; in fact, it is difficult to imagine how 
any one can reasonably attempt to comlat 
the arenment in &vonr of the (freat power 
of an unmense moving mass of ice canying 
with it rocks and stones which must act as 
a kind of gigantic rasp in gradually grind- 
ing down everything, more or lees &wly, 



according to its greater or less power of re- 
sistance. 

Among the list of those who have at- 
tempted to penetrate into the interior of 
Greenland, Dr. Brown has kindly included 
the name of the present writer, who has 
really no claim to such distinction. He did 
nearly all he expected to do at Buch a sea- 
eon and with sndi small means. He and a 
sailor went some miles over the inland ice 
nntil stopped by a deep crevasse, saw iu 
the interior a wildemeee of gradually as- 
cending snow for an unknown distance, and 
came back. A little more might have been 
accomplished but for a heavy fall of snow, 
and an unfortunate and curious oversight, 
in tbe provisions for the boat's crew of 
Eskimo girls not having been landed from 
the Fox. The whole party of eiz were for 
two days on short allowance, depending 
chiefly on the few ptarmigan that could be 
shot. A well-planned attempt to travel over 
the Greenland ice, by the famous Alpine 
climber Mr. Whjrmper, &iled chiefly in con- 
sequence of the lateness of the season, and 
the breaking down of the sledges. 

Dr. Brown's idea of crossing Greenland 
irom east to west, instead of in the opposite 
direction, is a good one. The distance (540 
geographical miles) in the latitude (73°) of 
Uppemavick is not a very great jonrney, 
and to start &om tbe east side would do 
away with the necessity of recrossing. 

The great Mperience, although of old 
date, of Baron Wrangell iu sledge travelling 
makes his opinions of great weight, and it 
was he who first drew attention to Smith 
Sound as a &voiirable route by which to 
reach a hi)i(h northern latitude.* 

The Baron, in planning a eledging expedi- 
tion, supposes a depdt of provisions placed in 
latitude 79° N., and in the beginning of the 
month of March another station two degrees 
(120 milcB) farther north mi^ht be esta- 
blished. 

"From this point to the Pole and back the 
Expedition must traverse in a direct line 1,200 
miles, or, including all deviatioDS, perhaps not 
above 1,630 miles, which is verj- practicsble with 
well-conBtructed sledges, good doge, and proper 
' conductote.' " 

This experienced sledge traveller, as shown 
above, allows more than one mile in four for 
deviations. Since Wrangell's time great 
additional knowledge of Smith's Sonnd has 
been acquired by our indefatigable American 
cousins, and it is not unreasonably hoped 
that the advance ship of the present ex- 
pedition may reach aa far north as tJ3° or 84°, 
so that the direct distuice to the Pole and 
back will not be more than 800 miles, or with 
" deviations," according to Wraugell's al- 
lowance, 1,000 miles. If 1,530 miles is 
"very practicable," 1,000 should be easy. 
Tet the state of the ice may cause this 
great work to be not only not easy, bat im- 
practicable. The reliance of the distin- 
guished Russian traveller for making this 
journey was chiefly placed in the hanling 
powers and endurance of dogs; ours in those 
of men. 

Perhaps the most able and masterly paper 
in the collection is that of Dr. Bink, in which 
he BO clearly points out the errors of some of 



* Sm Journal ^f tie Soyal Geographical Soeietff, 



the conclusions arrived at by Dr. Kane as to 
an open Polar sea, glaciers, &c. 

Dr. Bink's remarks exhibit a combination 
of sound sense and clear judgment founded 
on a greater personal experience of Green- 
land and its interesting peculiarities (viewed 
Bcientifioally) than any man living or dead. 
To condense Dr. Rink's views — 

" The gale of wind which Morton tells ns blew 
from the north for twenty-rour hours would, if tbe 
open water had been of any great extend have 
raised so heavy a sea that it would have speedily 
broken up the weak thin ica that the dogs 
trenihled at and refused to travel over, and it 
would have presented a sharp vdge of conRidetable 
' thickness, instead of the gradutd tmueition from 
ice to water which is found round a ' stream 

There is tnuch more to the same purpose,, 
but only one other extract must be given,, 
becauao it may confirm, on one point, Mor-. 
ton's obscrvationa, hut not the conclusions- 
derived from them. 

" Still more uncertain does the observation of 
Morton appear to me, that the awell caused by the 
wind from the north, which he pretends to have 
remarked from the larthest point of land, was 
acted on by mwther ttceU from the Eaxt, behind 
that cape which concealed the end of Greenluid 
and the beginning of the great Polar 3ea irom 

The words to which the attention of the 
reader is called are italicised. Morton may 
have seen such aswellorwaveas he describes- 
as coming round the headland from the east 
at right angleBtothenorthwiad.and yet there 
might be but a very little extent of opeu' 
water in that direction, for such waves might 
have been, and probably were, secondaiy, 
i.e. the reflected swell after it had rebounded 
from the cliflT. Any one can observe this on 
a rocky coast when there is a swell on the 
sea. If the awell strikes the cliff at right 
angles to its direction the rebound will be- 
directly away from the clifl'; if at an angle 
(say) of 45°, the reflected wave, diminished' 
of course in dimension, comes ofl' at nearly 
right angles to thedirect one, making a ctosb 
swell or wave, such as Morton describes. A 
stream hole something similar to what Mor- 
ton saw at Midsummer in Smith Sound was 
observed by Payer in latitude 82° N. on the 
shores of IVanz Joseph Land, about the lOtb 
April, and innumerable birds were breeding 
there at that early season. 

The contribution by Admiral E. Irminger, 
of the Danish navy, on tbe Arctic currents 
around Greenland bears evidence of great 
attention and power of compilation. Itmnst 
prove conclusively to all who read it that 
the southerly current along the east coast of 
Greenland does not divide into two on reach- 
ing Cape Farewell, as had been supposed by 
many, but turns sharply round that cape 
to the west and north, carrying the ice 
with it until it meets and joins the drift 
southward down Davis Straits. 

The logs are given of the Danish veeEcIs 
which 3>asBed Cape f'arewcll ten times on 
the outward voyage to, and ten times on the 
homeward passage from, Greenland iu the 
years 1849, '50, '51, '52, and '53, and by 
taking a course on an average about 115 
miles south of the Cape " they had been 
quite clear of ice." Had a part of the East 
Greenland stream taken a directly south- 
west course from Cape Farewell towards 



THE AOADEMT. 



[JgiY S, 1875. 



Newfoondland, ioe sbonld h&re been met 
with by these ships. 

Last, bnt not least inteiesting in the geo- 
graphical division of the work, conies the 
valuable paper by Admiral Collingoa, who, 
as has been abeadj' said, gives mnoh of his 
own work that hod not been previonBly pub- 
lished, although he perhaps has even : 
condensed over much. 

His ezpoienoe of sledge travelling i 
rongh ice is worthy of notice. Admiral 
Collinson's paper is distingaiahed not only 
by its great ability, bnt by the fairness and 
impartiality with which he mentions the 
variooB explorers who preceded him — piece 
by piece— on the great extent of coast along 
which he navigated the Enlerprue eastward 
from Behring Strait to Cambridge Bay, and 
after tliree winters retnmed ia safety with 
his ship by the same route — a voyage nn- 
poralleled in Arctic navigation. 

Having now come to the end of the geo- 
graphical division of the work, by far the 
must important to the Expedition, and per- 
haps also of the greatest interest to the ge- 
neral reader, we have to turn onr atten. 
tion to the contributiouB on Ethnology, fonr 
of which are by Mr. Clements B. Markham, 
occupying nearly 70 pages. The two first 
of these papers are on the probable ronte 
teken by the Eskimo called "Arctic High- 
landers " in their migration from Siberia to 
the north of Greenland, and on the appear- 
ance, customs, and habits of tbis small and 
isolated tribe. The other two papers, being 
an Eskimo grammar and voluminous voca- 
bnlary, and a list of the names of places on 
the Greenland coast, demand little notice, 
farther than that the first is compiled from 
the works of Eglde, Kleinschmidt, Janssen, 
and Admiral Washington, whose names are 
guarantees for its, excellence ; and the other 
waa, no doubt, what the author calls it, "a 
difficult task," requiring much thocght sad 
care. 

The article on the ntigratioa of the 
" Arctic Highlanders " is a reprint ten years 
old,* and deserves special notice, for in it 
Mr. Markham, with all the power of an able 
and practised writer, attempts to prove that 
these Eskimo reached the locality where 
they are now found by a route different 
from that followed by the Eskimo of the 
American coast, who, Mr. Markham acknow- 
ledges, came eastward from Asia across 
Behring Straits, while he marks ont for 
the present natives of Korth Greenland a 
&r more northerly track, namely, across an 
unknown sea (probably ice.covered) more 
than 1,100 miles in length, ttom Cape Che- 
lagskoi in N'orthem Siberia to the Parry 
Islands and thence to Greenland. Scarcely 
one of Mr. Markham's arguments — specious 
as they appear — iu iavonr of this theory, bnt 
may fairly admit of being questioned. 
9 [Instead of being the last of the race to 
leave Siberia, as Mr. Markham sapposee, the 
Arctic Highlanders were probably among the 
first. The manner in which the Eskinrio 
reaohed the sonthem and more genial part 
of Greenland seems still a ntystery. Yet it 
is curious to find in nse among them not 
only kayaks bat oomiB.kB very much re- 
semblinc those to be seen at the McKensie 



186S. 



See Journal of the Boyal Geograjphkal Society, 



River and to the west, a distance of about 
3,000 miles as the crow flies, bnt nearly 
doable as far if we follow t^ coast, while 
there are no oomiaks usediu the intervening 
space. There is a short notice of a paper by 
Dr. Rink on the " Descent of the Eskimo," 
in which the writer expresses hie belief that 
tiiey are an aboriginal Amerioan luce which 
has been forced north to the coast by the 
pressure of tribes behind. This theory of 
Dr. Bink's does not seem veiy probable ; 
certainly the American coast Eskimo have a 
tradition that they came from the *' Setting 
Sun " across the sea, whether over ice or by 
wat«r is not said. 

The account of the " Western Eskimo," by 
Dr. J. Simpson, K.N., is so excellent through- 
out, that if one were to attempt to give 
extracts, he would bo inclined to copy neariy 
the whole paper, in reading which we feel 
as if we were present among the scenes and 

rle, no well are they described. It may 
mentioned that although they live 
so difi'erently KaA so hi apart, some of the 
CQstoms of the Western Eskimos resemble 
very closely those of the natives near Boothia 
and Be pulse Bay. 

The remaining papers are short, and con- 
sist of — one on the " Ethnok)gical Results of 
an Arctic Expedition," and others on " Eth- 
nolt^cal Hints for Arctic Explorers," which 
should be the most perfect that can be pro- 
duced, as they emanate from Dr. J. Barnard 
Davis, M.D., F.B.S.; Messrs. E. B. Tylor, 
F.R.S. ; W.Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.B.S.; 
Colonel lAne Fox, President of the Anthro- 
pological Institute (3 papers) ; Mr. A. W. 
Franks, F.S. A., of the British Museum; Mr. 
John Beddoe, M.D. ; and Professor W. 
Turner, of tbe University of Edinburgh — men 
of world-wide &me in their various depart- 
ments of science. 

A collection of papers better fitted for tbe 
object in view conld hardly have been 
bronght together; and to all those who had 
any part in this good work the thanks, not 
only of tbe Arctic Expedition, bnt of every 
reading man and woman, are dne. 

John IUe. 



A Wtetorij of Cariaatwe and Grotesque in 
Literature and Art. By Thomas Wright, 
M.A., &c. The Illustrations drawn and 
engraved by the late F. W. Fairholt. 
(London: Chatto & Windue, 1875.) 
It was a bold nndertaking of Mr, Wiightto 
wnte a history of this nature, which is iu 
itself, to begin with, so exceedingly difficult 
to define, that the author has had to apply 
two words to the definition, both of which, 
after all, belong to the art section only. Mr. 
Wright's previous labours in the region of 
caricature Miabled him to enter npon the 
tsfik with much advant^^e ; bnt they deter- 
mined his bias, so that a book, banning in 
a comprehensive way an an enquiry into the 
nature of comio poetiy and art, collapses at 
last into the politioal sqnibe of Qillray and 
his kind. In his preface, indeed, the anthor 
admits the difficulty he felt in selecting a 
title for the book. 

" It was, iu tact," he says, " my des^ to give, 
08 far Hs may be done within such moderate 
limits, and in as popular a manner ns such infor- 
mation can easily be imparted, a generaJ view of 



the Iliatory of Comic Literature and Art Yet 
tbe wold Comic teems to me kanllv to express all 
the parts of the subject which I have sought to 
hrii« together in my hook. Moreover, the field 
of this history is veiy Iw^ ; and, though I have 
only taken as my tbeme ens part of it, it was 
necessary to circuiuflcribe even that in some de- 
greej and my plso, therefoie, is to follow it 
chiBflj througli those branches which hare con- 
tributed most towards the fonnatiou of comic and 
satiric hterature and art in our own ialand." 

But it does not appear to us that Mr. 
Wright has kept this line of action clearly 
in view. If he had, we shoold have found 
tbe stream of English satire from the time 
of Piers Plowman much more fully traced, 
and such tales as the " Friars of Berwick " 
described with their bfaring on the Reforma- 
tion. Mr. Wright says we have bad no de- 
velopment until lately of comic and satiric 
literature ; bat snrely socb mighty examples 
as are afibrded by Chaucer, Skelton, and 
Butler, ought to have occupied some space 
in a work of this kind, nor can we see why 
whole chapters should have been devoted to 
the satire and caricature directed against 
the clergy in Germany during the aixtenth 
century, and on Babelais and his imitators, 
and the savage literature of the period of 
the Ligue, in France — when iJie portion of 
the work devoted to onr own country is a 
blank as far as literature is ^conceme*], ex- 
cept, indeed, some valuable pages on the 
acted comedy of the time just preceding the 
Civil War. 

We must not, however, be nngrateliil to 
Mr, Wright, who has taken a world of pains 
to overcome the erratic nature of his suqject, 
and to get together a series of several hun- 
dred illustrations of the grotesque and 
satiric in all ages, from the design of the 
Egyptian Cat acting as herdsman to the 
Ducks, down to Isaac Cruikahank's political 
sqnibs, 1810. The first chapter deals with 
the earliest times, and also with the Greek, 
showing the annual Bacchic beginnings of 
Tragedy and Comedyat once, in the licen^ 
Coniodiu with his band of mimics and jesters 
— the Comns, elevated into a splendid poetic 
invention by Milton, and introduced into 
bis last poem by Mr. Browning under the 
schoolboy name of Komos, much to the de- 
light of certain critics. There can be no 
donbt that caricature proper — that is pic- 
torial satire applied to particular persons, or 
objects— existed among the Greeks, and was 
transplanted to B:ome, like all other gnod 
things. The painting of the big monkey 
carrying its decrepit progenitor on ite 
shoulders, and dragging the little monkey 
after it, is a perfect example of pictorial 
satire, tie popular design of Aeneas escaping 
from Troy which it satirises being still pre- 
served to us in intagUos. One of these, en- 
graved in the Mjueufm Ffore7i(/niiinof GoriuS, 
is given by Mr. Wright, along witb tbo mon- 
key caricature. This employment of mon- 
keys performing heroic actions was a patent 
method of bringing the heroic into ridicule, 
and continued to be used in all ages. Titian's 
unworthy quiz on the group of the Laocoon, 
engraved on wood from his design, shortly 
after tho exhumation of thr.t stupendous 
work of late classic sculpture, will be re- 
membered. Another nnmistakeable Greco- 
Roman caricature, and one of a quite 
amateur and popular kind, is that brought 



JJI-T 3, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



3 



to light, ajoong a nouber of otlier rough 
igragiii, hj tbe removal of a wall on the 
Palatine in 1867, which had henneticBilly 
sealed a portion of the street for Berenteeu 
centuries or so. This satirical picture, cvi- 
dently directed against a Christian named 
Alexamenos, has been too often described to 
reqnire onr dwelling npon it here. It iw, of 
coarse, pourtrayed by Mr. Wright, and we 
find it said to be " one of the niost intereat- 
iog as well as early evidences of the trnth of 
Gospel history " ! How it can be so it is 
difiSonIt to see. 

Parting with Roman civilisation, we part 
from everything in art that can be, by any 
stretch of fancy, supposed to be allied to 
mirth and merry-makuig. Mr. Wright says 
very well that the golf between ancient and 
mediaeval arts seems to no greater and more 
abrupt than it really was : the want of 
monuments, no donb^ preventing one seeing 
the change of the one into the other. But 
we know certainly that do illumination, and 
scarcely any verse, apologue, or other lite- 
rary invention of a humorous kind, appears 
for centuries ; and afterwards, when such 
things apparently b^n to be thought of, 
there is a cruel hideonsucss about them, as 
about the carved heads on early pointed ar- 
chitectoro, which makes it impossible to 
believe they can have been intended to con- 
vey amuaement. On the contrary, there 
can be little doubt but that the fiendish 
monsters and agonised human creatures 
figured on bosses, corbels or gargoyles were 
warnings to the benighted people that they 
were surrounded by devils and in danger of 
all the seven circles of hell, a misdirection 
of art by the priesthood which at last hnd 
its highest development in the Diviita Can- 
i\iedla, a poem which has been an incnbiia 
on the mind of Italy ever since ita protlnc- 
tion. During the darkest of these ages, 
however, Mr. Wright seema to believe in 
comic iutentions, and is supported by sundry 
pigs playing on bagpipes, and the like, 
although these are really of late Decorated 
or even Tudor workmanship, when the Lol- 
lard was beginning to show frcan his fiery 
pile the rising dawn of freedom. During 
all this time the minstrel is supposed to 
have existed, principally as a genealogist 
and partisan historian of ohacure leud.^ ; and 
thejnggler — j'tnipieiir, which word Mr. Wright 
wisely points out has undergone the un- 
meanmg change intoj'n>i(fZ«ur of late years, 
simply by the similarity of the " n" and the 
"a" in the uprightblackletter writing of the 
periodcausing these letters to be misread. But 
even these personages were not comic in any 
degree, the jongleur being rather an acrobat 
than anything else, and the minstrel profess- 
ing to relate true histories, which, no doubt, 
if emdite, were sadly without fancy. The 
highest civilisation was to bo found at court, 
and there the comic element was provided 
in the shape of a jester or fool, who seems 
sometimes to have had wit, but who was 
certainly a practical joker with his bauble 
and bells. 

We wish we could join Mr. Wright in this 
faith in the comic intentions of the Middle 
Ages ; but when we come to the most seiions 
and awful moralities, snch as the Dance 
Macabre, and the " Ars Moriendi," brought 
forward as examples of the laughable gro- 



tesque, we most really protest. The " Ats 
Moriendi," first seen in one of the earliest 
and most perfect of block books, the unique 
copy of which the British Mnsemn bought 
for a thousand pounds, was copied over and 
over again during the fifteenth and begin- 
ning of the sixtenth centuries, and the cnts, 
representing the dying man beset with 
devils of monstrous shapes and watched over 
by saints and the persons of the Trinity, 
were nndonbtedly at that time accepted as 
representing the realitiee of the scene, invi- 
sible to the human eye bat not the leas ac- 
tual and true. The first is called Templaeio 
DyaboU de Jmpaiientia, and shows us the 
sick man furiously kicking about him in bed, 
in a hiffh fever we may suppose, and the 
dovU who possesses him at the moment 
crouching by the bedside, apparently point- 
ing out what more mischief he should do by 
an extended arm fledged like the wing of 
a bat. Then comes the temptation, de vana 
(jliiria, in which a procession of curiona imps 
bring him crowns of various kinds. The 
temptations de avaricla^ tie inJUle, and others 
follow, and at last Bona ijitpiralio angeloa 
lie fvle makes the devils crawl away, holding 
their heads as if tUey were broken, and the 
man's soul is able to depart in peace. 
At the time these cats were done, and 
the text of admonitions and prayers pub- 
lished with tbom, the belief in devils 
was unshaken, and no feeling of a comic 
kind could be intended, but the exactly con- 
trary. The Vance of I)>:ai]i, too, was a 
strictly moral performance, and many a 
simple-minded man and woman of tlio Re- 
formation period trembled before it. 

Immediately this period is passed, indeed, 
a changed basis of thought is appai'cnt, and 
we shortly find the purely fantastic spirit of 
Callot succeed fo the imaginative of Holbein, 
in whose hands the Bdnce nf Death had be- 
come a mask for satire, and caricature shows 
itself in Holland and France, and shortly 
after in England, where it became a noble 
art, nobler than Satire has ever been in 
Poetry, in the hands of Hogarth, since 
whose time the exaggeration, which at first 
we may say constituted caricature, has en- 
tii"ely given place to the finest spirit of pro- 
priety and observation of the ridiculous. 

All that we have said relates to the first 
half of this History of Caricaiure aiid Oro- 
ieeque. The latter half rests on much firmer 
ground, only it is much more dependent on 
the illustrations, and does not repay criti- 
cisni in the same way. The pictorial poli- 
tical squibs even down to Hogarth's time 
are very poor in wit or humour, and it is 
only after his time that the manners and 
morals of the day employ the pencil and the 
etching-point. 

One of the desigiis by Gillray which we find 
given here (p. 473) represents George III. 
intently examining a miniature of Cromwell 
by the light of a single candle he holds in 
his hand. This was a bold venture of the 
artist, at the time when revolutionary and 
republican ideas were coming to us from 
tJie other side of the Channel. But Gillmy 
could change his tune with the times. We 
have seen the very same design altered into 
the King examining with an amused expres- 
sion a pigmy figure of Napoleon gesticulat- 
ing on his extended palm ! 



The names of Paul Sandby, Collet, Ban- 
bury, and Howlandson are all partially illus- 
trated here. Also that of John Kay of 
Kdinburgh, whose entire works, about 000 — 
tbey were for the most part portraits done 
in good faith — Mr. Wright will find have 
been actually published collectively about 
1848 in Edinburgh, on the death of his 
widow, nuder the title of Kay'a Ediiiburgh 
Podraita. He was bom in 1742, and died 
in 1830. Woodward, who was more ex- 
pressly a caricaturist, as he was much the 
better artist — regarding whom onr author 
eipreeaes want of knowledge — was bom 
about 1760, and died veiy destitntc in 1809. 
William B. Scott. 



Autobiography of Thomas Guthrie, D.D., and 
Memoir, by hU Sow, Eev. Varitl K. 
Guthrie and Gharlet J, Guthrie, M.A. In 
Two Volumes. Vol. II. (London : Daldy, 
Isbister & Co., 1875.) 
If the second volume of Dr. Gathrie'a Life 
showed any falling ofiTin point of interest aa 
compared with its predecessor, in which the 
Autobiography came to an abrupt termina- 
tion, it would not be surprising. This, 
however, is by no means the case. The 
Autobiography itself, indeed, though pleasant 
enough reading, was scarcely all that was 
expected, though as an nnfinishcd work it 
would be unfair to judge it. The ]iresent 
volume, embracing the moat important years 
of the eminent preacher's life, de.^cribing 
his exertions in various iielde of activity, 
philanthropical and ecclesiastical, and con- 
taining many capital anecdotes, as well as 
some vivid sketches teom his own jion, is 
equally instructive and entertainint;. It is 
to be regretted no doubt that we have not 
the account which Dr. Guthrie mi^jht him. 
self have given of the " Dismption " in the 
Scottish Church. The story of that re- 
markable movement is told by his sons with 
sufficient fulness for the purposes of their 
memoir, and without any exaggenrtion of 
the part their father bore in it, or of the 
sacrifices wliich, though not so grent as in 
many cases, were nevertheless real enough, 
to which he submitted. As it is. we have 
one or two graphiu pictures drawn by 
Dr. Guthrie himself — for instance, of old 
Lord Glenlee tottering into the court, to 
disappoint the m(yority of the judges by 
taking the side of the Church in the 
Aachterarder case ; and it is pleasant to find 
a generous tribute paid to Hugh Miller, who 
was, says Dr. Guthrie, " beyond all doubt or 
controversy, with the exception of Dr. 
Chalmers, by much the greatest man of all 
who took part in the ' Ten Tears' Conflict,' " 
as the decenninm immediately preceding 
the Disruption is called in Scotland. 

A.'i a, preacher Dr. Guthrie'.i name is 
univeraaiiy known, and the man who could 
command the attention Sunday after Sunday 
of such men as Hugh Miller, Sir Jamos. 
Simpson, and Henry Cock burn, was as- 
suredly no mean orator. Of his power over 
an inferior order of minds here is an amusing 
example : — 

"A friend, who when a medicitl stmlfiit in 
Edinburgh used ort^u, with some otbtre nt' his 
class, to attend Free St. John's, remember? how, 
one Sunday atXemoon, he was borne irresistibly 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 3, 1875. 



DQwarda aloos' the passage UDtil within a few ynda 
of the foot of the pulpit. There stood imnediRtelj 
in front of him a rough Hhort-set mnn, psat middle 
life, who, if one might judge by the pl&id, 
odorous of paat-Bmoke, which crossed his oroeid 
hack, nnd his whole ftppearnace, seemed sllighlnnd 
cattle-drover— ft stranger mMiifeatly both to the 
mBtropolis sod to Dr. Guthrie. From the very 
first the drover was riveted — a pinch of BnufT 
every now and u^in evincing hia inward satia- 
faction. Towarda the end of the aermon, and just 
as the preacher was commenciofir a prolonffed 
illuatcatioD, the attanger applied to hia horn-mull. 
Aneeted, however, he atood motionless, his hand 
raised with the snuff hetween his tioKers, his head 
thrown back, hia eyes and month hoth wide open. 
Theinstant that the paassigewABCoinpleted, and on 
the audience having time to gnthpr their brenth 
for a space, the drover applied the snuff with 
gusto to his nostrils, and, lorgettinf^ in hia excite- 
ment alike the place and the occasion, turned hia 
head to the crowd behind, exeluming quite 
audibly, ' Na, aira I but I never heard the like of 
tbatl'" 

Nor, natural orator thongh he was, were 
such efiecta prodnced without much Jaboar 
and preparation. His Bemtoos were all 
carefully written and committed to memory, 
and then delivered from notes ; nor did he, 
says his colleague. Dr. Hanna, " trust to a 
passing impulse to mould even a single 
pbraae." Hie maimer of composition was 
remarkable, and is thus described by him- 
' 9elf, in a letter to a brother minister. 
" Don't commit by repeating your discourse 
rfond. I write aloud ; but I commit in 
^ience. If you do otherwise, the matter will 
' become too familiar to your own ear, and it 
-won't rouse yon during the deliyery; and, 
if it don't rouse yon, it won't rouse the people. 
The advantage of writing alond is, that it 
"teaches to write a spoken style — a great poini 
that." Hia powers as a preacher, accordingly, 
must not be estimated by his pubKahed ser- 
mons. He was himself for a long time averse 
from publication, and it was only after he harl 
been compelled by declining health to re- 
tire, at least partially, &am the pulpit that 
he at length yielded to the entreaties of his 
friends. He did not at any rate over-rate 
himself when he wrote that, " though 
Tastly inferior to others in solidity and 
divinity, I know that, owing to their 
peculiar character and style, my sermons had, 
for youth, servants, and plain people, some 
.-attractions." 

Of Dr. Guthrie's largeness of heart there 
'has never been any doubt, and there is evi. 
.dence in this volume that be also possessed 
a liberality of mind considerably in advance 
.-of his church. This was especially the ca,so 
-with regard to his views on the education 
- question. Though not prepared to tolerate 
tiie priest in his ragged schools, nor going 
the length of advocating entire separation 
between the secular and the religions in the 
. schools of the nation, ho was strongly op- 
posed to the denominational system adopted 
Dv his chnrch, and his position on this sub- 
ject separalied him from some with whom 
' iio had been accustomed to work, and ex- 
posed him, we are told, to not a little mis- 
;apprehension and obloquy. " What care I," 
he once exclaimed, with a fine bnrst of 
natural eloquence which thrilled hie audi- 
ence, " for the Free Chnrch, or any church 
npon earth, in comparison with my desire to 
save and bless those poor children in the 



High Street ! " In advocating the national 
system, however. Dr. Gnthne, like many 
others, limited his comprehensiveness to the 
evangelical denominations, but he did not 
propose that Parliament should prescribe 
the nss of either the Bibie or the Shorter 
Catechism ; and while others were clamour- 
ing for legislative interference on this point, 
he was, content to leave the matter with the 
people themselves, thus anticipating the 
principle actually embodied in the existing 
Scotch Education Act. " These men," he 
wrote once in reference to some of his more 
narrow-minded brethren, " are never without 
a pair of Free Chnrch spectacles. I suppose 
they sleep with them on ! " This could not 
bo said of himself. He was neither bigot 
nor fanatic, but conld see the good in other 
churches as well as the faults of his own. 
Nor, mach as he detested Popeiy, was he 
ignorant that its worst spirit sometimes 
appears among Protestants. "The fact is," 
he writes, "that there are superstitions, and 
prejudices, and blindness to truth, and 
narrowness of mind disgracing Protestant- 
ism, to be found among otirselves as well as 
among Papists." If that, however, seems 
pretty plain speaking for a Presbyterian and 
a Oalvinist, it might be balanced by one or 
two other expressions also to bo found in 
this book. In fact, Dr. Guthrie's liberalism, 
expansive enough in its own nature, was 
never wholly emancipated from his theo- 
logical theories, deferring to the lamented 
Professor Edward Forbes, we find him writ- 
ing, " One is glad to see any signs of good in 
such a loveable, able and delightful man, 
and to cling to them, although they may 
not be BO strong as one wodd like," the 
preceding sentence making it clear that the 
signs of good were not the love, the ability, 
or the power of giving delight, but the facts 
" that Forbes had been, when a young man 
in London, regular- in chnrch attendance, 
and that at his death he expressed a wish to 
have the communion administered." Perhaps 
it is only fair to add — if, indeed,,it makes the 
matter much better — that these sentences 
were addressed to an invalid friend who was 
assumed to be capable of deriving comfort 
from the assurance that " great and famous 
as Forbes was," she could do more good by 
her prayers " than he did, or conld do, by 
all his pursuits and discoveries." 

Dr, Guthrie's celebrity brought him into 
occasional contact with men wtiose names 
are famous, and we have glimpses here of 
Thackeray, Buskin, CarlyJe, Longfellow, 
and others, mnking ns regret all the more 
that we have not the portraits of such men 
which the Autobiography, had it beenfinished, 
might have contained. Here, however, is a 
sketch worth quoting, of " the s^e of Chel- 
sea," penned in the year 1856 r — 

" I did not niah to disturb Mr. Carlyle, but he 
came, and an uncommon-looking man he ia ; an 
eagle-lika look in hie grast glarmg ejea, hair half 
arey, and a strong Dumfrieaahire tongue. lie was 
m a robe de chambre, most kind and courteoue. 
1 got him upon the neglect of the uneducated and 
lapsed clasaes ; he and I were quite at one. He 
uttered a number pf great thoughts in magnificent 
language ; lightened and thundered away in anb- 
Ume atyie at the heads of governors, ladies Mid 
gentlemen, and this selfish world ; and looked to 
me very much — as he swung bis arm, clenched 
his fist, and glared round him with bis black beard 



and shiniD]^ eyes and gritily hair — like an incar- 
nation of Thor, or Woden, or some other Scandi- 
navian divinity." 

And there are many other passages which 
it would be pleasant to quote, but for which 
there is not space. Some ono once said of 
Dr. Guthrie that he was the only man who 
had written sermons that could bo read in a 
railway carriage. The compliment was per. 
hapa not a high one, but, whatever its valne, 
it fairly applies to the present work. The 
memoir may be confidently recommended 
for the entertainment it affords, as well as 
for its more solid qnalities. 

BOBERT B. DqUUUOSD. 



Etsays and Studies. By A.. C. Swinbnme. 

(London : Chatto & Windus, 1S75.) 
Whatever variation of opinion may here- 
after exist as to the literary value and sig- 
nificance of the present age, as &r aa 
England is concerned, there is one thing 
which, we think, will hardly be a matter 
of ^dispute. In one corner at least of the 
world of letters, we who live and read 
now in England have seen a void filled, or 
at any rate in process of filling. Until very 
recently there have been hardly any English- 
men who cared to bring their powers as 
artists to beu* npon the task, thankless if 
not graceless as it was held, of criticism. 
We have had critics of the strongest sense 
and the keenest acnteness ; we have bad 
(though far more rarely) critics of delicate 
taste, But we have never until very recently 
had critics who united any, much less all, of 
these characteristics with literary power of 
the highest degree. If an exception must 
be made to this rule it is in favour of 
Charles Lamb ; and Lamb was a critic too 
limited in stylo and subject to supply an 
exception of a very important kind. Two 
critics indeed we had in the earlier years of 
this century whose powers were equEu to the 
conception as to the expression of any criti- 
cism. But Hazlitt's extraordinary wrong- 
headedneaa made it perfectly uncertain what 
he might say of any subject at any moment. 
And of De Quincey one can only remark 
that a critic whose special black beasts aro 
Plato, Swift, and Goethe disables himself 
from being regarded in any other light than 
as a literary curiosity. 

Twoyears ago the publication in a collected 
form of Mr. Pater's Studies gave us almost 
our first volume of criticism which was vain- 
able aa criticism, and at the same time still 
more valuable as literature. Wc say almost 
our first, because it is necessary not to forget 
the Essay on SlaJte which established, if it 
did not reveal, Mr. Swinbnrne's own 
eminence as a prose writer and a critic. 
That essay, great as it is, we should rank, 
from the singly critical point of view, below 
the present volume. For it might have pro- 
ceeded from an enthusiast, a man whose ears 
were open but to one music. The volume 
before us could only have been written by a 
catholic in the best sense. 

The introduction which Mr. Swinbnme 
has prefixed to his book is a very mode- 
rate and dignified protest against the silly 
" mutual admiration " outcry. We only 
doubt whether the protest was worth 



JPLT 8, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



nuikiii^. The ontcry Appears to db perfectly 
natnnu, perfectly^ legitimate, and a good 
deal beneath con'empt. It is certoinJj aar- 
prising that the three bestpoete of a genera- 
tion shoald be known, if only by mmonr, 
to entertain a liearty admiration of each 
other's performances. And it would be still 
more snrprisiiig if the worst poeta of the 
same generation did not feel this accord as 
a personal injory. If the honest men would 
only fall ont, the thieves might hare a 
chance of coming by what is not their own, 
namely, fame and profit. It is but natural 
that tiie thieves should be indigaaut at the 



diagnalang onauimity of the honest men. 
Mr. Swinhame's bash is a bush of graceful 
fuGaffe, but his wine is far too good to need 
anything' of the kind. 

There is, however, in this introdnotion one 
claim pnt forward which, obviouB as is its 
JDstice to any one who has eyes to see, may 
be wiUiont impropriety nrged in presence 
of a Bomewhat widely-spread prejudice. No 
impartial student can £ul to be stmck with 
tlie singnlar catholicity almost as much a 
with the singular felicity of Mr. Swinburne' 
critical judgment. Of main purpose or in 
cidentally the chief names of English song 
are noticed here, and it is remarkable how 
wide is the mnge which the writer's appre- 
ciation takes. A critio who can unaffectedly 
appr«;iate Pope and Blake, Mr. Dante 
Bossetti and Mr. Matthew Arnold, 19 already 
a proved master of the most diflicult part 
of criticism. Even those who have most 
schooled themselves to dispassionate appre- 
ciation may envy Hr. Swinoame's targe and 
spontaneous charity to everything good, if 
it be good. We c&n only mention two 
names — one to be ranked amongthe highest, 
and one deserving of a scarcely lower place 
— whicb seem to awaken in Mr. Swinburne 
a Inkewarm and imperfect sympathy. To 
speak of Spenser's "effeminacy of colour 
and monotony of metre " is surely on unjust 
justice. To speak of even the worst of 
Alfred de Mnsset's poems as* "watered de- 
coctioBfl (^ Byronism " has no touch of jus- 
tice whatsoever. When De Mnsset wounds 
himself there comes out water it may be 
—but it is water mingled with blood. 

But in these two cases only (and even 
thece are mere casual allusionB) have we 
any reason to complain of imperfect recog- 
nition of merit by Mr. Swinburne. Of the 
signal recognitions thereof in most cases, 
every essay here reprinted is full, and yet 
we cannot agree with another charge which 
has been brought against him, the charge of 
over-praise. In many cases — notably in 
those of Victor Hugo, of Mr. Matthew Ar- 
nold, and of Byrop — praise is here given far 
beyond any which we should ourselves ac- 
cord. But in each case we can perceive 
that the excess is due, not in any wise to an 
enit^iBtion of the good, but to an un- 
willingness, which we admire but do not 
share, to allow any subtraction to be made 
for the demerits of the evil. 

Take, for example, tiie two first essays — 
those on L'Homme gut Bit and L'Annie 
TerrihU. We know, as well we think as 
most men, the ivreaae is Victor Hugo. We 
know that if we were to lay down the pen 
and take from the shelf any of those nine 
Tolnmes of wonderful verse, we should in | 



five minutes be ready to endorse Mr. Swin. 
bume's most enthusiastic statements. The 
admirable peroration to the second essay does 
not put one jot too strongly the astonish- 
ing merits of the "S. Jean de Ouemesey." 
Bat in the enforced balancing of habitual 
oriticism we are bound to take into account 
other characteristics. Grandiosity, endless 
and aimless antithesis, a fatal inseusibility to 
the ludicrous and the bathetic, must be 
reckoned on tJie wrong side. And, above 
all, there is the still more fatal note of 
falsity occasionally occurring, a falsity all 
the more &tal that it is unconscious, a ^tilos 
ryi ovTt from which all the greater poets of 
Hugo's kind — -Dimte and Milton, Shelley and 
Mr. Swinburne himself— are completely free. 
But this, and other things like to tins in 
other cases, Mr. Swinburne has not seen, 
has not cared to see ; the part of devil's ad- 
vocate is left to those whose vocation urges 
them to the thankless task. And we have 
consequently in this volume a result of sin- 
golar beauty and interest, an anthology of 
judicious and generous praise, unmarred by 
any jarring note of censure, even as it is 
unspoilt by any over-luxuriance of eulogy. 

The latter of the two essays on Victor 
Hugo contains a disquisition of more than 
usual weight, being as it is a deprecation on 
the writer's part of the exaggeration by some 
critics (we fear they are but few) of the 
"art-for-art " theory. With most of tlie 
positions which Mr. Swinburne here takes 
up we have nothing to do ) they are not 
within range of our batteries, But we think 
that he need not wonder at a tendency 
among "critics of a higher kind" to the 
exaggeration already mentioned. From the 
critical point of view there is certainly 
warrant for sccentoating and insisting upon 
the art-for-art dogma. It must be re- 
membered that the attitude of the critic as 
regards literature difftjrs of necessity from 
that of the ordinary reader as well as from 
that of the author. The critio of poetry, for 
instance, is, or should be, constantly ani- 
mated by a double desire— first, that poetry 
should be written in the best possible 
manner ; and secondly, that it should be in 
the best possible manner appreciated. If, 
tlierefore, it can be shown that both these 
objects, perfection of production and per- 
fection of appreciation, are most likely to be 
attained by worker and student on the art- 
for-art system, the inculcation of the ]att«r 
in and out of season by the critic is at once 
justified. To attempt such a demonstration 
would, of course, be improper here. But it 
may not be out of place to suggest that 
neither probability nor experience is against 
us in the more difficult case, the case of 
the worker. No doubt & very vehement 
desire of expressing something in particular 
may give a man the power of expression. 
There are certainly many instances which 
go to prove that snch vehemence of desire 
in the expression of any strong conviction 
results in the conviction receiving more at- 
tention than the expression. With regard 
to the student the case is still less doubtful. 
There are, indeed, cases where practised 
attention to form is able to surmount pre- 
judice- There are, as we know well. High 
Tories and High Churchmen who can read 
with unaffected and unalloyed delight the 



OMtanenU, and the iSoxi;* b^ore Swirite, 
the Everlasting Gotpel, and the Leaves of 
OroM. But these persons are exceptions. 
The generality of mankind are more easily 
swayed by antecedent prejudice working in 
with the prevalent tendency to note the 
matter first. It is possible that in some 
moment of bodily or mental imbecility a 
reader might prefer the matter of Mr. 
Tnppcr<fi Fifty Proteetant BaUadt to the 
matter of Theodore de BanvUle's Trimte-tm 
Balladee Joijeuaea. It is not possible that 
any one in possession of the least remnant 
of hia feculties could prefer the form of the 
former to the form of the latter, It is poa- 
sible that a Quarierlij reviewer being in a 
fiippaut humour, and looking at the subject 
first, might find in the Woodapwrge a ludi- 
crous picture of a ludicrous theme ; it is not 
possible that even such a one, had he begun 
with the form, could have made such a 
blunder. The art-for-art theory may or may 
not give us better art ; it will assuredly give 
us better cHticism and better appreciation. 
It may or may not produce bettor poets ; it 
will most certainly produce better readers. 

The essays on Mr. Rossetti's Poems, and on 
Mr. Morris's Jason, will always remain 
models of friendly criticism. They have, 
moreover, an especial literary interest, be- 
'cause in them only, as for as we know, has 
justice ever been done to Mr. Morris's first 
volume of poems, perhaps the best volume 
ever put forth at such an age. But the next 
study — that on Mr. Matthew Arnold — is in 
many respects the most interesting in the 
whole book. 'So one we suppose will assert 
that much community of thought or manner 
exists between such an author atid such a 
reviewer. Few things can be further apart 
than the polite languor of the one, and the 
fiery perfection of the other. Yet we hardly 
know a more sympathetic study than this of 
the "friendly foe" of Philistia by its most 
uncompromising assailant. Only on one 
point is Mr. Swinburne cruel — in demolish- 
ing on too remorseless wheel Mr. Arnold's 
elegant butterfly Maurice de Guerin. One 
can hardly help being sorry for the butterfly 
and its collector. Yet there were so many 
others i If Mr. Arnold wanted an inglorious 
Milton, was there not Louis Bertrand P 

The essays (better known perhaps to the 
general public than any other prose efforts 
of Mr Swinburne's) on Byron and Coleridge 
are remarkable, the one for its steadfast 
ignoring of popular praise as Viell as of 
popular blame, the other for its unique cri- 
tical merits. We really know of nothing ■ 
better as criticism on poetry than this essay 
on Coleridge. For clear recognition and 
eloquent expression, both of the merits which 
its subject bad, and of those which he hod 
not ; for definite assertion and weighty vin- 
dication of its subject's proper place among 
poets, and for acute estimation of his com- 
parative rank, we do not know its equal. 

Mr. Swinburne's comments on Ford show 
a capacity (recently exhibited to even better 
purpose) for understanding our older drama- 
tists, which may surprise those who have 
not duly apprecinted the range of his genius. 
The "Notes on the Text of Shelley " are a 
welcome contribution of a too rare kind to 
textual criticism. If we conld get poets to 
comment on poets in this style a little 



6 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpLT 3, 1875. 



oFtener, the insulted ehade of Horace woald 
not groiin over the "vepris ad TCntnm " 
abomination, nor wonld the greatefit of Latin 
poots have been allowed to nndergo (we are 
speaking aesthetically not philologi call j) the 
outrages of Lachmann. The two last studiea 
deal with the arta of design, and it would 
not be easy to find anywhere esamples of a 
finer eetise of beanty, and of a more Taried 
power of turning images into words. 

In one respect, and in one respect only, 
the book is an unsatisfactory book to criti- 
cise. It is difficult to avoid epcaking of it 
in one continnons strain of panegyric. Of 
the mastery of style here displayed, not 
even Mr. Swinburne has given us more 
striking examples. In the simile of the 
storm with which the book opens — in the 
magnificent contrast bet'^een Aeschylns and 
Enripides which the second essay contains 
— in the sustained peroration of the same 
piece — in the contentrated vigour of anaiysis 
which does justice to Mr. Rossetti's " Jenny " 
— in the subtlety of interpretation which 
creates a nefer-imagined viTbie for Mr. 
Arnold's Empedocles — in many other passages 
of Protean beanty and vigour which onr 
limits forbid us here to cite, as they forbid 
us to say a titbo of what is due to the book 
— wo find, as always in Mr. Swinburne, the 
passion and the imagination of an elect 
chsrcheur d'injini, coupled to the expression 
of a consummate artist. 

Mr. Swinburne says in his preface : " That 
must be a somewhat elastic definition which 
should comprise in one term all the subjects 
of my study and my praise." Though the 
attempt may be rash, we would venture to 
suggest something which may perhaps meet 
the case. It seems to ns that ho has suc- 
cessfully obeyed in matters literary the pre- 
cepts of an old and honoured "injunction. He 
has proved all things : he has held fast that 
which is good. Gboeob Saintsbubt. 



UACHUTSLU. 



SUma deUa Leileraiara Italiana. Di Fran- 
cesco de Sanctis. 2 Tom. (Kapoli ; Morano, 
1873.) 
This little work is in every way admirable 
as a sketch of the chief features of Italian 
literature. It is short, yet in no way snper- 
ficial ; interesting, yet withoat any effort 
after fine writing; plain and simple, yet 
eloquent with real feeling. Signor de Sanctis 
has avoided the onosidedness which cbarac- 
terises so much of the literary criticism of 
the present day : be neither loses himself in 
the historical method, which makes writers 
the echo of the events around them ; nor does 
he, by trusting too much to his own intui- 
tions into their meaning, make them fan- 
tastic repetitions of modern thought. With 
breadth of view and sobriety of judgment, 
be aims at seizing the characteristic features 
of the chief Italian authors : he is engaged 
in presenting and interpreting their leading 
ideas, not in criticising their details. 

His work Is not an archaeological history : 
ho deals only with the great names or with 
prominent schools of Italian literature. The 
book ia entirely unpretentious in form, but 
abounds in profundity of thought, and 
throws light on every anthor who is dealt 



with. Especially admirable is his treatment 
of ■ Machiavelli, about whom Signor de 
Sanctis' remarks are so &r in advance of 
lything that has yet been written, that 
they deserve more attention than they have 
yet met with. 

The Middle Ages rested ou a theological 
id ethical basis which is expressed in the 
ivina Cmnmedia : this life is not a reality, 
but a shadow, reality ia to be found only m 
contemplation of what shall be. Against 
this conception, Machiavelli vindicates the 
claims of man's practical life. He is eman- 
cipated ^m the spirit of the Benaissance 
as well as from the spirit of the Middle Age : 
life is not to him the play of the imagination 
anymore than the exercise of contemplation: 
it is neither the pursait of art nor theology, 
but the development of man's activities 
within the sphere which snrrounds him. 

The foundation for man's life is to be 
found only in the state, but the state must 
be freed from all its mediaeval trappings, 
from all notions of feudal or ecclesiastical 
dependence. Machiavelli's state was natu. 
rally the free civic community, free of its 
own valour and capacity, and not by favour 
of Pope or Emperor. But Machiavelli saw 
also the formation of groat states in Europe 
at this time : he saw the insufficiency of the 
small Italian states to stand against them : 
his idea was the formation of a great Italian 
state comprising the whole Italian nation. 

This stete of Machiavelli is omnipotent, 
absorbing the individual in itself; it is a 
divinity, superior to morality, law, and reli- 
gion. It is to be founded 'OH' popular con- 
sent, and if so founded, itB SMpe matterH 
little : it may be a principality or a republic, 
but its end only is important— the good 
government of the people. When once 
founded it will establish law, morality, and 
religion on their proper basis of subordina- 
tion to the common good. The state is to 
be founded on virtue, in its old latin sense, 
of force, enei^ which fits man for great en- 
terprises and great sacrifices. The reward 
of this virtue is glor^. 

The important thing in history is not Pro- 
vidence or Fortune, but the force of man and 
of nature. Grovernment or political science ia 
concerned witii understanding and regulat- 
ing the forces which move the world. The 
ruler of this new state ntust possess not only 
the old feudal quality of valour, but the 
new qualities of prudence and intelligence. 
Mediaeval politics pass away and the modem 
conception of the state takes their place. 
The mediaeval church disappears, and is re- 
placed by a national church, dependent on 
the stat«, and adapted to the objects and 
interests of the nation. Bo, too, there is a 
new moral basis which takes for its type the 
patriot, not the saint : there is a new intel- 
lectual basis — the power of human thought. 
With these ideas Machiavelli introduces a 
new literaiy method ; no longer does he 
reaaou by means of the syllogism, but by 
the representation of a series of facts bound 
together in the way of cause and effect. Be- 
flection ia with him continually discovering 
the subordination and connexion of facts, so 
as to give each of theni its due importance 
as cause or effect ; under the form of narra- 
tion Machiavelli conceals his arguments. 
With such a method as iim the literaiy 



form, Bs sach, entirely disappears. Form is 
to him the thing in its true aspect ; what he 
aims at is, not that a thing should be reason, 
able, or moral, or beantifol, but that it should 
be truly represented. His prose is freed from 
everything abstract, poetical, or ethical : he 
goes straight to the point by the shortest 
way, with a brief and rapid Beries of pro- 
positions or facta. The prose writing of the 
fourteenth century had bc«n full of feeling and 
imagination, but had lacked oi^anism and 
cohesion ; the prose of the fifteenth century 
bad an external and formal cohesion by 
means of periods, but drew no distinctions as 
regarded contents between wh at was grave and 
what was frivolous. Machiavelli was equally 
free &om feeling and ^m art ; he seems 
not to know that there is an art in writing ; 
he has no conscious idea of style, but what 
he writes is the direct reproduction of hie 
thought. Hence MachiaveHi was the founder 
of modem prose writing, dear, precise, brief, 
all thought and tact, — a symbol of the in- 
tellect now emancipated from all elements, 
mystic, poetic, moral alike, and enthroned as 
ruler of the world. 

In Maohiavelli's works this is the pre- 
valent point of view. ThehistoiT of Florence 
under a narrative form ie really a logic (rf 
events. In the Disoorsi facta are taken 
as the point round which the intellect turns 
in its investigation of human character. The 
disorders shownby by history spring from the 
disproportion between the ends which m.ec 
set before themselves and the means which. 
they adopt to attain them . Pohtics have for 
theif basis precision in defining the end and 
energy in using the meana. Logic governs 
the world. The Frincipe ia but an appli- 
cation of this implacable logic. Machiavelli 
blames princes who rob tbeir people of 
liberty ; but, when they have become masters 
of the State, be teaches them the means of 
preserving it ; he shows the prince that in 
providing for the State he provides for him- 
self; the common interest is his own interest 
as well. 

Machiavelli moves in a cmel world of It^c, 
founded on the study of man and of life. He 
does not consider whether actions are good or 
gracefal, but whether there is in them an 
agreement between the means and the end. 
What he admires is intellectual seriousness, 
precision and energy, undisturbed cleamess of 
thought. His hero is the conqueror of man 
and of nature, who comprehends and regu- 
lates the forces around him, and makes them. 
his instruments. The end may be laudable 
or not ; if not, Machiavelli is the first to 
blame it ; but granting the end, Machiavelli 
admires the man who can attain it. Moral 
responsibility lies in the choice of the end. 
not in the means ; the means are to be judged 
only by their wisdom or folly. Hence, 
Machiavelli admits "without a remark what 
is terrible, but not what is odious or oon- 
temptible ; that is odious which is wrongly 
done through lust or passion or fimaticism, 
without any furi;lier object ; that is con- 
temptible which is done through weakness 
of cnaracter, through want of resolution to 
do what the intellect says ought to be done. 

This position of Machiavelli gains in mean- 
ing if we consider the condition of Italy ftt 
his time. The stranger was at the gate, bnt 
the people "wera entdr^y witdioat n 



JiriT 3, 18?5.] 



THE AjOADBMY. 



ordisctpliue: their iotellecii was well-tniaed, 
iras dear and Babtle, bat thej' wanted 
character : they wished to chase away the 
stranger, but uieir _wish never ripened into 
will. Machiavetli attacks the weakness of 
the ItaKans at its root : without character, 
morality, rehgion, liberty are mere phrases ; 
restore i^iaracter, and everything elge is re- 
stored with it. Hacbiavelli glorifies c^rac^ 
even in evil. Caesar Borgia, with his clear 
mtellect and fine mind, is to him a nobler 
object, in apite of hia want of all moral sense, 
than Piero Soderini, the aonl of honour, but 
an " anima sciooca" who by hia incapacity 
destroyed the Floreutino Republic. 

Uachiavelli saw that Italy was corrapt 
through its want of moral force, and of a 
worthy o^ect to employ the national con- 
science. He calls for a hero to save his 
conntiy, as Dante had done before ; but 
MachiaveUi's saviour is to be not a foreigner, 
but an Italian prince. Italy is no longer 
"the garden of the Empire," bnt a self- 
goveming nation. Danf«'s De Manwrchia 
and Uacbiavelli's Princife were both Utopias 
and ilbaiona : but Btmte's was a dream of 
the |«st, Hachiavelli's a prophecy of the 

It has been Machiavelli'a ill-fortone that 
the ezaggerataons of his system have been 
moit closely identified with his name: what 
was aocessory and relative has obscured 
what is absolute and permanent. He set 
np the csonception of the seriousness of life 
on earth, which was to be worked out in tha 
state by means of human thonght and human 
intdligeuce, which was to have as its altimate 
object the formation of a nation by means of 
discipline. This has been overlooked, and 
his exaggfcration hae been regarded as his 
system. Hia state absorbs everything, reli- 
gion, morality, individnality. The rights of 
tne state desbx>y the rights of man. Machi- 
aveUi's fault is one common to all great 
tMnke™, one which dullness can never for- 
give : he has expressed himself with over- 
pi>werin}^ olesmess, and has put everything 
■bsohite^, eren what is in itself relative and 
"risble. M. Ckeiohtoh. 



MBW NOVSLS, 



%w. By Ouida. In Three 'VoMmes, 
(London: Chapman & HaU, 1875.) 

The Qkrtmeltig of DtuHpore. By the Author 
of" Wheat and Tares." In Two Volumes. 
(London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1875.) 

The Story of TaJenitTte and his Brother. By 
Mn. (Mphant. In Three Volumes. 
(Edinburgh and London: Wm. Black- 
wood & Son, 1875.) 

The Law and the Lady. By Willde Collins. 
In Three Volumes. (London : Ghatto 4: 
Windns. 1875.) 

Oianetto. By I^dy Mai^oret Majendie. 
(Edinburgh and London: Wm. Black- 
wood & Son, 1875.) 

S<m« of Our Qirh. By Mrs. Eiloart. In 
Three Volumes. (London: Samuel Tins- 
ley, 1875.) 

Sir Pereffritut'g Heir. By the Author of 
"I^Mly Fiavia." In Three Volumes. (Lon- 
don: Richard Bentley ft Son, 1875.) 

Siyaa is a tattered piece of patchwork, a 

nedley of &istian odds and ends, gathered 



for the most part from the rag-shop of the 
amatory novelists of Prance. The exalted 
morality of Casanova de Seingalt, the deli- 
cacy of LottVet de Couvray, the aasterifcy of 
the yoanger Cr^hillon, the chaste imagina- 
tion of Restif le Breton, the severe imagery 
of the author of L'AffairB Clemenceatt, have 
all been reflected in the works of the writer 
who created Tricotrin, the violinist and 
voluptuary, who was the mother of Pascarel 
and hia monkey, alike in the giddineBs of 
their desires, and the undoing of FoUe Farine 
and her wild leonine tawny lover. And Signa 
differs in no material respect from these 
masterpieces of folly, unless it be that its 
subordinate characters — its fireflies, crickets, 
cicali, grilli, bats, kestrels, glowworms, 
aziola owls, and acacia bees — l^ve become 
more talkative and less in the nature of 
Eupemnmerariea since the days when their 
spokesman, the spider, used to express 
his constitueniB' fixed opinion of man 
in the simple formula of " Thoa fool!" 
As for the fireflies the book swarms with 
them ; wherever yon open a page you swal. 
low a firefly. The hero's mother was 
" supple and slim as a firefly ; " his &ther 
was " gtacefiil and reetlees as a firefly ; " the 
hero himself, though he desired many things, 
such as the higher education, and fame in 
mosic, and fame in painting, wanted above 
all to be a firefly. Bot before he could be 
thus translated he had to learn and sufier 
much. He had to leem many things not 
generally known, sneh as that " Fia An- 
gelico would have kissed him, and RafbeUe 
woold have pub him for evw in the iotemal 
sunshine of the Loggie," and that " the old 
painters would have made a chenih of him 
and glorified him, and made him a joy to the 
wondering world ; " he had to be taught 
that when he was " singing to the silent 
street and the wakening flush of day, 
and roused the people with the great 
Se circa, m dice, or the mighty Misero pargo- 
letto, or the delicions QueiU lot, or the tender 
Beh Signore," he was singing "airs that 
had been the laptnre of the listening world 
a century before. At last he mastered these 
rudiments of music and art, and fell in lore 
with a "wanton out of France." She re- 
ceived him, aa was har custom of an evening, 
in her bath, clad in an elegant attire of rose- 
leaves and moonbeams, and proceeded to put 
him off with the story of her life, " I loved 
— myself," she said. " And wanted to enjoy. 
God made me such a weak and selfish thing. 
Tou know he makes bees and butterflies. I 
took solace in such strength as women like 
me have- We share it with the snake and 
tha panther. Tour Qod made snakes and 
panthers ; " and when she saw that the 
young man felt that he, as a firefly, could 
never mate itith a bee, a bntterfiy, a snake, 
or a panther, she clinched the matter by 
adding " Love ! I laugh at the word, I dance 
on it, I spit at it. Judas loved. I never 
loved anything. How should I! Pure dreams 
are yonr fair portion. Fonl facts are mine. 
Leave me." So he left her. 

The autbor of The Chronicles of Dagtipare 
is the Pepys of an Indian station. At first 
yon have reason to expect that he will prove 
a more serious historian, for he is found to 
he a person of pleasant wit, extended read- 
ing, and excellent taste ; bnt as soon as the 



least pressure is put on him to discover the . 
views of so exceptional a witness on the 
graver questions of English administration 
m India, the airy creature flies off and 
vanishes in a spray of tittle-tattle. He 
hovers daintily over the dull mass of official 
work, which is the core of Indian life, till 
the hoar of balls and flirtations comes round, 
or til] governments retire to the hills and 
lie beside their nectar, while the bolts are 
hurled far below them in the valley of the 
Hooghly, and the ckiuds of tobacco.smoke 
are lightly curled roond their golden bunga- 
lows. Then he enters on his story, and re- 
lates the contest between an officer and a 
civilian for the belle of the station's hand in 
the dashing manner that recalls the duel 
fought by Cornet Qahagan, of the Bundel- 
cund Invincibles, with Mr. Mulligatawny, 
B.C.S., Depaty-Assistant Vice-Snb-Control- 
ler of the Boggleywallah Indigo Grounds, 
RamgoUy Branch, for the favours of the 
fair Puttee Rooge. But the civilian is 
unfairly handicapped, being one of those 
monstrous creatures the competition wallahs. 
Of course he is learned and witty, for the 
examinations in Burlington Gardens are 
known to he highly successful in the manu- 
facture of learning and wit. But the social 
failings of this Sndra caste of English 
o%cials h^ve seldom been so clearly shows 
as in the juvenile Mantalini who sets up to 
be the gallant of Dustipore. " Some ladies, 
you know, Miss Vernon," he says to a very 
young lady after her very first valse at her 
very first hall, " dance in epic poems, some 
in the sternest prose— Carlyle for instance. 
Tours is an ode of Shelley's or a song of 
Tennyson's, a smilefromParadise." "Cruel 
girl,' he moans to a new love, " am I to seal 
my devotion to yon by an infidelity to the 
kindestjtenderest, sweetest ofbeiugsf" And, 
being finally rejected, he goes out, reads all 
the most horrible passages in all the worst 
French novels andqnotes the fiercest cynicism 
of Ghsjnfort and Rjchefonoauld. Perhaps 
the corrupt state of the circulating libraries 
of Dustipore has something to do with the 
singular elasticity of the moral sense of all 
its European settlers. 

Mrs. Oliphant regards the safierlngs of 
humanity from the physician's rather than 
from the surgeon's point of view. What 
she has to do with the human heart she does 
without chloroform and surgical instruments. 
She leaves the business of dissection to a 
Balzac and his school of anatomists. She 
makes over the lancet to a Beyle and his 
pupils. She merely feels the patient's pulse, 
prescribes and advises. And aa the art of 
the physician stands at least as high as the 
art of the surgeon, it is nnreasonable to sup- 
pose that the autbor of the Ohroniclet of Car- 
lingford works &om a less scientific basis 
than the more incisive novelists, even though 
her directions are issued in surprising abun- 
dance. The Story of Valentine and his 
Brother deals with an extraordinary theme, 
matters that are not likely to happen to one 
man in ten thousand, yet not less worthy 
of telling on that account if Mrs. Oliphant 
is sure of her one man. And Mrs. Oli. 
phant, being a writer not easily deceived, 
sets boldly forth on her journey, jotting 
down descriptions of scenery with her nsual 
pictnresqnencsa, inserting here aad there an 



8 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpLT 8, 1875. 



eiqoiaite touch of natnre, and wearing into 
her story some of the most beantifallj- 
p»thetic chapters that we have read in any 
modem noTel. 

We have been fairly diligent students of 
Mr. Wilkie Collins, and have long admired 
him as the moat ingenions carpenter in the 
trade; hnt till we read his last book we had 
ne idea what a fand of funereal mirth, what 
a wealth of fanmorons sadness there was in 
him. In The Law and the Lady he haa wil- 
fully parodied himaelf : he has stripped the 
pnBBle-novel of its last mg : he has played 
suoh fantastic tricks with his former works 
as must have made Mr. Mudie weep. The 
contents of bis property-box are scattered 
over the stage. The puppets which have 
done him so much service lie weltering in 
their sawdust ; strongminded female dolls, 
elderly dandy doUs, bigamous dolls, poisoo- 
ous dolls, indicia] dolls, theatrical dolla, all 
undiatingnished in the promiscnona heap of 
matter. To compensate for which Mr. Col- 
lins has elaborated a singiilar figure, new 
perhaps to fiction, hut familiar enough to the 
drama. It ia our old friend Polichinello. 
Mr. Collina may call him Miacrrimua Dexter 
or by whatever name he pleaiiea : his real 
joame ia Punch. His looks, his words, and 
his actions are those of the immoi-tal Fan- 
itoccino. He was bom without legs ; and so, 
at least in hia earliost avatars, was Pnnch, 
jHc had a mania for homicide, a passion for 
disturbing domestic peace, a diabolic cun- 
ning, a faithful dumb attendant, and many 
other signs by which you may know him. 
There are, of conrse, a few unimportant 
differencea. We are told that " a wiinter 
would have revelled in Miserrimns Dexter 
aa a model for St. John;" which can 
scarcely be said of his prototype. We are 
also told that a yonng girl, ignorant of the 
deformitiea hidden by the Oriental robe, 
' wootd have said to herself, " Hera is the hero 
of my dreams." But the man's speech be- 
wrayeth bim. He wheels bis chair furiously 
round the room and cries : " I am Napoieon 
at the sunrise of Austerlitz; I give the 
word, and men by tens of thousands fight 
and bleed and die. I am Nelson, and see 
my own apotheosis. I am Shakspere, 
:and am writing Lear, the trat^dy of tra- 
gedies. Light ! Light ! The lines flow out 
iGke lava from the eruption of my volcanic 
mind." Now, if this be not a wordy para- 
jilirase of Mr. Punch's aimple battlecry of 
*" Rooty-tooty," we should like to know what 
it is. At ail events this sort of stuff, being 
itinpretentiona, is better than Mr. Collina's 
recent efforts to reform society by melo- 
dramatic exiimplea. It is so easy for sen- 
sational novelists to leave plain ground and 
climb into tbe thin branches of theory, and 
BO bard for tbem to remember tbe proverb 
ilist " Je boher der Afib ateigt, je mehr er 
deo Hintem zeigt." 

Giatielto is so tiny a novelette that we can 
scarcely determine the real powers of its 
author, bnt she at any rate writes in the 
manner that De Qoincey loved, with the 
nnatudied grace of a well-bred woman. There 
ia maaic in every page of the book, whether 
in the theme or in the handling of it. Per- 
haps Lady Margaret Majondie wishes to 
know, without putting her full abilities to the 
touch, how thu world of readers is disposed 



towards mnaical novels. The knowledge is 
not far to seek. Long ago George Sand 
wrote Gonmelo : it was an arrow's flight, 
behind which the air closed at once. Two 
yeara ago a delicate mind told the story of 
Joaqnin Dorioz and his love : it was a tender 
lyric which ultimately fell to earth as all 
Bongs &I1, No doubt mere are oaks in which 
tbo arrow may still be found unbroken, and 
hearts of friends that cherish the song ; bnt 
we venture to say that neither in France nor 
in England, though the first performs 
Handel and builds national opei'a-bouses, 
and the second thrums Chopia and talks 
myatically of Wagner, is the passion for 
rousic strong enough to do niore than float 
a musical novel, let a bookoftbia sortthe 
author of Oinnelto would write worthily. 
She is leaa to be admired in the super- 
natural part of her tale, in which she de- 
scribea tbe terrors of a haunted sonl and 
trespasses on the croft that tradition haa 
long a.s9igned to Hawthorne as goodman. 

If tbe author of Smne of Oar Qirh is bard 
on the weakness of man, she, at all events, 
worships tbe baby. Mr. Bret Harte, the 
American novelist, is a writer of tbe same 
religious creed. Indeed, if Mrs. Eiloart and 
Mr. Harte were to join forces and write a 
series of idylls of infant life, there can be no 
doubt that the baby would come to be 
ranked, in conipany with tbo arts and 
acicncsa, among the humanising influences of 
the world. It is a nice question whether 
Mr. Harte 's baby, who regenerated tbe 
gamblers and criminals, tbe al nice-robbers 
and drunkards of Roaring Camp, did a more 
meritorious action than Mrs. Eiloart's baby, 
who harmonised tbe discordant eleraente of 
a doctor's family, reconciling the heireas 
with the governess, and the proud but nn- 
grammatical cook with the girl from tbe 
workhouse — but the enquiry wouldnotclosely 
concern tbe literary merits of Some of Our i 
Oirle. The book photographs with great 
accuracy the petty details of life, and goes 
with infinite minuteness into tbe short and 
simple annals of " shabby gentility." Mrs. ! 
Eiloart sita down to tell the world not only 
what tbe world has all her life been telling 
Mrs. Eiloart, bnt also what it has been 
t«lling every person of ordinary capacity, 
and what such persons cannot have failed 
to observe. We shall soon bo having ro- 
mances that turn on a mistake in the 
bntcher'-a bill, or a rise in tbe price of coals. 
Tbe hero of Sir Feregrive's Heir was only 
twelve years old. Tet that be was no com- 
mon hero may be gathered from the fact that 
during the course of tbe book be is likened 
to Apollo, Haroon al Raschid, Alcibiades 
riding an African barb through tbe Agora 
at Athens, Machiavelli, Marlborough, an aged 
king of Israel, Keats, Shelley, Byron, Chat- 
terton, Hocbe, Wolfe, Mephistopheles, Robin 
Hood, Louis XIV., Wharton, Louis XV., 
Smerdis the Magian, Demetrins tbe Rnasian, 
David, and Wilham the Conqueror. He was 
born to avert the Doom of the Conyers. But 
the young and beautifol Adeline, called the 
Swan-neck, believed neither in Darrell nor 
in the Doom. " I could almost," said abe, 
" pray night and morning that I might live 
to stand by yonder boy'a couch and see him 
dead." Alasfor Adeline, called tbe Swan-neck. 
It was not without reason that she com- 



muned with herself in the language of the 
transpontine theatre, that her proud lip 
curled aa readily as the hair of Moss Fanny 
Sqneers, that her eyes now glittered with a 
sinister light and now "flashed starljke," 
and that she held secret interviews with a 
dreadful old lady from France. She, the 
youthful Adeline, was tbe mother of Darrell 
Conyers. She, who was called the Swan- 
neck, was the mother of bim who was com- 
lared to William tbe Conqueror. Nor was 
ler Bon slow to make bis own confession, 
' I am not over scnipnlouB," said tbe lad of 
twelve. " Ruthless bands, shrewd brains, 
and callous hearts were those of tbe Lord 
Marchers to whom you trace my pedigree. 
But I feel death's icy fingers busy about my 
heart, and I will not die, aa T have lived, 
tbe very incarnation of a lie. I am not 
Darrell Conyers." And it seemed, in fact, 
that he had witnessed the death of the re.^l 
Darrell Conyera "and, bribing hia tutor to 
aecreoy, had assumed bia name. The book 
serves two useful purpoaes. To critics it is 
what the most unproductive land in cultiva- 
tion is to the economist. It shows tbem bow 
the growth of vicious tastos has compelled 
the pablisbera to liave recourse to the worst 
writers, and enables thom to construct a 
table of relative merits on the basis of this 
novel, as the one absolutely worthless pro- 
duction. And it removes from women tbe 
slur of having written tbe pestilently vnlgar 
aeries of stories which began with Lacli/ 
Flavia, and which would have been crowned 
with moat diatinguished honours by the 
conipilers of Pantagrncl's library. For the 
author has now come boldly forward, and 
mounting tbe pillory with firmness, has pro- 
claimed himself on tbe title-page to be Jobu 
Berwick Harwood. 

Walter Macleaiie. 



In the Studio. By Sebastian Evans. (Msc- 
milku & Co.) It must be at least ten yearn aince 
Mr. Evans published his earlier volume. Brother 
Fabian't Mmaitcript, and won for himself no 
small praise bb a writer of scholarly and thought- 
ful verse. It is to be feared that the gteaX pro- 
ductivenees of tbe last decade hea somewhat 
erased from tbe memory of most readers the 
pleasant qualities of that very well-written book ; 
the present volume will revive the fame of the 
first. In the Studio reveals no veiy striking- new 
features in Mr. Evans' poetry ; there is still the 
same learned fancy, thought fulness, and n^id 
poeticsl expression, combined with a certain want 
of rhythmic force. Of the ten original pieces in 
tha volume four are written in ierza rima, and, 
on the whole, these seem to us tha best. 
" Arnftud de Merveil " is a tale of a troubadour 
who won the love of Iseulte de Beuars, and was 
ejriled by King Alfonso of Oiiatile, who loved her 
himself. He comes to an abbey gate, and sing^ 
a mournful and musical romaunt. "Arthur's 
Knighting" and "Tha Eva of Morte Arthur" 
are two very mediaeval and un-Tannysonian 
studies from the grest saga now so universally 
popular. But by lar the best of the (ctm Whio 
poems, and the nneet thing in tha book, is " Dud- 
rasn io Paradiaa," a wonderfully vigorous and 
baautilid story of a poor hind, Dudman, who was 
villein to the I.ord Earl Fulke Fitrurae, and who, 
when the two died simultaneouslv, stole into 
hesTen under tbe shadow of the wing of 
Michael, who was courteously conducting tbe 
EarL Once in heaven, he is observed, and Peter 



JmT 3, 187)i.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



bias to turn hint out ; but Dudmftii, w&iing bol<^ 
Tvnunda him that if he be a poor villein thttt 
riaea with the cock, at laast he never denied his 
Lard ».t cock-crow. Then the three Einas of the 
East eune hj with St. Thomas, who tells Dud- 
mui to he i^ne, lueal I Baecsl Dudmsn may he, 
but not inMel ; he never doubted, he eaya, that 
the Lord could rise. Then Paul comee bj, with 
like intent. Dudman tella a etoiy of a certain 
Stephen who was stoned to death, and how one 
Mt Dy mocldog — 
''SfiDl 'WHS hii 



aint? 



Why trorablest thon, f 



TI17 name is Pnul, not Saul I Art thon the utme ? 
If SanI be Paul, then why not .Saint b« Faint, 

Tha £iir sauide that cloaks the inward shama ? " 
M the last Ohriet himself interfeNB, and bhjs that 
rank kiid wealth matter nothing ; Dudman trusted 
in his blood, and shall be saved. The poem is a 
most remarKable one, full of beautr, humour, and 
pointed satire. "The Tale of fi Trumpeter" Is 
mvstieal and forcible; "The King Orownless" 
hw the same mvsterioas medioevalism as the 
poems in terca rima. The last ^ages of the 
volume are occupied with translations of eleven 
of tha Latin poems at Jean Gharlier de Oersou, 
long repnted to bn the author of the Imitatioa of 
dritl. Thoae in Sfipphics sound queer and stifT, 
as, beyond doabt, the ori^nale must do. Others, 
ampler in form and thouffht, have a very 
^aain^ quaintnesa and a true flame of devotion. 
There is hardly one weak pajre in this very 
intereatii^ little volume, and it forms a valuable 
coDtribntioa to the literature of scholarly verse. 

Prfiiuiet. By A. 0. Thompson. Tllustrated by 
Efiiabeth Thompson. (H. S. Kinj- and Co.) 
^V'e shall not be surprised if this volume receives 
an enthueiastic welcome from some quartfTs, and 
yet there is not a single poem in it which can 
really confer on ita author the frift of immortalitv. 
Great amlntion, great interest in the technical side 
of the poetic art, a fair amount of genuine imagi- 
natire feeling, all these we discover in Miss A. C. 
Thompson's work, but hardly a trace of those 
qualities without which these are worthless, such 
as originality, rhythmic power, or imagirative 
iniigbt. She has read Mrs. Browning, Swin~ 
bnine, Shelley and Keats with ardour ; their style, 
broken into minute fragments, serves to form hers, 
in mosaic- 'The most depressing fact about these 
verses is their extreme vagueness, not so much of 
thong'ht as of language. For instance, here is a 
ftaius in which the authoreeB invokes the coming 
poet who is to out-do hei : — 

" O poet of the time Co be 

My eonqneror, I began for thee. 

Enter into thy poet^ pain, 

And taka the richas of the rain 

And make the perfect year for me." 
Tleae might pass for very pretty verses if one 
onlj beard them read, but they wUl not bear the 
least analysis, and yet the phrases are not more 
indistinct ordiajointed than the general average of 
tike book. Ws have read all thronvh very care- 
fully twice without being able to &id one poem 
suffioently good to be worth quoting. Msb 
Eliiabeth Thompeon's desigiH ere dieappoinUng. 

Arean ; or, lAa Ston/ of the Sivord. Bt Herbert 
Todd, M.A. (H. S. King & Co.). TKis is the 
■ort of CTic that Southey wanted to write when 
he was lil. It is supposed to be told by an 
ancient hard, who most have been the most con- 
firmed pnttter of bis generation. There are 
Dtarly fifteen thousand lines in it, and we have 
only looked at it, very timidly, here and there. 
Why do educsLted people allow a horrible nighU 
mare of this kind to burden years and years of 
their livesP To write a colossal epio ihat not 
one mortal will ever read seems the very saddest 
way of spending one's days. 

Eenuimgt, ^r. By Hobert Steggall. (Long- 
mans & Co.) We expected to find a new spaa- 



modist, bom out of his due time, in the author of 
this volume laid at " the supernal ahrine of the 
raptured muse divine " of Mr. F. J. Bailey ; but 
no, the poems are as mild and pretty as if 
"Feetus had never existed. They are wholly 
without individual eharactar. We wonder what 
living writer Mr. Steggall had been redding when 
he wrote " Livermead in triplets, and described 
therein how, lying in the grass, he heard the 
happy children shouting in the hay and digging 
themselves warm graves in it P 

Clare Peyeit Diary. An Old Mm^t SiUory. 
By A. Warner HulL (Smith, Elder & Co.) A 
stizriag tale in verse is not a poem. This is a 
novelette in the straightforward manner of the 
narrative parts of those stories of private life in 
the provinces that Mr. Coventry Patmore used 
to produce. It is decidedly interesting and 
pretty, but would be far more telling in good 
sober prose than in somewhat shambling verse 
of this kind — 

" My cousin called to eay good-bye, 

And hoped when next I iranted change, 
That I should be induced to try 

The Surrey air at Mocscomb Grange. 
I thankad him in my sreetest tono. 

Aud then ha hoped it would be soon ; 
I fancied, had we been alone, 

He almost -would bava tried to spoon." 

EUid and other Fotmi. By the Rev. S. Hallv, 
M.A. (Houlston & Sons.) This is a vol 
spectfullv dedicated to the owner of the estate 
on which it was written, and is quiti 
fashionable manner of the romance of T/ie Lady 
FlnbtUa. Here is a landscape which would have 
charmed Mrs. Wititterty — 
" And then ths angel laid her geatlj down 
Upon a bed of golden dafibdiis. 
Hard by a trickling rill of lulling tune, 
Pillowed her head on aromatic moss, 
Straired o'er her orange blooms and immortelles, 
And, ajtting by her. blessed her with his breath 
Of balmy fragrance." 
" So voluptuous, is it not ? So soft 1 " 

7^ 2few Minnainger. By Arran Leigh. 

(Longmans & Co.) These simple songs are full 
of tender feeling and healthy thought. They 
are not very deep or full, nor have they suffi- 
cient inherent vigorousneas to enable their author, 
in any probability, to win a name among £ng> 
Hah poets; but they are sweet and pure verses 
which it must have given bim great pleasure to 
write, and of which be has no need to be 
ashamed. Here is an example, chosen almost at 
random; — 

" Whatever haunting care of life 

About my spirit cleaves. 

If I but walk abroad nwbile 

Among the breathing leaves. 
It Boenta as it were left behiad 

Beneath the cottage eaves. 
1 do not axk fef singing birds, 

Or floods of golden light : 
Foe if I do but ope the door 

On a dull autnmn night. 
The ehining rain -drops on tha gtaas 
Will set my spirit righL" 
The writer's inspiration seems to come from 
Germany, and he gives ns graceful tranalationa 
from Ooethe, Schiller, Heine, and others. 

Tht Demon. A Poem Sy Miehad Ltrmonta^. 
Translated by Alexander O. Stephen. (Trubner 
& Co.) We know 10 little of Rusnan poetry 
here in England, that Mr. Stephen has conferred 
a boon on students of literature by prefixing to 
his translation a short biographical notice of the 
author. It seems that Lermontoff' was bom in 
1814, read Fouchhine, Lamartine, and Byion in- 
cessantiy, wrote the first outline of the work here 
presented to us when he waa fifteen, and died, 
aged twenty-six, in a duel. The Demon was 
published in 1838 ; it is extremely admired, we 



leam, in Rusua, but seems to an Englishman, at 
this time of day, much too melodramaticaUy 
Byronie to be very intereeting. 

Varielie* t'n Vmrte. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 
Under this modest title vre have a volume of 
calm, scholarly ^'erse steeped in a delicate melan- 
choly that has nothing morlud about it. To re- 
view a work of this kind is almost impossible : 
with all its negative excsUences there is eo 
complete a want of any positive beauty of origi- 
nality tir strength. The poems ne\-er excite, never 
surprise, never enrapture one ; it ia difScult to say 
why, and yet, perhaps, it is just simply because 
thev never pass into the vaguelv-defiued extreme 
linuts of r^ poetry. Best in tile volume we like 
" The Dead-Oart," a monologue spoken by a man 
who has lost all his relatives and friends in the 
Qreat Plague of 1694, and who now draws the 
dead-£art Irom dreary door to door. Tiiere is real 
pathos and dramatic insight in this cry da pro~ 

So I wander alone with a heavy heart, 

Since all must labour lo gain their bread : 
None other has courage to drive this cart, 

But nothing win kill mir. 

Briug out your dead 1 
Yet often, as over the grass-grown way 

I hear a footstep, I turn my hoFid ; 
'Tis some one, a neighbour, ho dare not stay, 

For am I not poison 7 

Bring out your dead ! " 

Poemt and Trantlattotu, By C H. Hoolo.* 
(O-'dbrd : Shri.mpton.) We would say almost the 
Biime of this as of t^e last volume, except that 
the prevailing tone of sadneaa in that gives place- 
in this to a somewhat shallow and formal culture,- 
of the Academic kind. The original poems r^d' 
like so many efforts after a prize, competitive 
effusions on a given tbeme ; the translations, from 
Ooethe, Tegni^r, Malherbe, Sophocles, Horace, 
and Virgil are equally perfunctory, and seem all 
the less graceful because taken Irom auch famous 
originals. 

The Angel of Love imd other Poetne. 'By 
Bichaid Sturgea. (Provost & Co.) Pious and 
gentle verses wholly innocent of poetry, and most 
tolerable where they aim least high ; becoming' 
utteriy intolerable when they deu with "the 
joyance of sapphire surprise and "euphonious 
waves of impassioned leap." 

Jrmer and Oater Life Poemi. By Alfred Norris, 
(H. 9. King & Co.) We have kept this to the 
last because, of all our batch nf books of verse, it 
is that which has most distinct lyrical life. Mr. 
Sebastian Evans is a far more accomplished and 
powerful writer than Mr. Norris, but he has no 
gift of song. The author now under review, on 
the contrary, writes best lyrically. Hie book 
cannot msKe any impression, simply because 
the element of self-criticism seems to be so want- ~ 
it^ in him that he has not known which of his 
poems were, and wliich were not worth pub- 
lishing. The book is printed in small type, and 
has more than 200 psgia ; if some one possessing 
critical discrimination could extract the very best 
things, and form a volume of about eighty pages 
of them, the author ought to raalce a mark. He 
addresses himself to the evangelical world, and 
hia most secular pieces are imbued with devo- 
tional feeling. He is most successful when this 
spirit is most subdued. To know bow very well 
he can write at his best, one ahould read "The 
Lost Ship," a moat spirited ballad, with scarcely 
a weak Bipreaaion in it, "A Heirloom" (nc.'), 
in spite of^ils dreadful title, ia a good poem ; so 
is " An Orchard Song." From another we quote 
two pleasant ataiuas. 

" The prachee redden on the wall. 
Hiding in hollow cells of green. 
Where pluted leaves hang ^iek abont, 
And searca parmit tbem to be SMnfT I (> 

' - -■ ^ledsshould'Mi'^ 

nilitT. '-' 



10 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JCLT 3, 1875. 



The pea«hea cedden on the vnll, 

Though night's dart curtain drips with Jew ; 
The white Btiira «how thaniBelves, and shino 

Through monlded cload and hoTering Uii«. 
And, oh ! lo feel, pa*t fniit and tree 
The Ijgble of H<nne shine forth for me." 

Edqok. 



NOTES Aim NBWS. 
Tkb tnuisfer of the EAo to t&z. AUnrt Gnnt 
baa been concluded this week, uid Hr. Arthur 
Arnold hu given np the editorial chair. It is not 
^nraollj known that after receiving' Baion Grant's 
offar, Mea«ra. CbmoII invited without auceeee the 
ncogniaed agents of tha Liherol par^ to nego- 
date for the purchase of the paper. 

Ubbbbs. Humt um BtACXBir will ahortly 
paMish an authoricad English translation of tiie 
MeeoUediom of Coionri de OotmmiUe, edited from 
the Franeh, hr Hiss Oharlotte M. Yonge, author 
f£ the Sdr ofJUddgffe, to. 

MwsBS. GxoBax Bell akd Botis wiU verj 
Aortly iasne tbe first Tolnme of Jfotet on Irith 
ArrAitecture. The materisla for this work were 
collected bj the late Earl of Dunraven, and will be 
aditod hj Miss U. McNair Stokee. This vohiine 
win contain mnn; fine photi^rraphic i11uetrati< 
ttf the ancient churches, toweis, and other obje 
of antiquarian interest in Ireland. 

Tha Hittory of Oritild the Second, a narrative 
in verse of the divorce of Queen Katharine of 
Arragon, written by "William Forrest, edited ftom 
die author's MS. in the Bodleian LibiHrv bj the 
Bay. W. D. Macray for the Roibuighe Club, has 
Ut the press and is nearly ready for publication. 

Tm Hebrew Literary Society in London will 
tmdertake the Enj^lieh translation of the Babhi 
Jacob Baphir'e diary in Yemen, MalaW, Ac, 
vrittan in Hebrew, with the title Mm S^ir. 

Hbssks. LoHSKAira annonnce as in the prees 
If r. Trevelyan'B Life and Lettert of Lord Macaulay ; 
Mr. Cox's' ScAooi Biitory of Orttce; and Dean 
Harivale's Qeneral Ifigiory of Some. They have 
in preparation The yew R^ormaiion, a Hatrative 
^the . . . Old Catholic Movement, by Theodorus; 
a tnoslation of Oefiebn's (AuriA and State ; and 
Captain Wyatt^ .fittfory o/ B-usm imJ tU JlfiWar^ 
Orgmuiation. 

FBorzBBOB ZvFITZA, of Vienna, the editor of 
ClitK of Warmdi, will be in Ei^lond at the bc^ia- 
Bii^ of August 

Tes second and laat part of the Arabic text 
of Ahal-Walid's Hebrew Lexicon, edited bj Mr. 
Heubaoer for the OUreodon Preae, will be oat 
WEt month. The Enslish tnuisktion will follow 
aa soon as H, Derenbourg's edition of Abul- 
Waltd's Omtada, which ie br advanced, hu 
laeen pnUishod. 

With the pennigsion of the Council of Univer- 
rity Oo11eg«, Mesne. Oeone BeU and Sons have had 
a aeries of photographs taken ikim the coUecKon of 
the Flaxman Drawing now in the gallery of the 
eollege. The dimensions of the photographs will 
1b one half of those of the original drawings, 
and the reproductions will be printed by the pei^ 
manent autotype process. The number of im- 
presBiont will De limited, copies being printed 
only for Bubscribers. Professor Sidney Oolvin has 
midert«ken to superintend the work, and to pre- 
pare letterpress descriptions of the more 
portant drawings. 

HiCBELKi'e book, L'Intecte, has been translated 
into Spanish by D. Marian Blanch, of BarceloAa. 

Thk third volume of Sto. Beuve'e Premier^^ 
Landia contains an index (chiefly of proper 
names) to the Cmueriet du LmuU, the Nouaemu: 
latndu, the JVeniMn XtMtdu, and the volumes of 
Portiute. 

MiisBits. RrvnrGTons have in the press, to be 
published in the autumn, a compendious edition 



of the Aimotntfd Book of Common IVayer, edited 
by the Rev. J. H. Dlmit, in one small volume: » 
new devotional work by the Dean of Norwich, 
entitled 7^ Chiid Sanatel; a work on the Rudi- 
ments of Theologr, by Canon Norris of Bristol, In- 
spector of Chiircn of England Truning Collegia ; 
and on T-n g t i n h edition of the Devout Life, by S. 
Franda de Sales, translated for their Engliafa 
Catholic Lil^ary, 

SrOBEHiB of contemporary polities will be glad 
to learn that the documents put in evidence in the 
Amim case before the Court of First Instance at 
Berlin, have been collected in a single volume and 
edited bv M. J. YaliVey, and published hj Messrs. 
Ph>n of 'Paris. 

Tto new novels — The Sittory of a Beart, by 
Lady Blake, and Fa^ Arlington, by Miss Anne 
B8ala—wiU be issued immediately by Messrs. 
Hunt and Blackett. 

A C0BEB8F0IIDEJJT writes :— 

"J think the rarity of tha little pamphUt Sundai/ 
u»dtr three Headt is graatlj oTer-EBtimated in vour 
note in the bat ntunber of the kcutsat, as I nave 
frequently seen copies of it, and never heard any doubt 
expressed as to the fact of Dickens's anthonhip. The 
little book will ba fomtd antered in the British 
Museum Gon^cal Catalogue undre the Dvne Sparks 
(Timothy), with that of Charie* Dickens added be- 
tween brackets." 



Wb learn from Dr. Haritsvy's summary report 
to the Mbister of Public Instruction at SL 
Petersburg that the MS. collection of the late M. 
Firkoviti in the Crimea consists of about 900 
cotuplete woib and 700 fVagments. Among these 
are (1) Rolls of the Pentateuch and BbUcal 
MSS. with unknown Mosoiahs, written in the 
nintii and tenth centuries: (3), grammars and 
dictionaries not to be foirad jB any other 
libroiy ; (3) biblical commentaries both in Hebrew 
and Arabic, some of them from Rabbis of the 
tenth century. Among them is R. Thanhum's 
commentary on Isaiah, an odd volume missing in 
the Bodleian Library, and for which Dr. Puaay 
was inalHTig enquiries for ysars through consuls 
and missionaries; (4) historical boohs of all 
Idnde, some relating to Russia; (G) controversies 
between Rabbanites and Karaites; (6) poetital 
works of unknown authors ; (7) theological, 
philosophical, medirol, and miscellaneous worics. 
This ci>]lection of Hebrew- Arabic literature will 
certainly rival that of the Bodleian Library, 
hitherto the first in this branoh of Jewish litera- 
ture. But the most irnportant items in this 
collection are the old biblical Iragmente, which 
win, no doubt, contain a great number of varia- 
tions. Let us hope that in case the Russian 
government will not purchase this collection, 
either the British Museum - or the Bodleian 
Libmry wiU make effiirts to secure it for this 
country. 

Pkofbbsos Vicwrra de Li Fuk?TE, in the 
Reaaia de la Uninermind de Madrid, sketches the 
history of the foundation of YoUadolid as a Uni- 
versity. It appeals to have been established with 
the character of " Eatudio genarol " in tiia middle 
of the thirleentigi century. 

De. Aidebto Bosch contributes a -Beries of 
stadies in Trivanomettj to the same journal for 
June. The object ia to indicate some reforms pro- 
posed for introdnctiou in that science. 

The whole of Swedenborg's MSS. ore to be 
reproduced in facamile by photo-lithography, in 

Sjrsuance of a resolution psssed by the General 
onvention of the New Church in America. 
Some of his writings have already been so treated, 
and copies so widely dispersed over the United 
States, that it is thought that nothing less than a 
flood sweeping the continent bare can place them 
in jeopardy of loss or destruction. 



Some interesting relics of Bishop Burnet have 
been sold by Messrs. Sotheby during the pre- 
sent week. 'In addition to three paintings in oil 
of the bishop, his second wife, and n ia so n, 
beside fire miniatures on ivory of the finmly, 
are three manuscripts in his handwriting. The 
first of these is a letter of two pages dated 
from the Hague, May 28, 1687: "Upon my 
second mairiage, whiwi I am now entering." 
The second is "A meditation upon my Toya^ 
for England, which I have wnt intending tt 
for my last words in esse tliia Expedition [of 
Williwn 111,] should proue either unsuecewfiJl in 
gener^ m &tall to myself in my own particular." 
The third is " A meditation on my consecratim, 
the n%ht before being Easter Kve, SO March, 
1689." Other cariomties are a gold wfttch, by 
Tompion, with the London Hall mark of 1686, 
beUeved to have been given to Burnet by Lord 
Wiliiam BuBsell when on tite scaffold, and an 
exqniaitaly flniahed miniatve on enamel by 
Zim^ <tf Queoi Mary IL in a blue dreee, ac- 
cording to tmditian a gift to the bialinp from the 
Queen herself. 



ful edition of a most tempting old French poem 
hj one of Chaucer's originals, Ouillaume de Mar- 
chault. The old poet and musician, canon of the 
church of Rheims, bad reached the age of fifty 
when he recraved a pretty poem from on unknown 
lady, who, vrit^out seeing him, had Mien 
in love wiui him. The gaJlant ecclesiaatic an- 
swered her, and a series of poems growing more 
and more tender and worm were ezchsjiged be- 
tween the enamoured couple. A meeting fol- 
lowed, warmer love succeeded, and the master, at 
the request of hia younj^ admirer, put into over 
9,000 verses all the detaUs — often most quaint— 
of the history of his relations with her. In it he 
put, too, the forty-sLx lettara—fiill of delightful 
naiveti, which he and his lady-love bad written 
to one another. This is the work. Voir dit \j 
name, which the veteran editor M. Paulio Pans 
has just produced for the Socidt^ des KUio- 
philea frai^oia. He has identified tlie lady, her 
dwelling-place and her fiunily, and solved ereoy 
difficulty that tiie text ofTered, How one envies 
those Frenchmen the varied mass of «ar]y litera- 
ture that their MSS. contain I There .is nothing 
like it in any other nation, rich aa Iceland is in 
itssatpA. 

A OOSBXBPOITDEIT of the Inquirer, Apropat of a 
review in that journal of Benkfi'a TyantpltaM^ 
RUsea the interesting question of the period at 
which the term " Umtonan " was intromiced into 
Christian theology. " The history of the English 
use of the term,'' lia obsarvee, 
"is accesnble anoi^ ; nor is thaie aa^ apparent 
reoeoD for doubting that in tha second half of the 
seventeenth century it came into England vid Am- 
BtMrdom. from that rranarkable religious movement in 
Eastern Barope of which our Church (Unitarian) in 
Tianaylvania is the surviving representative. But 
irtien, sod how, and with what mesniDs did the name 
' Unitarian ' make iU appearance in Found, Hmigaiy, 
01 Amsterdam ? " 

Referring to the fiut that the designation of the 
Unitarian churches in the le^al documents of 
Transylvania at the period 16S7-1563 was 
" Anti-Trinitarian," this correspondent adds that 
the dhect influence of Socinua on the Transylvaman 
and Polish churches, which began at the close of 
1S78, and lasted till his death m 1604, effectually 
stamped upon their theology the name " Socinian, 
and that he is inclined to suppose that the 
origination of the name " Unitarian " is due to a 
period posterior to that of Socinua and his 
coadjutors and imme^te successors. The term 
"Uaitarum," indeed, occurs in Benkii, but is 
applied to politics as in modem Italy, and leads no 
further than Uniiui. 

It has long been tlie su^ect of complaint that 
the National Litnvy of Faris is closed for the 



Jni.1 8, ie?5.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



11 



holidajH for a whole month in tha 
state of thingB, so prejudicial to the 
studpDta who fivqueat the reading rooniB of the 
estahHshmeot, is abont to be put nn end to, nnd 
the Bulletin da Loa announces that fiom 1876 
the National Library will remiun open during 



inclusive. 

The Kll relating to the Collejre of Surgoona 
which is now passing through Parliaoient con- 
tuna a clause proTiding- that nothing contained in 
the Bill sh^ deprive the College of the ri^ht, or 
relieve them from the obligation (if such right or 
obligation exist at present), to admit women to 
the ezaminations required for lettwi testimonial, 
or for a qualihcatiou to be registered under the 
Medical Act, 

Tkb object of the Oanad* Copyrifrht Bill, 
lately introduced into the HoMe of Lords by the 
Earl of Carnarvon, is to enable Her Majesty in 
Council to give her Resent to the Bill passed by 
the Canadian Legislature for regulating the law 
of copyright in the Dominion. The pMticular 
dif&cuJty which it is hoped to remedy is thia : 
Under a, Canadian Act, which has been in force 
for some time, foreigu reprints of the works of 
English authors introduoea into Canada aie sub- 
jected to an ofi jxUcrem intf of 13^ per oeiit. It 
was supposed that this duty wouM afibrd the 
authors a Ur rBmuneration, and so, no donbt, it 
would if it were not so easily evaded; but ei- 
pwience has proved that pirated editions of £n- 
glisb books constantly find their way into Canada 
irom tha United States without paring the dutv. 
To extend the operation of Enguah copyright to 
Canada, and to forbid the importation or sale 
there of any but the English copyright editions, 
would not meet tbe necessities of Uie case, be- 
cause the circumstances of the colony requiie the 
issue of cheaper editions than thoie which com- 
mand a ready sale in England. The Oanadian 
Legislature has, ths«£nre, propceed that the owner 
of an English copyright shall have the same rights 
in Canada as he has at home, on condition tliat 
the work (or which protection is aonght is re- 

?rinted, republished, and registered in the colony, 
'o these provisions Lord Carnarvon's Bill adds a 
further clause prohibiting the importation of such 
Canadian reprints of Erriish copyright works into 
this countrj". In introducing lie Bill, the Colo- 
nial Secretary stated that it dsalt with part only 
of a very dillicnlt subject, for the full mvwtiga- 
tion of which it b t£e iat«iition of the Qovem- 
meat to issue a Royal Commianon. 



A propo* of the immense price* lately obtained 
at book-sales in Paris, « vrriter in tha Ntue JVn'e 
iVuM upbraids German pubUshersand the German 
public with tha miserable results of similar 
auctions in German^-. He accuses the former of 
want of public spint in regard to the publication 
of the German classics, OMervins that they have 
apparently gone upon the principle that tbe works 
of Leasing, Herder, Goethe, Schiller, are too 
axcdleiK m themselves to require any outward 



" But," he adds, " it is useleai to preach to 0«mian 
booksellen, vhsn even Bneh a finn b> that of Cotta 
dooB not think it -worth wbiie to bind the by no 
means ineipNigiva books they pnbliah in such a 
maoDEF as not to fall aanndn' in the pracess of 

The reading public of Germany is not, it seems, 
free from blame in the matter: — 

" If," says oar authority, " the boob^ers do no- 
thing to induce thq public to buy, it most, on the 
other hatxl, be ackjiowle^gad that the public doea 
littU or nothing to ancoursge the antarprise of the 
booksslten. To posseu a libra^, a Bae and well- 
chosan library, is still cot among the poetulatM of 
Qormaa horns comfort. The lending libratiei are 
oufGinent for Oermsn iranta in this rwpact. ... No 
doubt, the Gtcmao hss a right to be proud of his 
literature, but pride is not sorred bv cousciouoiess 
aloke, and whan he odds thaieto a pedaling apirii, aod 



looks three times at a kieuUer bcfwe laying it out 
upon a bo«k, all this piide is nothing but an idle and 
hollow bubble." 

Fbasz Hebkakn von Hbbiiannrthal, the 
wellrknown AoBtriao poet, died on June 2d, at 
Vienna. He was bom in 1790, and in 1830 had 
alreadv achieved considerable distinction in tbe 
official career which he had embraced at an early 
age. His first poems then appeued, and a second 
collection was published in 1837. These earliest 
efforts received a friendly welcome in lit4irary 
circles, but produced no effect on the general 

Sublic. Tha same remark applies to his first 
ramatic attempt. The Deadly Feat}, which was 
produced in 1831. A second drama, however, 
Ziani and hii Bride, put upon the stage in 1847, 
was thoroughly successful at the Court Theatre in 
Vienna, and tbe port of Ziani was for a long while ' 
the particular hobby of tbe celebrated acter Liiwe. 
Ilermanusthal was a l^cal poet of the PUten 
school, and is almost without a rival in Austria in 
regard to the faultless purity of his diiction. 

Few young journalists, however clever, attain 
such worldly success as has befallen Ham Forsaell, 
. the Swedisn writer on politics and philosophy, 
who has just, in his thirty-second year, been called 
to toko a seat at the Council of SUte, as Minister 
of Finance. 

Tkb princ>|ial litwoiy outooiae of all tke wwv- 
ing of crowns, drinhing of healths, and making of 
speacbes at tjie stndenta' meeting at Uptala last 
month, of which the whole Northern presa has 
been full for weeks, seems to be two beantiful lyrical 
poems, one sent from Leipzig by Henrik Ibeen as 
a greeting from Norway, the other by Christian 
Riehardt as a Danish posy from his dreary paraon- 
age on the moors of Store Hedinge. Snedenand 
Finland, or, rather, Upnala, Lund, and Helsii^wB, 
were not quite so happy in their poetic gratula- 
tiona. 

Tor following Parbamentary papers have lately 
been published: — Gorreepondence respecring the 
recognition of Prince Alfonso as King of Spain 
(price 1^.) ; Papers relating to Shannon Naviga- 
tion Act (price 1». 6J.) ; Further Oorreapondence 
relating to the exercise of the Prerogative of 
Paidon in New South Wales (price IJrf.J 
Eighteenth Annual Report of the Trustees of tl . 
National Portrait Gallery (price Jrf.J ; Correspon- 
dence connected with the Marriage of the Qaekwai 
of Baroda (plaice 44.") ; Papers connected with the 
Deaths of Bhow Scindia and Govind Naik (price 
3<j.) ; Correspondence with respect te proposed 
Retbnns in the Administration of Baroda (price 
If. 2d.) ; Correspondence connected with the 
Daposilion of MiDlwr liao (price Id.') \ Seventh 
Report of the Deputy Keener of uie Public 
Records in Ireland (price 7<f) ; Copy of Corre- 
spondenee with the Board of Trade respecting Fog 
Sgnals (price 8(i.) ; Forty-first Report of the 
Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, 
for the year 1874 (price Srf,); Fifth Annual 
Report of the Deputy Master of tbs Mint, 1874 
(pnce 8(j.). 



vona aw tkitil. 
W£ learn from a long artide b tbe Journal de$ 
Sibatt of June 23 that at a recant stenoe of the 
Acad^mie des Sciences in Paris, a letter was Ttad 
and discussed which had been discovered some 
time since in the Torre do Tombo at Lisbon, pur- 
porting to prove the discovery of Australia by a 
Portuguese traveller, Godinho de Eredia, in 1601, 
five years before the first authenticated discovery 
bytheDutch. The letterwasinEredia's ownwrit- 
ing, and had been facsimiled for circnlAtion by the 
Portuguese government. It was Mr. Major who 
first on the aridenca of a MS. map in the British 
Museum made this man and his supposed dis- 
covery known to the world in 1801, and very 
much apparent confirmation there was of ita 
reality, but what was still wanting waa Eredia's 
own r^ort of the matter. At kngtL, in 1872, tha 



autograph rmort to Philip III, was discovered in 
tbe Bm^runifiBi) Library at Brussels, and, on ex- 
amining it, ill. Major himself was the first to 
detect and to expose in the pages of the Arc/uim- 
ioffia the hoUowneas of the pretended discovoiT. 
It is not to be wondered at, though it is te bo 
regretted, that this expoei had not met the eves of 
the diatingni^iad members of the Academy before 
the discustioD, as it would have prevented many 
mistakes. We cannot, however, give the writer 
in tha DthaU credit for tbe ignomnce which be 
affects of the name and atanung of the author 
from whom alone he could derive his in formation, 
and whose very words he tiansktea. It is weQ 
known aa a Uterary fact that we are indebted 
for all that we know on thia subject to the re- 
aaarchee of Hr. Major, the Honorary Beeretan of 
the Royal Geogruihical Society, and Keeper of tha 
Department of Mapa and Charts in the British. 
Huseom ; but to our sniprise the writer in tlis 
Debate, auppreasing the name of the aathor to 
whom he owes all hia materials, though refMTiBg 
to him tluee or four times, doee so only aa "« 
member of the Geographical Society, employed 
in the Britiah MuBeum." The sentonoe provM 
that be knew very well of whom be was wppwriiigi 
and point* to sometUag more than an iateutional 
discourtesy which can miy reflect disoradit ob 
the writer. Had he made himself more fiUly aiv 
quaiuted with the writiogs of an hiatoiian of 
whom he purposely speaks thus slightingly, he 
would have learned that Eredia, whose raoeotlj 
found lettw cleaches, as he faneiee, the &ct 
of his diseoveiT, was nothing better than a grosi 
impostor. 

Bt private adricee from Shanghai just recuved, 
we learn that Mr. C. F. R. Allen, the unfortunata 
Mr. Morgary's colleague in the interprstorial 
department of tbe Yunnan Expedition, reached 
that port on May 5, and that Colonel Browne waa 
expected to follow in about a fortnight On Haj 
4, Mr. Wade, C.B., Her Majesty s Minister at 
Peking, and Admiral Ryder, the new naval Com- 
mander-in-Chief on the China station, left Shan»- 
hai for Tchang on the Yang-taze, in the deapatdk 
boat Vigilant, accompanied by II.M.'s corvettA 
Modettt. Their object in going there is to hava 
an inten'iew with some French missionaries, who 
are said to have heard beforehand of the intontioB 
of the Chmeee to kill Margary. The miKionatiea 
reported what they had heard to the French 
consul at Hankow some time after Margaiy had 
left that port on his overland journey to Yilnnaii, 
and it was then, of course, too late to attempt to 
coumiunicate with him. 

Thb Grand Trunk Railroad, to connect HobOa 
with the great mineral regions of Alabama, ia now 
in a fair vray to be completed with the ud of 
British cental. The v^ole counti^ throtaA. 
which it ia dcetined to run abounds in valuaWa 
timber, in agricultural and mineral wealth. Frma, 
MoUle to &B BOulJi side of tbe Bigbee River (a 
portjon of the line already completed) it tiavenea 
a danselj wooded country ; the forests of yelltrw 
une are eituuive, averaging over sixty net in 
height and from twenty-four to thirty-four fset in 
thickness. Tbe mineral lands of this route bwin 
at Shrion, Alabama. Near Gentrerilte, 113 mSea 
from Jaelnon, on the Bigbee river, the coal cropa 
oat, and iron ore ia said literally to strew toe 

Saimd. At EWton the line crosses tbe Red 
aunlWB through a gap, and hem is the great 
depository of the famous red hematite and foaut 
iferous iron ores. The total length of tbe line, 
when completed from Mobile to Bimuof^iam, 
Alabama, will be 332 milae. 

Wit have received 7%« Fammt in Aiia Minor! 
itt Ifiltory. Compiled from the Levemt HeraU, 
With a Preface by tbe Editor. (Constantiqople. 
London : Straet) It is not often thnt a counlzy 
is vimted with a calamity so terrible aa Um 
famine which has been devsKteting Asia Minis 
for the last year and a half; for it is not ofUo 
' hat a Government can be found with such a 



12 



THE ACADEMY. 



[July 3. 1875. 



r'uB for admiiuBtnitian us Mems t 
that of Turkej, if -we mey judge bj the 
&ets of tha famine and tlie meaauiei taken 
Vy the Forte — sfgrsvatias a acaatj harreat hy 
Mivy, though Dominally light, taxatioD, cansiiig 
another acantj harTeat' for want of grun to 
iow, vhen the taxation had taken moat of it, 
and tha r«t waa conBDmed bv the ataTving 
population ; virtuallj interdicting tlie importa- 
tion of grain bj making it impoanble for the im- 
portar to ^t the smaUaBt profit by it, and Buf- 
fering the internal communications of the country 
to be in auch a condiiian that for naarlj half tlie 
year it is impoaeible to bring aid to many of the 
luuiahed viUagea. 

The crope of 1873 in Anatolia were a failura. 
The taxes were levied aa usual. Little remainad lA 
tow ; that little went to atare off atairation.* 
Money to send abroad for food there waa 
none ; and if there had been, there were no 
means of conveying the food to the villages. The 
winter broke up at last, and the spring found the 
country helpless. The local govemors would 
aeem to have left the Porte in ignorance of the 
calamity that had fallen upon the nation, for it 
took no steps towards meeting the diebresa; 
though this might posaiblj be expUned by tbe all- 
abeorbing importance of ^e loan tvhich waa just 
then being negotiated. The harveet of 1874 was 
onl^ a t«nth of that of ordinary yeaia. The popu- 
lation was paralysed, and labour came to an end. 
Tha Goremment alill ramaioed inactive, but the 
individual efforts of Mr. B. L. Thomaon and oUiers, 
whose servicea it is impossible to orer-eatimate, 
brought European aid to the rescue of the dis- 
tricts afflicted by the famine. Such aid, invalu- 
able as it was, waa but a drop in the ocean. No 
aooner was the meagre harvest of 1874 gathered, 
than the tax-gatherers set about their work and 
wrested the food from the mouths of the starving 
people. At last the uigeot counsels of Abdurrah- 
man Paaha, the Governor of Angora, who alone 
seems to have been conscious of the great respon- 
sibilities of the Government in the matiar, were 
listened to by the Porte, coupled as they were with 
the tender of the governor's resignation if they 
were not attended to; and at the eleventh hour the 
Goremment bepian lo take measures for the relief 
ofthe distressed provinces. The measures taken were 
alow, and it is inipnsaible as yet to congratulate the 
Porto on its success in meeting the difficulty. The 
aequel may redound more to the credit of tha 
TurHah Government than the peat has done; 
though it must in justice be said that, foolish as 
has Dean the conduct of the Potte in this matter, 
the root of the evil was laid by adminiatiations 
long previous to tha present. The relations of the 
Government of Constantinople with the provinces 
haveever been iu tie highest degree unsatisfactory. 
It is to be hoped that the famine will induce ^e 
present Government to look into those relations 
and do something towards improving them, 

Tha statistica contuned in the work before ua 
are calculated to cast some light on the real state 
of thingB in Asia Minor, A comparison between 
the stat« of the couotty in 1873 and 1876, taken 
from an average of forty-three villages in Angora, 
reveals the facts that (1) the population is now 
little more than half what it was in 1878; (2) 
the purs of oxen are in nnmber one-fifth of what 
they were in 1873 ; (3) the sheep one twentv- 
fil'tn. If statistics like these call attention to the 
provincial administration of the Porte, Mr. 
V'hitakar's pamphlet will nothave been published 

Thb German Emperor has received, through 
Dr. Nachtigal, an Arabic letter fkim the Sultan of 
Bomu, in which the African ruler thanka " the 
moat Mighty Lord of Fruasia and Supreme Chief 
over Northern Germany" for the costly gifts 
which he bad sent him by bis messenger and 
servant, Edria Eflendi (Dr. Nachtigal). The latter, 
which had been drawn up by the Sultan's chief 
secretary, Mohammad el Gomami, is datAd on the 
Thursday ofthe first "dul-hagge,"orweek, of tha 



mtmth of inlgriniaoe of ilu year of God 1289, 
correaponding to ^b date of January 20, 1872. 
It bears a la^ seal, attached to the beginning of 
the document, on which is inscribed a pious in- 
vocation for the proeperous rule of the Lord's 
servant, Sultan, or tatiier Sheik, Umar itm Mo- 
hammed el Amin el Kanemi, who began hisi^gn 
in tha year of the Hegira 1263. 

Fropebsob H. Voqel has retuniad to Berlin 
after sueceeafiilly accomplishing his voyage to the 
Nicobar Islands, and it is understood that be has 
brought a large mass of materials with him, from 
which it is hoped that be will draw up a com- 
prehensive report of his interesting expedition. 



K TSB HATTON PAPBm, 

Ths following extracts and letters are taken ttom 
the Letters of Sir Charlea Lyttelton to Lord 
Hatton, 1667-1709, which form part of the Ilatton 
Papers in tha British Museum. 

" AagDit 1«, leM. 
" Tha a&ires at court ara I belsevs much aa thej 
were vhen yon left them. Tha K' ia in toy opinion 
In much better health then he seemed whra Ifiistaaw 
him. He has had a cough »•* much iroublad bim 
and for w*^ I tLinke he ;st la advised to take Asbsb 
milk, bnt'ha hunta frequently &nd rideg hard cluuea, 
v*^ ahewea him aCroag and vigorous ; but not long 
siuee it was much feared he irua in a eonauiuptioa. I 
doe not obaervs he comes at all to y* ChaDcalloni now, 
nor that there are so mnnj clients at hia doores 
liesidae ; yet undoubtedly he atill retainea tho primier 
mioiatres place and haa the greatest Maosge of affiiires 
in hia hanoa ; & I cannot tell well how it should bee 
otliBTwise, for they that seeme to livall him io it. are 
in my opinion too much the compnniooa of bis pleasure 
to ba at leiaure lo drudgo in y' raallarB of rtate. Tlie 
K', Queene, Duke &c. dine though to day w" the 
Chancellor at Twittnam, & I bBleera will bo as 

florionsly treated aa the plnce can admitt, for 
saw a vast deale of the richeat plate that ever I 
saw pot up U> be sent thither for this end." 

■* lAndgnatd, Aug. 31, 1G71. 
"Ther has gone 2 yacha to the Duch fleet, neither 
of w* prevaile with um to atrike. , The flnt thit went 
was Cnpt. Crow in the Monmouth, and he ie sow in 
y Tower about it. Hia atory is thia, that being com- 
manded to fetch my Lady Temple from Holland he 
passd by the Duch Seete upon hia retume, when y' 
Admimll BHluted him w'^ 4 gunna, w'*" he answered 
with 3. then ahot another at him, vf^ made the 
Admirall presently send his L* aboard him to know 
tlie resaoD. Cri<w told him, but presentlj shot another 
ahot ; whereupon ile Kuiter or y* Admirall preeently 
cnma aboard him himself to aske y Tenrao, W' ha told 
him waa to strike to y SUndard. The Duch Ad. 
replyed he bad no luck com*, aor would ho without 
0D«, & that it must be ai^ed before hia mastera at 
y H^UB and Kt Whitehall, & aoe persuitded Capt. 
Crow that bo had done hia duty & to leave him. It 
aeemes that Crow bad orders not to leave shooting 
till he had shot down his flag, or j' y* Duch had fired 
upon bim agaiue it either done dammage to y' yach 
or Eome of y* company, and then y* Duch hsd broke 
y Articlae of peace," 

"8^7, lfl71[t] 

" Sir Harry North abot himself with a pistoll & 
left a paper in Latin to josljfie himself ahoat it.' 
"Feb. Jl, l«71[il 

"TheBp. ofBath.D'ChsrletoD.kepthiiconsectHtion 
feuct at the Cock; for vr^ reason none of y* Bpa. 
would goe to it." 

"Uinlin,ie7i. 

"I doubt not yB* has alreadio told yon of ye deela^ 
ration for liberty of conscience and since another for 
warre upon the Uaitsi PnmDces, & of S' Bobert 
Holmea hia falling on j* Dnch Smiroa Heeta lon- 
aisting of about 80 merchant men & S or 7 men of 
warr. When he began the fight he had but i sbipa 
with bim, but the nait morning (I tbiake) hia B> Jack 
Holmea came in with 3 or 4 more. My Lord of 
OtKirj^ in y* BeaolutioQ began the fight Holmes 
his ahipp and my Lords were disabled oy the ahotts 
in theyr masts and rigging very soone and ware foine 

" S' Bobert wiDt into y* Cambridge commanded 
S'FTSlawill HoUiStaad ibnghtinhar. Heeomplunaa 



of 8' Fretawill and Capt, Elliot that they did not do- 
theyr parts, ela that they had taken them all ; ihey 
of him (bat be wanted conduct and nsad them ill i» 
excuse it. Both prease for a councal of warr w' I 
beleevB will not be granted, but w" fiiults were 
will be rather concealed. Another thing they impute 
to Holmes is that whan ha waa in search after y" 
Doch, ha made Spraga fieete, w** ao aoone aa hi' 
knew to be so altered hia course and would not spi^rike 
with him, though he were intreated to it by Qcionre 
Leg who waa in y* Fnirfai. The reason they say w.s 
bemuse he emulated him, Sc that ha must have fougkt 
uoder hia flag, & being too conAdeut of aucceKiP 
«>kout him would cot let him a bare with him iny' 
victory. Tbey look a rich Smirna man Sc 3 otliem. 

We lost a pritty miiiy men in tliia action 

Sc all the ahipa were notably torDe." 

" ludfiurd Fort, JItj IS, UT!. 
"The Duch Fleet lye now btfbre us, & both for 
number & quallity look very terribly. I had y* for- 
tune to cave by a scout, W I sent out to apye after 
them, 7 of our Frigota & 3 otJier greats shipa w*' lay 
in y' Qunflaet ; who whan ho told were coming apoo 
them, would hardly boleove but thoj were our own 
Fleets, and had scarce time to weigh & begone again 
into y river before they were in j" Qnnfleot too, & y 
next morning they sent above 40 saile of their b^t 
ahips after them, w* puraned them as fat as y buoy 
of y Hora, bnt I thinke did as no hurt. This after- 
noooe they are come back a^in. for wee see them, to 
the rest of dieic Fleet, W' I beleeve are about 100 
grente & amalL 

'* [P.S.] The l>neh pursued them however y* next 
moiniug to Sheereuaase." 

" I«idgiiiiril, June H, 1671. 
" My Lord Sandwich'a body was found last Tuea- 
day at aea at loaat 40 mitea from y place of battle, 
floating npon y* water, sod was known by y' Qoorge 
& atarr on him ; though when ha first came in it Was 
eaaip enough to know him. He had in hia pocket 
three ringea, oneawhiteBiiphirew"bia crest & garter. 
& the moat glorious blew sapbir that aver I saw in 
my life. The other wasan antique seale. .He had a p' of 
eumpassea and acompaasetoo. Sosooue as Iheeredofic 
I went & brought the body hither w*' lay in a small 
bo.ite aa it was toued by y* smack W' found him. I 
prBBBDtly writt to my Lwd Arlington of it, & gave 
order to my BUrgeon Mr. Thatlism who is hoera w'^ 
mee to prepare for j* embnlraing it, W' ho has done ; 
and since, I had a letter from my Lord Arling- 
ton who commanded mcc by order from hia Ma"' lo 
embalm him & to keepe the body w"* all possilJe 
honour & decency till it be sent far away, & gave the 
man that fo>ind it & who wont w'* the news himself 
6U peeces ; hia Mniesty being resolved to bury Uim at 
his own charge & cipence for hia groate & eminpot 
services, eBpecially this Inst nt his daith, where in hee 
certainly rnide for aome bowers as brave & geoerotis 
n defence before the ship waa burnt ; w** was not till 
after he had put of two fire slnpf^ by tho 3d. His lonne 
allso pprisbed w" him. Ho waa aeone by some tliiit 
escaped one of y' Inst in y' ship, hut it eecmts nt last 
loHpt over boani, for his IjoOy <.oeraed not to be 
touched w" tho fire Or powdor, v''' it could not harr 
escaped if he had bine in y ship, or veiy nesm it. I 
should think. It waa a strange misfortnne that all 
the small vessella ti tendera upon hia ship were, nt 
that time tJie Duch came npon us, from y Fleet ; nor 
had he any of hia boataa but his barge, w*' ao many 
of the men leapt into aa they say ahe sunk by the 
ship aide. He lyes now iu my Chappell in his coBiii 
w" black bays over it &aomubhickbaya& scutchecHis 
round the Chappell, w*' is all the ceremony tiia place 
will afford till further directions. But there ia nothing 
stranger to mee then y* in all thia time not one of bis 
relations nor servants are yet come hither to waite on 
him or enquire. I writt to my Lord his aoone too 
y aame niglit. 

" Wee talk of nothing but peace with v* Duch, & 
to aay truth I beleeve are aa fraid of y ftench con* 
quering them as they thcmaelraa. 

" When I waa Inst week in y Fleet with y Duke 
I heard a fearful! murmuro of y* French, that they 
did not behave themselvea well in y battle, fe though 
for that they have a fiure pretence, becanae beinc to 
Leeward they could not come more into y Fight then 
Iheyr enemy would let them, yet y same ^cuae nor 
indeed any will acarca serve turna for y next day, 
wben being to windward, ft y* y Duke gave y* 
aignall to tham to heaia in, they would not under- 



JciT 3, 18?5.] 



THE ACADEMr. 



13 



"Nowi 



" Then is one of tba finest poem* oume ont of 
Absolon St Acliitophel tiuti eier jou read, wherein 
there ii A groate many Chejacten of bU y* greate 
men of bolii adm. Praj aend for it. 'Tie Dreydona 
thej nj & no doubt npon j' presoiDption some body 
will lull Qpon him.' 

"JolryMtiVICSg. LiHidoii. 

" YestenlHy Mom : my L' Eemi cut hit ovn 
throats in y Tower w"' a Gazar, w' he oaked of hie 
mnn that waited on him, baring never a panknifs to 
give him. He hod aaked for a penkaife every day siace 
became thither. Be did it in y-cloeae stoole roome 
while hie man waa gone down ; bnt hia page waa in 
J' rooma. He eats hia hreake&at welt & was not 
perceir'd to be in soy diatnrbance of mind ; but y* 
auy before he had aant to desire my L' Clureniion 
niight apeake w'^ him, w^ he did, It ha made 
prottegtations thai he knew nothing of any design to 
murder the King, but ho sayd nothing to vindicate 
bim aelf ttom being in other deaignea upon the 
gOTemm'. Tlie King happenad to be in y* Toner at 
J' aame time this happened, to view y" new Fortifica- 
tiona. The news was preaently earried to the Old 
Bayly, where voa upon thayre trialla my L* Rnsaell, 
Hone, Bowaa, & Capt. BLegge, A Seaman, who were 
all found gnilty. & who none of them made but very 
weake itefaneea. Mj Jjoid hod nothing but to coll 
some paiBoas to gira an account of w*' tbey knew of 
his life to make him unlikely to bea in such wicked 
dcaignee ha stood charged w"*. Tbe witnesses og** 
him were my Lord Howard, Bumsej, & Sheppheard 
8 Merchaut at whose house there waa some of theyre 
consults & who was to b( ' 
pay nil mony," 






" YartordH^ aa y* King was dreaeiog he was aeiied 
w"" a conrulaion Ht, and gave a greata Scream & fell 
into hia Chaire. L' King happening to be present 
w"" greate jndgement & courage, tho' he be not his 
sworn phicitian, w<Vint other adTiag, imediately let 
bim blood himaelf. He had 2 Urrible fits, & con- 
tinued very ill all day & till 1 or 2 a clock at nigbt. 
He hod aavsrall hot pane applied Id fais head, n'^ 
strong Bpirrits. Ha had the Atitimoniall cup, w*' had 
no greats effl^t ; but they gave him atroog purges & 
glister* w"* worked very well, &, tiey cuppd him & 
pat on scTaiall blistering pUsteis of Caothaiidea. It 
tookc him about S a cloDk Sc it was eleven before be 
came to htmaelf. He waa not dead, for lie expressed 
grejit aensa by his groanas all y* time. At 
midnight there was little hopes, but aflcr he 
fell n sleepe. & rested well 3 or 4 howen, & f^' Cba. 
Scarboro told uiee he thiakes him in a hopeful! way 
to doe well. His plaatera were taken of this morning 
& the blistars run vary weU ; only one is yet on bis 
leg w* i« Tery painfull. He found him self ill wben 
be roae, &, those abont him perceived it (but ho s* 
nothing) by bia talking & answering not aa he need 
to doe, & he went into his closset in his gown & alayd 
half an bower alone, & Thom Howard deaired Will 
Cbiffiua to gee to bim, but ho would not let him come 
ID ; and as aooae as he came out, the convulsion sized 
bim & he fell into hia chaire. The phizitians con- 
clods the aorn on hia heats waa y' gowte, & the 
applying plaatets to i( repelled y" humor to his head. 

" Tuesday, 7 at uight. The King's head is not yet 
opsued, that ia y plaalars of Canthoridea to raise 
bliatecs not yet taken of. Hia month & tongue & 
throata are veiy much inflamed w'<> y* hoi medicinea, 
& is y* cause he has bine twice lot blood nnce noons ; 
but y* 2d time whs because y* 1st was unsuoecisfull 
& he bled not above 2 onnces, w'* was by Pierce ; y 
2d time by Hol>^ & then he bled ounces. The 
phiiitiana were w" y' Coundll thia aftemoono & told 
them they beleeved hia Haieity in a condition of 
wifety. My L* Arlington died A aunday. S' Thomas 
VoTOon is dead too of y* Ks* distemper. The port* 
ans all atopt, & expresses ^ne to Scotland & Ireland, 
as to all the I>enancea id England. All ia vei; 
quiet heere w** Qod grant may continue & y* King 

"Jons e, 1S88. 

"The B" have bine before y* E> in Councill, & 

are committed to y> Tower because they would not 

enter into a Racogniaance each of 6001 to appeaie in 

rTenn, upon pretence it w^ injure thejr Pecreaga. 
bean they were prast mocb in it & aeverall 
instance* Of y* Temporall Feens who had done it, as 



y Duke of Buck, 1/ Lovelaqs & others. As they 
past through the courts to y* water aide from y* 
Councill (there being a grrate crowd both w^in & 
w'Stut doorea) the people praid for y', & J' AB* bald 
ont bia hand and aud, be dutyMl to y* K', bold bat 
to y' religioD, Ic Qod blesaa yon." 



' The Dnch pasad by n"' theyr Fleet tbniugb Dover 
roade westwatd oa Fndsy even, & tie anppueed went 
to Portamoutb, of w^ youl heare as soone aa we. My 
1/ Dartrmontb] as soone ns be c* get up his Anchors, 
w*' I believe was not till Sunday, plyd alter y*. Yester- 
df^ was so dead a calm he c* make no way, ao is to 
day jc so tblck a fog w" all ha cant stirr. One of 
theyr Fly boates w" 200 of y K" aubieets & all 
theyr officars fell into one of y* K" Frigota way, 
having lost bee Rudder io y' storm, and are all 
prisoners. All the Forci-s in this country arennrchd 
awny eicBpt that part of Hales Bf^im' w*' are heere, 
being 20D,Jc 100 more at Lxod Guard Fort, and thoee 
ore marchd to Rochester. I can't tell bow to advise 
cnyseir, if I sh'' preesa to be sent fur away to march 
afier my Kegim', Loath I am to be out of the ocasion 
where the lOng, my friends, & my all are at stake ; 
bub this place ia a poet of greUe concern ft in my 
trust, Ic if any thing sh' &11 out contrary to expei^- 
ti«n nuty be iiiwaced (o m«. I bkve really noe vanity, 
but w" doe w" I think may be most uaefuU." 



PABTB LBmsH. 



Ths oewB thftt M. Mimiet hu published hia 
Hittoin de la JtiiialiU de Francoii 1' etda OutrUt 
Quint (Didier), will be welcome to all loven of 
historical studies. The gr«&ter port of it has 
alteadf appeared in suparate articles, in the Bevue 
dn Thux Monda : it has now been revised and 
enriched with notes and copies of tbe origioal 
documents. While attaching greet importance to 
literary qualities, M. Mignet, more perhaps than 
all other French historiana of the first hall of tbie 
century, distiDguiahee hinieelf aa a aevere and im- 
partial critic. Michelet, Thiers, Ouizot, Thierry 
even, were all influenced in their historical judg- 
ments by their political and philosophicaJ predi- 
lections. M. Mignet seems h> nava confined him- 
self Etfictl; to the search for objective truth, 
entirely for its own sake. The serenity, the 
loftiness of bis views and the firmness of judg- 
ment, which we admire in all that he writes, dia- 
tinguisb h'"* among his rivals, whose works, 
though tbey exceed bis in brilliancy, have less 
Boliditj. This is likely to be M. &lignet'e last 
important work. Ha ia tbe contemporarj and 
was the Mend of the late M, de lUmueat ; and a 
worthy representative of the brilliant generation 
of 1830. Out young biHtoiical school, if wa 
except M. Fustel de Coulanges, who b^ngs to 
the school of Uonteequieu. and Da Tocqueville, 
has no brilliant writers or powerful geneialiscrs 
to boast of. By its patient labours of detail, 
however, and its unpretending and trustworthy 
investigations, it ia collectin;; sterling material 
for the use of the more comprehensive and power- 
ful rainde that may conae Mter. Thus new light 
will be thrown on the hiatory of the fourteenth 
centuiT by an important work of M. S. Luce, 
remarkable alike for tbe copiousness and accuracy 
of ita BcholMship. ' For many years M. S. Luce 
has been engaged on a critical edition of Froisaart 
for the Historical Societv of France, five volumea 
of which are already published. lie has official 
work at the Archives, and has aet himself at tbe 
same time to study the fonrteenth centnry in ell 
its different aspects, in the rolls and documents of 
the Archives, as wall aa in the Ohroniclea. He 
will shortly begin the publication of a laige work 
in several volumes, on Franca in tbe time of 
Bertmnd Duguesclin. It will be a complete hia- 
tory of France from the battle of Poitiers to tbe 
time of Charles YI., and readers will be surprised 
to see how many mistakes M. Luce has dispelled, 
and bow many new facts be has diacoveied. The 
Archives, the Fcole des Ohartea, and the Ecole 
dea Hautes Etudes are the centre of our best fbrcei 
at present, but our young suthon are br more 



active in the domain of erudition than in that 
of generalisation. Some of them will probably 
write handbooks for the propagation of the 
results of tbe latest discoveries, nke M. Maspero's 
interesting Biitoira Aneiemu (^achette), just 
published, and H. Bergaigne'a Hutoire de FJnde, 
which is not yet ready. But the majority con- 
fine themBBlves either to elucidatiag some one 
particular point or to editing doeummiB. 

Even Buch a man as M. Gaston Paris, whose 
mind embraces a wide lange, and who haa the 
power and originality to enable him to write 
comprehenaive works, prefers to devote him- 
self to fathoming and expounding some new 
and imperfectly known aide of hie science. The 
strength and tnefertilityof his intellect are shown, 
not iu vast creations, but in the many-eided and 
varied character of his activity. He is the 
originator and one of tbe moat energetic promoters 
of the Early French Text Society, a society which 
already numbers 8^ subscribers, and he ia pre- 
paring for it aa edition of the son^ of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. Be directs and edits 
Sotrumia together vrith Jt. Paul Ueyer : he directs 
tbe Jtemie CV^'^, lecturee at the College 
de France and at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes, and in addition to his numerous 
studiee and publications on the Romance lan- 
guages baa^uat undertaken a series of researches 
on tbe oripn of populoi tales which promises to 
be productive of novel and interesting leaulta. He 
ia seeking to trace them back to the ancient East, 
through all the popular literotures and traditions. 
His study on Le Petit Poueet (Franck), ^hom ha 
discovers to be the smallest star of the con- 
stellation of the Great Bear, is an exquisite spe- 
cimen of the style of his work, n combines 
profound learning with tbe soundest and most in- 
genious ideas, and the literary form in which he 
clothes his subject is charming. We are expecting 

Xdant to Le Petit Poucet, in the shape of Ze 
aire nir le Gmle de Rianiimtiit, which was 
read before the Academy of Inscriptions. M. Paris 
has given us some more general views on the sub- 
ject in a pamphlet entitled Let Ooniet Orientmix 
dan* la LittiratHre Franeaite da Mouen-dtre 

Soma of thia new generation of acholsra ore ' 
trying to attack the dilBcult history of Insti- 
tutions, a history which in France has (^nerolly 
been treated from a brilliant and Buperficud point 
of view. M, Boularic, who ia professor of the 
Historv of the Institutions of tbe Middle Ages at 
the &x>\e des Chartca, has begun a work 
on Feudalism ; M. Tardif, the head of a depart- 
ment at the Archives, a conscientious and modest 
scholar who is a diatinguished orient&liat as well 
as a consummate mediaevalist, and who, more- 
over, makes I'ehlvi his pastime, is going to 
bring out tbe first volume of an Hittoir* da In- 
itituliani Mirovingiemiu. tS. Viollet, another 
(irchivist, who is well-versed in the Civil end 
Canon Law of tba Middle Ages, is preparimf a 
big book on Let Rapportt de FEglite H de FMat 
en France, and has undertaken a work on £ei 
Etailittementt de St. Louit which will upset all 
the received ideas on the subject 

The students of the Ecole Normale remained 
for a longer time faithful to the habits of literary 
generalisation, but now they also are beginning 
to take to erudition. ALI^viaaa'abookiiioMarcAr 
de Srandebotirff mu* la Dynattie A»cimi«nne, 
which I have already announced, may be looked 
upon aa a proof. It is a conscientious and solid 
work, based on diligent research, and the author 
has been careful not to overstep by conelueioDB 
the limits strictly prescribed by the subject. It 
waa his "thSse de Doctorat." These nniverKty 
essays have been numerous and brilliant of late. 
Among others M. Lallier'a on La Femme chat let 
Athhvtmt (Thorin) and M. Mamet's Ptftident de 
Brottei deserve mention, also H. Joret's on Herder 
(Franck), which earned the unanimous approval of 
the ptofeosors of tiie Sorbonne, who were the 
judges. 



14 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JutT 8, 1875. 



But all that 'we have just said must not lead to 
a belief that all trace* of the spirit and eutbueisHii 
of the begirniiug of the preeent century hare dis- 
appeared. Here are M. Sahui^'a two volomes on 
it Drome Muti'oal (Snndoz et Fiechbacher) to 
prove the raveree. In them the Teadei will find 
the wumth of heart, the buOTKUCT, the inspired 
animation of a coul^mporarj aod icdlow-eountry- 
man of Schiller, toffet]i«; -with the nerroua pK- 
tiueeque atjle of a Frenchiiiaa of the preeent day. 
Z think the book is deetiued to make a neat stir ; 
it is the result of aeriouH study, and bearB not 
only the stamp of stronfi convictions but of a 
very ori^nal and powerful comprehension of 
things. The Greek drama, Shakspere, and the 
history of music are analysed and judged nith real 
eloquence. As for Wagner, to whom ths whole 
second volume is consecrated, if anything' con 
make him -understood and empreciated, thia book 
of M. Schur^'fi will. Though he is an Alsaciau, 
and as such pniteeted against annexation in a 
vigorons pamphlet, he has had the courage to 
make himself the champiou of Uie groat (Herman 
diamaturgist in France, and his courage 'will be 
rewarded. His work is that of a tinker and 
a writer, and his spirited and fervid style is 
auagululy ideesant after the tame f rqr*"* ^^nrltt^" 
of ^e preseol da^. 

Though a diaaple of Wagner, M. Scburd doee 
Bot share his master's blind admiration for 
Schopenhauer, the Buddhist philosopher of modem 
Oerman^, the priest of Nirvana. U. Schurd wants 
a doctrine of life and action. But among those 
who seek new paths for art to tread, there are 
■ome who are led away by the intoxicating 
charms of this doctrine of a despairing idealism. 
Already Hdme. Ackermaun has embodied some 
of Schopeohauer's most startling ideas in some of 
her Paiaes P/utotophi^ua. And here is a volume 
entitled L'lUution from the pen of U. Oazalis (Le- 
marts), a young poet who draws his whole inapi- 
ntdon from this ii«tw Buddhism. His poetry is 
Ter^ pore in form, and has boUt power and origi- 
nality (see the piece on Vievamitra, the old sage, 
who, when just on the point of amtihilatiug the 
gods br a word, sees a woman weeping for her 
dead child and is silent) ; but it produces a languid 
exhausting effect on Uie mind like a drowsy and 
monotonous perfuine. I am inclined to prefer M. 
Bourget, another young poet who is just as de- 
q)ainng,but more pasuonate, and there is amore- 
tnent and a variety in his Via InmiiHt (Lemerre) 
which make it verv seductive and charming. As 
for the despur of Al. Silvestre, who has just pab- 
Uehed his Foina Complitei (Cbar^tier), it does 
not move me in the very least. It is too evidently 
nothing but a muucal and literarr deepair. His 
verse is fine-sounding and admiraole as to form. 
It is unfortunate that the vessels which have the 
beet ring are often the most em^. You see that 
neither poetiy nor erudition is at a standstill. 
There is a wide gap, certunly, ^between the great 
poets of 1830 and these their succeseoTs; but the 
thinty traveller in the desert is thankful for the 
drop of water he finds in the hollow of a leaf. In 
some measure that is what we ore now reduced to. 
This scanty foliage and these few drops of vratei 
are, we hope, an earnest of a fntuie oaus. 

G. MoNOS. 



Qtnavl IMeratuTt aad Art. 

Dtlk^ tbt lU* O. W. Tb» Fwjmt of ■ Ciitlo. Hvmj. 




lUngltCo. 
CnBSiiOTJtT. Recent DIkovetIis Id : n aeoaiid uppl 

WAtts's "ricUoDujCpCChemlitTy." Longnutiu. 
HiLHiiOLTZ on U-- ' " • '■--- ""- 



SooB. K. Vorlennoa 111 



FhHology. 
[c THinlachm InMimfteii u. BtelMmlptufer 
iBcbRe'iiwDB Bidiiiltea. Hng. t. L. Odg«[ 



JogndBdionrtigBBoirfjjgearlgc Bcgrippen 



COSSESPONDEyCE. 

TBJt QKATE OF A SCOTCH POET. 

I^th : 3vae n, ISTS. 

A eouewhat examerated pangraph has been 
going the round of the Scotch newapapeis relative 
to the biuial-place of Robert NicoU, the brilliant 
young poet and journalist. As an humble admirer 
of the genius of Nicoll, permit me to attempt a 
description of the present condition of his last 
reeting place. Tlie grave is at the eaat side of a 
disused graveyard, which is eloaed in by a high 
wall and locked gat« on t^e one side, and by a 
filthy stream on the other. Ko intimation is ^ven 
as to where the key of the gate can be obtamed. 
The grass growing' over the graves is let to a carter 
for the use of his horBea, and a sheep may be seen 
tethered to a stake driven in at the head of a 
grave. Not one of the graves is marked by flower 
or shrub, and "the rising mounds where gowana 
grow " only show the spots where many a worthy 
citizen reposes. The monument erected by Nicoll s 
parents to the memory of their sfaart-lived eon 
appears to be in a neglected condition. The stone 
leans against an iron binder in the wall of an old 
sugar refinery, and does not seem ovei^flecure, 
while the modest inscription to the author of 
Poetia and Lyrioe runs tlie risk of soon becomiog 
obliterated by the " peeling " of the stone. I am 
aware that this is a mete matter of sentiment, and 
a question of de^7«e. But, aa you have already 
drawn attention to the neglect which is ^own to 
the " silent dead," I ventiue to put in this plea for 
the better preeervation of the lost resting-plftce of 



Usrj. ttt.MC 



ABCinmlitrtoriiiiiade1>Siiiitoiigsrtd«rAiinl>. T.I. 

dunplm. 10 b. 
SromfT, B. BtxifflM et la Teodte. full: Flou. 4£ 



' Scotland B second Bums." 



a. B. fh* 



THB rODQE WHO COMMUTED FRmCE HEKKT. 
Toople : Jooe IS, 1875. 

Mr. Clements Markharo must adduce some 
better evidence before your readers will admit 
that Sir John Markham has displaced Sir Williem 
Qaecoyne as the hero of the stoir of the committal 



(not printed before 1041), do not suffice to make 
a case for your correspondent's ancestor. 

If Prince Henry ■was committed at all, the 
balance of evidence is as yet in favour of his con- 
demnation by Gaacoyne ; Sir Thomas JBlyot's 
The Ooventor, the work of a scholar and a 
courtier, printed about the year 1531 (see Ludera' 
Character of Prince Henry V., p. 79— Mr. 0, 
Markham has omitted to refer to this well-known 
essay), is better testimony than has been brought 
forward bj the favourers of the rival claim ; a 
claiitt, however, which Mr. Fobs {Jadget of Eng- 
land, iv. p. 173) dismiesed contemptuously. 

The question to be first settled is, Was the 
Prince committed at all P Now Hit. Ludets has 
exhaustively examined, in his essay above men- 
tioned, all the authorities. lie shows that " the 
fable " as he terms it, ori^ated with Sir Thomaa 
£lf ot; that Oaxli>n, Fabian, and Folydore Vi^ 



knew nothing about it That Henry V. had some 
grudge agdinHt Gascoyne seems to be clear from his 
dismissal of him, and a tradition was undoubtedly 
at that the Prince had been sent to prison by 
a judge (see Memorials of Henry V., Record 
Fubl., p, 11). But looking at the matter after 
Luders investigBtiona, in all probability this 
tradition is to be traced and applied not to 
Henry V,, but to Edward II. when prince, the 
account of whose disgrace for addressing "groasa 
et aeeiba verba" to Walter de Longton, the 
Treasurer, ia recorded in the Ftacita coram Rfge, 
84 Edw. J., and is printed in Ahbredatio J^aci- 
torum, pp. 256, 967. Alpbeb Cutbiil. 



THE NTTUnEB OS LiNDOWMBBS D? BRIXUK. 
Jane SB, 1W5. 

It is commonly affinned by those who write 
and speak on politics, that the number of land- 
owners in Britain haa been falling ofi* since the 
earlier port of the last century. Whether this be 
true or not for the island as a whole is a (jueetion 
of by no nteana easy settlement. It cert^l^ has 
not been so in one of tJae largest counttea in 
fkighud. 

Un FebniBiy 12, 1723, was decided what was 
long kno'wn in Lincohishire as the great election. 

The candidates were Sir Nevile Hiefauan, of 
Gainsburgh, Baronet, and Robert Viner, of Gautby, 
Esq. Viner, the Whig, defeated his Tory antago- 
nist Hickman by 178 votes. The whole number 
of freeholders who voted at this election was, 
according to the poll-book issued at the time, 
4,990. 

At the cont«et which took place between 
Pelham, Chaplin, and Heron, in June, 1818, the 
number of freeholdeia who polled was 6,608 ^ 
showing on increase during uineh-five years of 
608 owners of real prop«Grty, It is probable, 
however, that the increase was really considerably 
greater than these figures show ; for in unreformed 
days the poll was token at Lincoln only, and in 
Febniary the bad roads, short days, and col4 
weather would keep many ag«d and infirm land- 
owners fay their o'wn firesides. 

The great election of 1733 is still remembereii 
in Lincolnshire for an tunuaiug incident which 
turned the fate of the day. The poll was going 
triumphantly in fiivour of Hickman, the Tory 
cuidioate, when he, wild with excitement after 
dinner at the Angel, insisted on drinking " The 
Pretender's " health on his bnees. 

Tory, in those days, in Lineolnshire, meant 
morelv what Scott called a " whitewashed Jaco- 
bite ; but the more senrible of the Tory satures 
had 'iriadom enou^ to see that the wild folly of 
their candidate 'was highly dangerons. Many who 
had not voted abstained from doing so. end others 
of the weaker sort were so horrified that they 
polled for Viner. Edwabd PEACOCK. 



S. ac Oeocge'ii Biinan, M.W. 

Of the many attempts of grammarians to 
explain this phrase, I have never seen one that 
satisfied me. Looking at the actual use of it in 
times past will at least give us facts for ftncies. 
Just as Ohaucer ssid " many on " (many (a) one), 
the Anglo-Saxon poet said " manig an," where 
the on, an (otm), isaprououn (I take it), standing 
for " man " or any other forgoing noun. The 
Anglo-Saxon poet also said manig rinc, many (a) 
man. Thisuseof the Anglo-SaxmadjeotiTefnon^ 
in the singular, 'with a singular noun or pronoun, aa 
-wall OS in the nluial, 'with s plural noun, is un- 
doubted : see uio instances in Koch. 

By the time that we get to Ijaynmon, just after 
1200 A.n.j we End tiiat the Anglo-Saxon adjec- 
tive mamg, and pronoun an (one), were run 
together, and turned into a compound adjective, 
which could be used either alone or with a noun. 
Thus, Layamou, saying of Nenniua, that " he was 



THE ACADEMY. 



la 



H bane, and t« toaaj one he did 



& moniafiDB hs dude i 

Though this in the text fifty o 



That maileD mocbe nojae 
(CiH{/<uto Anuiniit, lik. i., in BichardBon.) 
I aubmit thea, th&t in the phnae "auiDj a 
man," many w historically and actually an adjec- 
tive, and. notan adverb ( ~ manj times), douq, or 
any other part of speech that grammanaiis have 
choaen to make it. I need not say that the phiase 
has Dothing whatever to do with " Such a man as 
be was " ■> a man auch as he was (adj. " sncb- 
aB-he-waa"); " what a woman ahe is"— iheiaa 
Mhati (or meet exbaordiBBry) woman, && 

Fhedbrici J. FvBBITALL. 



The Ebtto* viU bt tfkid if tie Secntanttef hubi- 
tutiant, and othtr penont eeneerntd, vUl hud 
thMr aid tn maAny thU Cttendar a* oompUtt at 

pOMt&lt. 



APPOnmiBinB fok hxxt itxee. 


siTDBD*r, Jni J a. 


Mt. iTThic In' StdMtm at (k> 








" 




8p.m 


AuDer'i Pra Manila U Uu Oiletr. 


UtaatT, JolT G, 3 g.m. 




















TuuiuT, Joly t, BM jim. 










■CTintlan In tbe Biitleb Md- 




Delog^;" Mr.W.Bosciwen on 




tioa nlsdng to A«a-k>l[-T!iiii 








T^nmriT.JoljT, 3p,ni. 








T»rB»*T,Jlllr», JP.B1. 










Ur. IrrbVa Badlns st ansrenor 






















" 


QiBkettanb. 



SCIENCE. 

Evolution and Ihe Origin of Life. By H. 
Charlfon Baatian, M.A., M.D., F.R.S,, 
Ac. (London : Macmillan A Co., 1874.) 
{FiTst Notice.) 
The question whether or not living thinga 
originate ontoflifelesa matter is one on which 
general readers have for some years p»at 
tiiken a lively interest. To those who are 
actually engaged in pbyBiological pnrBaits, 
on the other hand, the subject is a verj un- 
attractiTe one, so mncb so that the appear- 
ance of any of the long words which bave 
been recently coined to express the opposite 
views of Heterogenists and FanspermistB 
at the head of an article, or on the title-page 
of a book, is taken as a quite safficient rea- 
son for not reading it. Not that nataralista 
suppose that all the knowledge that is need- 
ful on tbe snt^ect has been already acquired, 
or that the long controversy has been I 
brongbt to a final or satisfactory issne, or | 



tfaat the proUem involved' in it is t 
natai« inaohible — bnt that within the oanow 
limits of the present fidd of aaqoiry (thi 
origin of the ao-ealled ferment orgsaisBw) 
tlie gronod has already baen tnnwd over so 
often that it seems nnlikely that a single 
grain more of gold will come cat of it, how- 
ever carefully it is sifted. Thia being the 
case, it is not wonderfnl tfaat the Abiogeneeis 
qnestion, as it has been caJJed since Huxley's 
eloquent exposition of it in 1870, cocaoes 
a relatively small space in the enorroooB 
scientifio literatnrs of physiology, altbongh 
I dare »y it is not unliJcely that many wmU 
informed persons whose acquaintance with 
the science is derived from general sources 
of information, imagine that this and 
similar specnlations constitnte almost all 
that biotogiats have to think about. 

Why does it interest every one so ninch ? 
One reason is that a great many pec^le like 
to make OFperimente ; and thiit the experi- 
ments which relate to ^ontmneons genen- 
tion are very attntctive, partly beoanae thqr 
require so little apparatus that any one may 
maJce them in his own library, partly be- 
cause their nature is snob that tbe eiqwri- 
menter, if be sets to work with his miad 
fnlly made upas to the reeults to beexpeeted 
(and who hu not made np bis mind on Uiis 
great qneetion P), is sore to obtain sach 
answers to his enquiries as he moet looks for, 
and tiiat is always satiafoctory. Katnre 
answers sooh qneetioners as a fortune-teller 
answers love-sick girls; she raphes aacording 
to their hearts' desires, and not according to 
their words. 

Another, and perhaps the chief reoMo ia, 
that the qaestion of the origin of life is 
still supposed by many people to have a 
theological bearing. To some it appears im- 
portant that the direct interference of divine 
agency should be proved, or at all events not 
disproved, even in the birth of a body weigh- 
ing an infbutesimal part of a grain. Foohsh 
as such a motive as this may appear, it is 
■e fooHsh than the anxiety shown by 
others to become the ohampiotw of betero- 
geny on no better gronnd tliaii that it begins 
with the same three syllables as heterodox. 
To say and to believe that living protophum 
can be raannfaoturad ost of ammonie tar. 
trate, is charming to those who like to 
attach themselves to " new views," as they 
call them. If in the servants' hall the cry 
of the moment is " Kenealy and ProteeU 
antism," the bias of popular feeling in the 
drawiog-room is not less distinctly towards 
heresy for its own sake ; and this bias mani- 
fests itself quite as much in the r^ection of 
the experience of the post, as in the rejection 
of its errors and prejudices. At tbe present 
day tbe seientifio man often finds himself in 
the conservative camp rather than in that of 
the so-called friends of progress. His motto 
should be " Prove all things, bold foat t^at 
which is true." 

Dr. Bastian's work consists of a series of 
essays, of which some have been communi- 
cated to the Royal Society, and may there- 
fore be regarded as addressed to scientific 
readers, white others have been previously 
published in the Contmnporartj Bevi&io. The 
arguments employed by tbe author, who is 
well known to every reader as the zealous 
and persevering champion of the doctrine 



of Spontaneoofi Genera tioo, aa&y be ivrangsd 
under two heads. Those of tbe first category 
aie directed to show that spontaaeons gene- 
ration is a neoossary consequence of tbe 
acveptance of the doctrine of Evolution i 
those of tbe second are euslnsrvely based oa 
expariments relating to the destructive in- 
fluence of heat on living matter. The apriori 
argument from the doctrine of evolution is 
developed with great clearness and comi^ete- 
ness in the first two essays, which contain 
the very cream of the auuior's thought, die 
final result of his intellectual strivings during 
many years for the promotion of what be 
i^ards as the canse of truth. What the 
tmth tt ctf which be is the advocate, we 
learn in the first pages of the bo<d:. It is 
the troth <^ the -anifomi^j of nainre. As 
expresnve of his meaning he adopts the 
following words c^ Mr. O. H. Lewes :— 
" The liniJE which unitsa all onanisms is the 
anifonnitj of organe laws aotiac under 
ODifiHm conditions." In natare, ^erefen^ 
says Dr. Bastian, nnifbrauty is an all-per> 
vading neoeeu^. All events are tW too. 
dncbs of oontinnoosly acting causes. AU is 
as it has ever been ; for the properties and 
teaodaneies now manifest in the wcnld w£ 
things by which we ste BUitoanded, are in 
all respects the same as those which hare 
existed in the paet. Without this, eaoivtion 
it but an idU dnam ! Bnt to bis great grief 
and disaj^intment tbe moet distinguished 
evolutioniBts in this country have not seen . 
ths tntth as be sees it. They have fiuled in 
the full realisation and ^pUcatdoo of thair 
own doctrines, and tiieir &iliii« is to ba 
attributed to a oertaia reloctaBoe on tb«v 
part to make a suffiotsntiy luueserved saev^ 
fioe- and snrrender of all eariy bdisb and 
modes of thought. Strcttg ps«po«ses8)OU 
or prejudices lurk seoretty in their minds, 
' ' ' ' is seen in the case «f 



Mr. Darwin in his adoption of a ^gkxta»o)arf 
dwarfed by an appeal to a creative act. Id 
tbe case of Mr. Hoxl^ tbe same Umentable 



tendency to supamatoralise has led Inm iate 
vacillation and inoonsistency. For has h* 
not, even in the &ee ai scientific evidaacB 
concerning the destmctiva pow^ of iMlfe 
npott living matter, prefiarred to explain tbft 
presence of organisms in certain flasks on 
tbe hypothesis of a (sapematur^) preserve. 
tion of germs, instead of " tmstong to tlta 
known nnifonnity of natural phenoBsna" F 
To understand the grounds of this imneacfc 
mont, the reader must bew: in mind t^t tft 
Pro&aeor Bastian all life which t 



above 14ti° Fabr. is ipto facto anpematni^. 

Tbe second argament, that which relate* 
to the destraotive infiuenoe of heat, is 
founded mainly on the r«BalU of experi- 
mental researches communioated to the 
Boyal Society during tbe last two years. It 
may be stated as follows .- All living matter 
is deprived of life when exposed to water of 
which the temperature exceeds 140° Tahv. 
If, therefore, life appears in nay aqoeova 
liquid which has been exposed to sadi a 
teioperatnre, under conditions which pre- 
clude the possibility of tbe introduction of 
living matter from outsde during or after 
exposure to heat, then such life must have 
originated spontaneously. The w^piment is 
clearly an nnansw^^ble one, provided that 
the fundamental proposition is accepted, but 



16 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jin.T 8, 1875. 



aQ depends apon tbe value of the experi. 
mental evidence "by which this is snpported. 
Accordingly we find our anthor in the con- 
olnding essays of the series bringing' all hia 
ingonnity to bear on this one point — the 
deotli-point of protoplasm. He snmmona 
one witness after another to prove that every 
sort of living material dies at or about 140°, 
and Bnms np the evidence on the subject as 

follows ; — 



reprewDtation, these (from 104° to 140° Fnhr.) 
are the tempenturea which undonbtedlj kill the 
diffnent varieties of that common life-stufT known 
aa piotopksm — the ' physical bngis of life,' as it 
has heeu termed hj ProfeesoT Huxley." 

Can we re^rd this qnostion as really 
settled ? We think we shall mosfc efFoctnally 
aid the reader in forming an opinion for 
himself if, instead of farther ezamittiiig 
Dr. Bastian'a reasons for regarding the per- 
sistence of bacterial life in liquids of which 
t^e temperature exceeds 140° Fahr. as im- 
possible or snpematnral, we occupy the 
remainder of the space at our disposal in 
ginng a short account of certain important 
researches relating to this very qneetion 
which have been recently made in Ger- 
many. 

It may be recollected by some readers that 
a little more than two years ago Dr. Bastian 
gave an accoaut of a new form of experiment 
on spontaneous generation which from its 
importance deservedly attracted a good deal 
of attention. The experiment is as follows : 
— A decoction of turnip of a certain specific 
gravity, to which a little pounded cheese has 
been added, having been neutrahaed with 
carbonate of soda and strained, a dozen 
flasks are charged half full of the liquid. 
The necks of the flasks nre then " drawn 
ont^" so that their cavities commnnicate 
with the atmosphere by a nearly capillary 
orifice only, ^acb fiask is now subjected 
to ebullition for ten minute?, at the end of 
which period the orifices are sealed her- 
metically at the very moment that the 
ebullition ceases. The way in which this is 
effected cannot be here described ; it is such 
that tbe possihihty of contamination of the 
liquid is absolutely precluded. The flssks 
aro then placed in a warm chamber, in which 
they are subjected to the tempeiatnre which 
is known to be most favourable to the de- 
velopment of the ferment organisms, i.e., at 
SS'-e Fahr. The result is that in the 
greater number tbe liquids become clondy 
from the development of bacteria in less 
than three days. According to Professor 
Bastian, they owe their origin to spontaneous 
generation; and if it is true that all life ceases 
at 140°, ittis clear that it must be so. 

Aa has been said, the experiment attracted 
a good deal of attention both in this countiy 
and in Germany. Here in England it is 
proper to state that the experimental results 
themselves were at first discredited ; for it 
had been wrongly concluded from previous 
researches that the intrinsic development of 
ferment organisms never occurred in liquids 
which had been boiled, i.e., that when a 
quasi- spontaneous generation was observed 
under those circumstances, it was to be at- 
tributed to accidental contamination. Not- 
withstanding these doubts. Dr. Bastian's 



statements were attested by those who either 
witnessed or repeated the experiments ; but 
it was soon found that if the conditions were 
altered the phenomena observed underwent 
modifications which very materially afiected 
their bearing on the question at issue. So 
long as the temperature to which the fiarks 
were expoeed did not exceed 212° Fahr., 
and the time of exposure did not exceed ten 
minutes, it was found that in the majority 
of cases a quasi-spontaneona generation took 
place ; but if either tbe temperature or the 
time was increased, the experiment failed 
entirely. J- Bdbdok Sakdbbson. 



Fragmentt and Specimens of Early Latin, 
with Introduction and Notes. By John 
Wordsworth, M,A. (Oxford : Clarendon 
Press, 1875.) 
Me. Woedswobts commencea his preface by 
telling ns that the aim of bis book has been 
" to render the study of Early Latin more 
methodical and comprehensive, and to put 
the younger generation of scholars in poa- 
session of materials for the purpose which 
tbey will not elsewhere find in combination." 
All carefiil students of this handsome volume 
of 700 pages will surely acknowledge that 
he has well ficcomplished the aim he had in 
view. It is no empty compliment to say 
that this important work supplies materials 
for a thorough etndy of old Latin which 
have not been brought together in any Eng- 
lish, or any single foreign publication. 

During the early years of the present cen- 
tury the knowledge of Latin throughout 
Europe was perhaps at as low an ebb as it 
baa ever reached since the revival of lefirning 
in the fifteenth contnry. Greek waa then 
eng^^ng the whole energies of tbe bt^at 
scho^ra in England and Germany ; and 
naturally for the time its sister was thrown 
into the shade. But for the last forty years 
or ao a great reaction has been going on in 
the last-named country, and the study of 
Latin, which on the whole had been retro- 
grading since the sixteenth century, has 
been pursued therewith extraordinary vigour 



By this reaction the older literature, 
which Mr. Wordsworth illnstratea in this 
book, has been moat lai^^y benefited, 
through the labours of Bitschl and Momm- 
sen and their numerous followers ; and it ia 
probable that the next generation will wit- 
ness at least 'as great an advance as baa 
been achieved during that which has now 
expired ; so that the author will have 
ample opportunities of enriching and im- 
proving each Buoceediug edition of hia book. 

Mr. Wordsworth's work ia, as we have 
aaid, unquestionably the most compreben- 
sivo of its kind. We have copious extracts, 
fully explained and illustrated, of the whole 
of tbe early literature, with the exception 
of Plautos and Terence. Opinions will diSer 
as to whether he has given us too much or 
too little. Some might wish fbr alittlemote 
verse, and somewhat less of 7arro's prose, 
for instance, and of the old laws. But then 
he has illustrated these in so many waye, 
that others may look upon his clear and in- 
telligent comments on them as among the 
most valuable portions of his book, oven if 
they throw less light on the old language 



and grammar. We will, therefore, decline 
to ofier an opinion of our own. 

His very copious grammatical introduc- 
tion will assuredly be valued by all stu- 
dents ; though, of course, many parts of the 
subject are yet in a very unsettled condition, 
ancf we will not conceal our belief that he 
has given too great weight to the theorifis, 
often cmde and ill supported, of Corssen'a 
huge undigested Eucyolopaedia. 

Nearly all that he aaya on the head of 
pronunciation strikes ue as judicious and 
moderate. He ia very careful too in tho 
matter of orthography ; and the only decided 
barbarisms in spelling that have met onr 
eye in tho course of a carefiil and conscien- 
tious perusal are caetera, nae and ne^^iir- 
quam ; though his English conservatism dis- 
plays itself in a hankering a^r the unhappy 
and exploded quum,. We have, to be sure, on 
the other hand Vergil, though we do not find 
that he gives us Borate ; and yet Horatins is 
at least as well attested as Tergilius. 

One of the most important branches of 
study in connexion with tlie older literature 
is that of metre and prosody ; and it is here 
that we think Mr. Wordsworth less success- 
ful than in any other portion of his subject, 
misled apparently by the bsnefnl influence 
of Corsaen, who seems to have an ear im- 
pervious to quantity or rhythm. Wo will 
illuBtralo what we mean, first with respect 
to quantity and next in regard to metre. 

Wo are told in p, 5G on the authority of 
this scholar, that " we find virS, domS, bmi-j, 
malK, pretty frequently in Plaatus ; " and in 
p. 579 we read "in these lines we notice 
manu, a sbortening perhaps elsewhere un- 
exampled." Nay, in the note on Ennins' 
Annals, v. 114, it is said " diH can hardly be 
right, though not impossible. " Blii ia at 
least as impossible in Ennina, or in Plautus 
or Terence, as in Virgil or Ovid ; and in 
the case of viro, bono, malo, irenMu, and 
hundreds of such iambic words, whether 
long by nature, or by position, or by nature 
and position at once, bonis, elndeni, atnanl, 
Ac, &c., it ought not to be said with 
Corssen that in the old acenic poets tbe final 
syllable was ever-actually short; hut rather 
that under certain metrical conditions such 
syllable could take the place of a short 
syllable. These conditions were fulfilled when 
the iambus composed the whole thesis or tbe 
whole arsis of the foot. In the former case 
the metrical ictus fell on tho other part of 
tbe foot, as in the " manu g6sBit gloridse " 
of Naevius on which Mr. Wordsvrorth 
grounds his remark : in the latter case the 
ictus falls on the first syllable of the iambus 
in question, as in Terence's " Ex gm^cis 
Ixinis Latinas fecit non bouas." In auch 
cases, then, the final syllable of the iambus 
waa evidently slurred over in pronunciation, 
but was not an actual short syllable. But 
take now the two following lines, 63 and 70 
of Plautus' Perta : — 

iDdeeet. 



Here, of course, the first foot is a tribrach, 
and the metrical ictus falls on the second 
syllable of the pyrrhic ; and it would be 
utterly impossible to put mamt or honia in 
the place of neqite and ubi ; nor ia " 2fbn 
enim romores " more possible in an hexft- 
meter of Ennins than in one of VirgiL The 



JCLI 3, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



17 



more one reflects on this principle, which 
cuinot be enlarged oa here, the more its im- 
pcHtuice in the old soenic poetry -will stand 
out. Jast the same principle applies to 
other apparent abnormities. Mr. Words- 
worth quotes in p^^ 19 a senarins from 
Terence " where the in in invidia ia short," 
to show- that V had " sometimes a lighter 
sound than oar w." Bat ia the line in 
qaestion, 

"Sine invulia Isndem ioTenias et amicog pares," 
the first foot is a proceteasmatic, and the 
first Byltable of invidia coming immediately 
before the syllable with the ictns, is slarred 
orer jnst aa in the case of the iambi above 
mentioned. Mr. Wordsworth seems to mis. 
son the verae so as to put the ictus on the 
inv; which -wonld be a grave metrical sole- 
ciam. In hnndreds of words Plaatas and 
Terence similarly neglect position, when the 
metrical ictos is on the sjllable immediately 
preceding or following that in which the 
position ia n^lected, whatever the conso- 
□anta may be. 

In his extracta from Lncilins Mr. Words- 
worth no leas than three times, and always 
from coajectnre, forces on this poet the false' 
quantity hik. Hoo (nom. and accns,) was 
to Lncilios as long as hoc (abl.), or his or hos 
oeitHe or ^ec; aad so it was to Plautns 
and Terence as well. It is exceedingly! 
fflon for these latter poets to treat all such 
DtODoayUablee, when preceded by a abort 
moQosyllable, or by a pyrrhic with the last 
sylJahle elided, cMctly like the final syllables 
of iambi. Thns we find near the beginning 
of the Andr'Ca two consecutive lines c 
mencing thns, " Et id gratnm," " Sed 
mihi molestumst ; " where id and hoo are 
burred over jnst in the same way as the 
noRu and bonis already spoken of, and as the 
Srrt syllaUe of iTividia. 

The ninth of Mr. Wordsworth's extracts 
from Lacilins not only contains two false 
quantities, bat so far as I can see is witbont 
sense and syntax. As Mueller's receaaion 
departs widely from the manuscripts, I ofier 
the following, which is very near the best 
Mtested reading, and seems to give a good 
sense: — 
"^ Mn mnltum habet hoc cscosyathetoa ? Rtqne 

fl 01 liifM dieo ' nibil ad me hoc nomen,' r illi est." 
We hsve given r for the k of the best MS., 
aod t7/t we take to be the adverb : " has not 
tiaa ar macb harshness in its composition P 
•ad if I prononnce as with a dog's tongue 
'nihil ad me hoc nomen' ('I care nothing 
for this word'), why wo have )■ there;" 
'.«. I pronoaace ad as ar. While on the 
anbject of emendation, we wonld say that 
Kr. Wordsworth ought not, in Ennias'a 
AimaU 241, to have adopted the correction 
rf cemtVer for eomilum, which leaves an 
otteriy nngrammatical sentence ; nor are 
Ae emendations et^am and eongerietn, either 
of them, satisfactory. I would read r — 
"Hiiees locatna voc&t i}noeum bene saupe libentu 

comii ittin) impanic : " 
uwDi £= dtnuM, and is fbnnd in Cicero and 
Lncrettos and others. 

Corsaen's hanefU inflnence in regard to 
™etre and prosody we feel thronghont this 
Tohime: (p. 104) q^id leo cannot end an 
iamtac in Fhaedms ; for the a must be short ; 



and if it could be long, an iambus in the fifth 
foot, when contained in a word forming an 
iambus or a cretic, is impossible : guoniam 
should be read. Eqaally impossible (p. 
297) is timos pavos at the end of an iambic 
of Ifaevius j or (p. 299) Eiim sunt patSr, 
forming three feet at the beginning of a 
verse. In truth they form exactly two feet, 
and the line is incomplete at the end. 
Again (p. 297), "Ubi bipedes volncres lino 
linqnant Inmina " is an excellent verse, with 
a proceleusmatic at the beginning. 

Quite impossible (p. 289, foil.) are the 
quantities supra, pdira, Gyclopa, Iderima, in 
the Satarniana of Livias ; and many of 
Naevins'a are wrongly arranged ; in the old 
poetry the first syllables of aitpra, paim, are 
as short asiiifupgr.pater. Mr. Wordsworth, 
however, has done good service in explain- 
ing and scanning the old Satamians, the 
" Scipiosnm elogia," Ac. But (p. 160) we 
would scan " Dedet tempestAtebus aidem — 
m6retod " [<Slim -vi5tam, or decr^tam, or the 
like] ; and would propose " Qnibus sei in 
longa licuiset — lila^r tibe vita," transposing 
" tibe utier." Then surely the right scan- 
sion is, " Qaei apicem u)sign4m diibs — 
fl^minis gesistei." Again (p. 162), Lach- 
mann and Mommsen's pentameter " Pro- 
genie mi genni, facta patrie petiei," seems 
utterly nnmetrical : we wonld divide " Pro. 
geniem i genni ; " i = et, i.e. generi : his 
first duty to his race was to continue it by 
begetting children. 

While on the subject of these old metrical 
inscriptions we would say that in the well- 
known titulns Mnmmianns the pro utura of 
the original, retained by Mr. Wordsworth, 
violates both sense and metre ; and the cor- 
rections of Bitschl and Mommsen are much 
too violent ; we would read, with the simplest 
possible change : — 

" De decums, Victor, tibei Lucine Munuaina doaam 
Eaaribua antiquaia proviaura hoc dare aeaa, 
riaunt animo boo perfociC" 

" In the mattBT of the tithe, which wat to pro- 
vide for his giviDK yon this offenng, L. Mummius 
has cfirried oat what he had purposed in mind." 

Of the curions " e nos Iascs invate " 
the old Salian chant Mr. Wordsworth says 
(p. 392), " on the whole it may be best to 
explain it as the interjectional e which com- 
bines eliewhere only with vocatives, such as 
Ecastor Edepol." But here too it is the 
same, " Elases," the nos being inserted, as 
pronoana so often are, between prepositions 
and their nonns. In the old Sc. de Bacana- 
libas, " neoesns " is not a nomin. masculine 
or neuter, but the genitive of nece(«e : neeesut 
ssTtecesms-^neeeanf, which is used by Lncre- 
tins. We are told in p. 471, that it is not 
good Latin to make " quei permissus est " 
mean " who has received permission." But 
this seems clearly its meaning here ; and 
snch oonstmctiona, so common in Greek, are 
not rare in bomely lAtin snob as the Ian- 
guaga of these laws; or in the poeta and 
Tacitus. Not to mention the eredor and 
creditua of Ovid and Virgil and the like, 
Caecina among others and the Anctor ad 
Herenniam have '' persuaans est," the latter 
says " sapereedenda causa," Metetlus Xnmi- 
dicuB "ilti interdicti," the writer of the 
Spanish war "est litata." 

It wonld be impossible, and indeed nn&ir 
to the anther, to attempt by extraot or 



' ment on every part of his subject which is 
to be found in this large volume, far the 
moat complete of its kind in existence. 
The careful reader will leam how sys- 
tematically the language developed and 
enriched itself both in prose and verse ; 
he will feel that the speech of the Latin 
mstic was nearer the style of Plantns or a 
familiar letter of Cicero, than the latter was 
to that of bis own Yerrines ; that the 
Bomaos borrowed indeed their metres, but 
not more so than the English have done ; 
and adapted them as thoroughly to the 
genius of their own tongue ; and that the 
verse and language of Terence eu'c as perfect 
as those of Vii^I. He will regard with 
wonder the singular theory one sometimes 
cornea across, that genuine Latin disappeared 
under ground about the time of Naevius, 
and came into the borders of light again 
somewhere about A.D. 400. As well assert 
that old English dipped beneath the sea soon 
after the Conquest, and reappeared among 
the negroes of Jamaica in the eighteenth 
century. Mr. Wordsworth knows for too 
much to lend any countenance to such non- 
sense ; and yet there are one or two remarks 
in his book which we could wish were not 
there. In speaking of such double forms aa 
fervSre fervcre (p. 129), he nays : " a com- 
parison with Italian would lead to the in- 
ference that the number was still greater, 
e.g. ridSre beside Lat. ridiire." But what 
has Italian to do with such forms aafervSre, 
which were obsolete ia Quintilion's days ? 
When the old world and the old language 
were falling to pieces, the barbarians, hearing 
the accent placed on the antepenultimate of 
most infinitives in ere, chose in nine cases out 
often to inflectthe second conjugation in the 
same way ; just as on a similar false analogy 
tbey said sapere and cadere after vedere and 
the like. Again (p. 398), in speaking of 
the Liuiitia of the Scipio epitaphs, he says 
" the same quantity ia preserved in the 
Italian Lucia." But no quantity whatever 
is preserved in the Italian Lucia, which bas 
no direct connexioa with the Latin. It simply 
preserves the accent of the Greek Samt 
Auvk/d, just as that accent is retained in 
idea, Sophia, imd in fioaofia, JUologia, and a 
hundred other words of which the pennlti- 
mates were as short aa l^hey could be botiiin 
Greek and Latin. H. A. J. Mdhbo. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



UEIEOBOIOST. 

dimate of NorUitrn S&eria.—In the part of the 
Auatiian Jownal for Mator<Aogy for June 1, an 
interesting paper by Koppen is reprinted from 
Rottget's Ruitum R^inew, on the climate of the 
Lower Yenissei. The materinl is provided by two 
years' observations at Turuschansk in 66° N., and 
one year at Tolstyi Nos in 70° N., reaulta from 
which have appeared in Riunan periodicals, The 
records are for such brief periods that it is hardly 
worth while quoting them, bnt a veiy interesting 
description of the general character of the climate 
is given by Tretjakow, to whom the flist-named 
Bcnes of observations is due. 

The winter lasts ei^ht months; in the middle 
of May the geese be^n to come, and at the end 
of the month the riter ia opan. In the middle of 
June the air is filled with tarda of puaa^, whoaa 
flight produces a constant rustling noise. The 



IBT 



THE AOADBMY. 



[Jhlt 3. 1875. 



gard«iis ue pUnted, thov^h tbe thaw hM not 
jMoetrated to a depth jtroater than a foot or 
eighteari inched. In 1856 mat pounds of buler 
weM sown June 17. The corn came up June 30, 
was in ear Jul; 20, and in flower Aug-ust 15. The 
crop wM cut on September 6, iinnpe, owin^ to 
frost setting in, but yielded aiity pounds of grain. 

In the end of Jul; the heat is very omirMwire, 
with quantities of gitttte -, the ibj is generally cleai. 
In the end of August cloudy days begin ; with 
southerly winds, and in September the nosts com- 
ment. £ar1v in October tbe river cloaca again. 

The fietX feature of the climate is the " purga," 
which IB notamereanon-drift, nor even a" buran," 
which latter is utterly disregarded by the inhabit- 
ants. The purga ia deacrihed as a chaos of hard, 
driving snow dust, closing the eyes, stopping the 
breath, and forcing ita way through your dress, 
while the force of the wind is such aa to orertum 
man and reindeer, and the traveler must stop and 
sit on bis sledge with his head tiD wind tiU tiie 
atonniaovBT. They seldom last less than twenty - 
four hoora, and often bold for three, ux, or even 
twelve daya with occamonal intenniasions. They 
occur in autunm and spring, not in winter, when 
the weather is for the moat part calm, though 
TnmschsnBk does not share in tile quiet cliimte of 
Yakutsk, the Sibertan pole of cold. 

In latitude 71% at toe mouth of the Yeoissei, 
tiie Bummer, whieh is short enough in 63°, is a 
month shorter, but the phenonMoa resemble those 
above described. However, even on July 19, 
1867, a purga set in and lasted for three days, so 
that there are ^^adadona of misery even in the 
cHmate of Siberia. 

C&nate of the Upper Nik. — In the number of 
the Au^rian Joaiitnl for June 16, Dr. Hann has 
given some notps on the various observations 
which exist for Gondokoro and Khartoum, taken 

Eineipalty by Mamo, Dovyak, Rasaepger, Peney, 
ady Baker, and Lieutenant J. A, Baker, ILN. 
1b)i man important point which cornea out i» 
that in June and July the mean pressure aeaiceJy 
rariea ovar the eleven degrees of latitude between 
the two towns above named, so tbat it i« very 
difficult to determine the difference of level be- 
tween them by means of barometrical readings. 
Ehortoum has, however, been connected vrith the 
sea by a direct line 'of levelling, whence we find 
the Keight of the harometer entera at that station 
to be 386 roto«t, or 1,272 feet, and the baro- 
nsebdcal reeulta from all the obaervara accord Tsry 
well with each other, so tbat at least one step lus 
been reasonably gained towards the determination 
of levels and conditions of atmospherical pressure 
in the interior of Africa. 

Ae for Gondokoro the observations are by Dov- 
yak, a miaeionary, in 1853, Lady Baker (teinpera- 
tnre twice daily, and daya of rsin only), and, 
besides, a series of hypeometrical determinations 
by lieintenant Baker, which have been discussed 
hv Mr. a. Strachan, F.M.8., and are printed in 
the Joymai of the Royal Geographical Society, 
vol. »liv. p. 66. The observations are very care- 
fully made, and confirm Dovyak'athorou^fhly. The 
latter, therefore, are of great value, as being the 
onW series embracing an entire year (January 7, 
leoS-Jannary 20, 1854} from the equatorial region 



They are given in the Bitamgiberichte of the 
Tienns Academy for 1868, and in the Jahrhveh of 
the K,K. Ceatralanstolt, vol, vi. 1854. Dr. 
Hann's paper conclndes with some tabular results 
for both stations. 

Correction of Temp«rature Meant far SItoH 
JWioafe— The same number of the ..^M^-ion 
Journal eontaina a paper by Hen Hellmann on the 
reference of temperature means for short period 
to those of lon^r continuance at neighbouring 
staticma, • practice necessary in the caae of many 
returns from foreign couHtriea. He showa that for 
Bt»tioDS in the |>lain conntry such a compcmson 
may well be cwried oat, but that the resiUta aie 
Cpute untrustworthy if wa compare eoaat with 



hihited Jlr. N. M. Lowe's grap&ic hygrometer, 
which was brought before the Paris Academy on 
March ], by M. Tresca, under the name of "'Hy- 
grodeik," which appellation has been fortunately 
discarded by its inrentors. The apparatus con- 
sists simply of a litht^raphed form of which the 
ordinatea are the degreea of temperatore and t^ 
abeoissae the d^^reea of humidity, while the 
amounts of aqueoua vapour in a cubic foot of six 
are laid off on diagonal Unee, or, rather, cun'ea, 
for the form is not laid off according torectangiilar 
co-ordioates, as the horizontal axis is an arc of a 
curcle. On this form an index, moved by a milled- 
bead screw at the bottom, gives at once the degree 
of humidity, the amount of water in a cubic foot 
of eur,the tenuon of aqueous vapour, and the dew- 
point, for any reading ofthewetHjulh thermometer; 
the correaponding reading of the dry-bulb being 
given by moving the milled-Jiead screw, index arm 
and all, in a vertical slot at the hock, bo that any 
reasonable relation of the wet-bulb to the dry con 
be reproduced. The instrument was at first in- 
tended for domestic use in the United States, Mr. 
Lowe being from Boston, bat ia availaUe for em- 
ployment in the pbce of hygrometrical tables in 
scientific calculatiooik 

T^ton/ of CVcI(»w«.~In the CoMpU* .K«nAm of 
May 17 and 24, MM. de Tastas and Faye respec- 
tively have contributed notea in defence of the 
theory of the latter gentleman, and in opposition 
to the views of MM. Pealin and Coust^. The 
present communications do not contain much in 
the way of novelty, but it seems likely that it will 
be long ere we hear the last of the present contro- 
versv, as we understand that M. Bridet in Reunion 
has been instmcted by the Preiwh Qovernmeut to 

Separe a new edition of hi> woii, and that Mr. 
eldnun's " Notes on the Form of Cyclones " has 
been sent to him by the same autliority for con- 
sideration, and, if possdhle, refutation. Out of the 
difference in views between Messrs. Bridet and 
Meldrum has arisen the whole discussion whose 
progress we have from time to time endeavoured 



Dr. T. WsiaBT, of Ghahenham, the well-^own 
authority on fc '' '" " ' '" ' " ' 

the Qeofogical 

at the Bristol meeting. 

Db. Hector, the Director of the GeologicAl 
Survey of New Zealand, has juat arrived in this 
country, and will remain hen, we understand, 
until next Febnuuy, 

Db. 0. FsrmnKTEL, of Breslan, has been ap- 
pointed palaeontologist to the Geological Survey 
of India, in auceession to the late Dr. Stolieika. 



Wb regret to hear of the recent death of Sir 
William E. Logan, LL.D., F.R.S., for many years 
Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Ilia 
esrly geological studies were directed to the in- 
vesli<nition of the South Wales coal-Geld, and it 
was he who first pointed out the important feet 
that each seam of coal reata on an ''underclay " 
which commonly contaiae Stigmaria, or the roota 
of cool-measura plants. In 1842 he commenced 
the geolo^cal survey of Canada, and continued 
to direct this important work for nearly thirty 
years. During tnis time Sir William Logon 
and his stafr worited out the structure of a 
large part of the Dominion, produced a fine geo- 
logical map, and issued a aeries of reports ri<£ in 
origioal matter. To establish the Laurentian or 
pre-Cambrian system, and trace its development 
m Canada, was itself no meAn contribution to 
atiatigrapbical geology. But it was the attention 



which Sir William bestowed on the economic 
geologv of the country, end his zeal in formintr 
collections iHustrative of its mineral reeoorcea, 
that secured him his great popularity in Canada. 
Among geologists on both sidea of the Atlantic 
he had won the highest reelect by his modest and 
kindly disposition, his etrict official int^;rity, and 
the ability vrith which he conducted his responsi- 
ble work. Sir William died in Pembrokeshire on 
the 22nd ult., at the age of seven ty-aevan. 

The recent death of Professor G. P. Deshajes, 
of Paris, ^ould not be allowed to pass luinaticed 
by geologists. Essentially a conchoioriat, he 
brought his exact knowledge of the molluscB to 
bear on qnesticms of great geological importance, 
and was one of the highest authorities on the 
moiluecon fauna of the Tertiary formations. Hia 
services to geology were recf^ised on two occa- 
sions by the Geological Society of London. M, 
Deehayes agisted Sir Chnrlee Lyell in his dassifi- 
catirti of our Tertiaries, but he ia best known by 
hia studies of tiie molluaca of the Paris basiit, 
described in his fine work, Bem^vtiani de* CoquiUm 
foeniet det Bntiran* de Pari$. The profesaor was 
seventy-nise ye«rs of age when be died, on Uve 
9th ult. 

Tks fifth Annual Report of the Geological 
Survey of Indiana, under Professor E. T. Cox, 
has recently been issoad. It contains a great 
body of local detaila of much value, including de- 
scripdons of the occurrence of cool, ironstone, and 
other minerals of economic importance. Prt^ 
feasor OoHett, while prosecuting the survey of 
Warren CounU, discovered, in dialea near the 
base of the coal-meaaaree, some footprints of on 
amphibian which has been called CalUttMatunu 
Jnditmneneit. Each foot had five toes, hut this ia 
oU we know of the structure of the creature. Pro- 
feaaor Cox's volume includes a Report on tbe 
Vienna Exhibition, and an article on the mana- 
factore of Spiegsleisen, by Mr. Hartmaim. The 
greiat iron-prodndng reeoorcas of the State ai« 
sufficient apology for tiie ineorporatioa of metel- 
luigical papeia in a geological report. 

A Repokt on the Vertebral* PolamntologT of 
Colorado, by Frofeaeor Omts, contains a desi^^ 
tion of a large number of lossils collseted in 1873 
from the CretasBOus, Eocene, Miocene, and Plio- 
cene formations. As many sa 149 SMcies wen 
obtained, and of Hiia namber no fewer than ninety- 
four were new to science. Most of these species 
have been described in Cope's Palaeontoloffieal 
SuUetitu and in Hayden's SuUetine of the Sareaf 
of the Terrilorie*. The present Report included 
an essay on the mutual ralatioiB of the CretaceoM 
and Tertiary formations of the West. 

Is 1873 Dr. R. Ton Drasehe visited the wert 
coast of Spitzbergen, and collected nunMraus 
fosnla from Bel Sound, Cape Staratschin, and 
Kord^ord. These fossils were piasented to the 
Impenol Mineral Cabinet at Viemia, where tbey 
have been studied by Dr. Toula, who had pr^ 
vioHsly examined the collections of Payer somI 
Hiifer. The results of Dr. Touk's studies are 
given in the last number of Leonhard and Geinitz'i 
Neuei JahrbwA. Ths greater number of these 
fossils are of mixed Carboniferooa and Permian 
types. A tabular review of at] tbe Spitibergsa 
fossils deiteimined by Toula shows that out at 
sixty-fonr ^eciea, thirty-eight may certainly hs 
refwrpd to Carboniferous, and seventeen to Fe> 
mian forma. This mixture of typea leads to tbe 
conclusion that the Spitzbergen neds should b« 
regarded as Permo-Carboniferoua, or as marking 
a transition from true Oarboniferona to true Per- 
mian formations — a transition which has beea i 
observed in America by Qeinitz and Meek, and in 
the Alps by Guide Stache. Dr. Drasehe describes 
a new genua of biyosoana as Samiporo, r^m- 
aented by a ungle species Ji, Soehtletttirn. Ha I 
tiao describes and figuiee eleven other new apsciss 
and several varieties. 

A UTILB work bos recently been issued under j 
the title of Sudimtntt of Geotagy, by Samuel ' 



JnLV 3, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



19 



Sharp, r.S.A., F.G.g. (Stanford). Mr. Sharp ie 
well known omonfj geologiete as a zealous collector 
of Northnmptonskire foBsila, snd as a writer on 
local geology and antiquities. His work ia divided 
into two parts, of whicli the first is introductory, 
and nns prepared for nae in home-tsachinc', 
TChile the second poet gives an outline of strati- 
pTflphical and palaeontological geology. Although 
the plan of tiie work ia not tunhltious, the writer 
hafi found room to notice some of tlie latest diaco~ 
veriee, such as Marsh's lehthyorais from the Creta- 
ceous deporita of Kanaas, and Owen's Odontopterjx 
from the London day of Sheppey. 

We have lecuiTod a copy of an psaay entitled 
" The Geolc^ical Evidences of the Aiuiquity of 
Man recooBidered,'' by ThtHuae Karr Callard. 
F.G.S. The writer objects equallv to tb« geolofi^c&l 
and arcbaeolwioal eviduiice of the antiquity of 
our species. But ha can hardly expect nowadays 
to find many followers when he states, with refer- 
ence tu palaeolithic JLinpleinentA in geuenl, that, 
"after a very careful ezaminatioB of some hun- 
dreds of ^ecimens, the conclusioii which wa reach 
is, tliat man Dever toadied them until they ( 
into the posaeasion of the geologiat or the modem 
workman bj whom tliey ware aihumed " I 



ZOOLOOX, 

Fortheommg WorAi.^Weareglad to learn that 
the selection of the late Mr. Biyth's papers, on 
-wluch Mr. A. Grote has been for some tmie en- 
gaged, i£ approaching completion, and that it will 
be aocompaoied by « Inographieal sketch and 
portrait of the distinguished Indian zoolc^iat. 
&It, Blyth'a numerotu memoirs have hitherto 
i«!XiainMl scattered and difficolt of accsas ; and h 
Is to be hoped that this collection will be auffi- 
cientiy perfect to fonn at least a ritami of the 
results of his long and invaluable kbouis. Sir 
Victor Brooke, Btrt., has long beem at work on a 
monograph of die hoUow-honed ruminants, and 
the first p«rt, including the whole of the acCelope 
fotnily, will probably appear in the ooaies of neit 
winter. Dr. G, E. i)obebn will shortly publiaii a 
volume on the Asiatic bate, a subject which he 
has made his fecial study. Meatis. Oasaellshave 
in preparation a new popular work on Zooli^, 
and we nndnstand that they have secured the 
aeeistance of snch excellent aulJtorities in the 



K n g lis h language ie still somewhat poor. 

American Tertiary Mammab. — The recent in- 
veetigations of the American palaeontolcffiiBts 
among the fossils of the tertiary deposits of the 
Western Territories have an interest more ex- 
clusively zoological than geological. Thus the 
Eocene group variously named Utnlatheridae, 
Dinoesridae, ot EobatiUdae, and tjK Mioeene Tkano- 
thrridee, BrmtaUmiiae or S^n^adontidae, are 
moat instmeldya to the student of roeent zoology, 
as illustrating dte relationships, and perhaps the 
genealogy, of the living ungulatet and probos- 
cidians. Unftirtunabdy the keenness of rivalry 
seems to have led in vxae oasM to an ondua 
haste in the naming of the various fcmilies 
and genera, which has given rise to con- 
troversy as to priority and to consequent 
confuaion in nomenclatore. Both these groups 
consisted of hng* and axtraordinaiy animals, whidi 

Eesented in their strueture moK or lees of a com- 
QHtion of the characters of ijie hoofed mammals 
with those of the elephanta. Their most atriking 
paculiari^ in a live state must have been their 
noma. In the Eocene family, which iWeeeor 
Harsh rfdsee to the rank of a eepai&te order, Dino- 
ceriaa, the skull has no less uian air homcorce, 
each of which presumably supported a formidable 
weapon. These ware placed laterally in pairs, one 
pair on the occiput, oas above the orbits, and one on 
the snont, and in addition the uumal was armed 
with large canine tusks. The Miocene successors 



monstroua in appearance and have bonie a closer 
resemblance to the rhinocaroses, but their tno 
lar^^ facial hums were placed latemlly above the 
orbite, and not one behind the other, an in the 
latter nnimals. The latest contributions to our 
knowledge of this group will be found in a paper 
by Profeeaor jCopo in the Annual Iteport of the 
Vniteil Statei Siu-wj; of the Taritonn for 1873 
(p. 480), in one by I'rofcssor Marsh in the March 
number of SiUiman's Ampi-ican Joumnl of Science 
(vol. ii. p. ^39), and in a, short note by Professor 
Ijeidy in the Proceedings of the Academy of 
Saturrd Sciences of Philadelphia Sm 1874 (p. I05> 
The IflBt-named writer believes that the various 
Miocene genera which have been founded, as Meya- 
cet-ops, Broatot/terium, Miobaiile/u!, andi Sijmboro~ 
don, will all prove identical with hia TUanofherium, 
and that the number of species will require to 
be greatly reduced. Professors Cope and Mnrsh, 
on the otner hsnd, uphold the distinction of the 
genera of which they ore respectively the sponsors. 
Another remarkable Eocene form was deecnbed by 
Professor Maieh in 1873 as a new gacus, TiUa- 
theriuin, allied to Aneh^adv*. At a recent 
meeting of the Connecticut Academy he gave a 
further account of its structure, and regarded it 
as the type of a new order of mammals which he 
named TiUodtmiia. (^*n«r. Jiturn. Sden., ix., pp. 
221, 238.) According to his views this new 
group presents a combination of ungulate cha- 
racters with those of the rodents and even of the 
beasts of prey. Thus the stn^cture of the skull 
and the type of the molar teeth agree with those 
of the hoofed animals, while tjie rootless chieel- 
shaped imusors resemble those of the rodents, and 
the rest of the skeleton presents features common 
to the carnivores, and eepecially to the bears. 
Professor Manh divides his new order into two 
families, TUlotheridae and Stytinodonttdae, dis- 
tinguished by the grinding teeth being rooted in 
the former but not in the latter. Further infor- 
mation aa to all these extraordinary aud important 
forms will be eagerly looked forward to by 
European zoologista. 

Tht Zoolwpcal Ettord, 1873.— After some delay 
the tenth volume of this aminnl, so invaluable to 
tke working naturalist, has speared nndec the 
editorship of Mr. E. C. Hya, who has succeeded 
the founder of the work, Dr. Giinthsr, in that 
office. The hitter gentleman has also reliaquiihed 
the diarge of his own special departraents of 
mammals, reptiles, and fishes, the tirst of which 
has been undertaken by Mr. E. R. Alston, and the 
two latt«- by Mr. A. W. E. O'Shaughneaay. The 
other racorders are the same as in the pieviooe 
year. Some idea of the labour invplved in the 
preparation of such an index of loological litera- 
ture may be gathered from the fact ti*t reference 
is mode to no lesa than 238 scientific periodicals 
(beudes separate works) in eleven different lan- 
guages. We are glad to see that the value of this 
neoessarily unremunerstivework is beooming mora 
generally recognised, '^d that tlieHoyal and Zoolo- 
gical Bocietiea have supplemented the annual grant 
voted by the British Association. An important 
feature in the present volume is, that the aeries 
is now placed in connexion with Agassiz's invalu- 
able Ifomenclator ZoolofficM. In that work the 
index to recorded genera and su^^anera of animals 
was brought down to 1846, and a continuation by 
Count A. von Marschall (Vienna, 1873) carried it 
on to 1868. Annual lists of a similar nature have 
appeared in the Zoological Record since 1870, and 
Mr. Rye has done well in issuing with the present 
volume a catalogue for 1669, thua filling up tlaa 
bhmk and making the record complete ftt>m the 
beginninff of the bi-nomial system down to the 
end of 1873. 



Messrs. Lawson T«t, J. E. H. Gordon, A. R 
Eaton, O. Keynolds, W. Bpottiswoode, A. B. 
Kempe, E. J. Kanson, H. E. Koaeoe, B. Stewart, 
E. J. Stone, T. R. Robinson, J. A. Broun, T. 
Andrews, J. Lowthian Bell, W. G. Adams, S. O. 
Tisley, Creak, I^vy, and J. MarriiaU, 



Zoological SociErf op Losdoh (Thurtday, 
June 17). 
Mb. Solates, F.H.S., Secretory of the Society, 
treated of " Pheaaanta and their Alliea." A ^ort 
account was given of the general characters dl 
birds, of which class one of the most important 
orders is the OaUiaae, which includes most of the 
species domestieated by man, except the pigeoDA 
and ducin. It may be ^vided into aaven prin- 
cipal families, the sand-grouse, turkeys, Guine* 
fowls, curaaeows, megapodes, hemipodes, and 
pheasants. The membtnw of thJa last-named groop 
are arranged in five aab-tamUies. Of l^^e the 
first eonlams the tme grouse, and the secood the 
partridges, to which the snow pheasant and In^ 
peyan pheasant of the Himalayas are cloeely allied. 
The third includes the American colins, which ara 



family conuats of about forty species, anwDoed in 
i«v«(i Konma, comprising not oiUy the w«U^own 
gi^D, and silver pheasants, Beeva^ 
pheasant, the Kaleeges, Tragopans, &c, but alio 
the varioQS jungle fowls of India, OefliHi, sad 
Java, and their domesticated bam-door deacendanti. 
Lastly, there are the peaoocka, with their allies 
the prnoock ^Masant and the A^^us pheMont. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
RoiAL Sodxn: (TAvnday, June 17). 



Tbib being tha last meeting of the Bession, all the 

?apers on hand, twenty m number, were read, 
hey were written by the following gentiemeu i — 



LiKHSAN SociEir {Thurtday, June 17). 
I)R.O. J.ALLlC&n,F.R.S.,Preeident,intheOhair, 
Apwer w«s read by Professor E. Ray Lankestap, 
F.EJ3., on " The Anatomy of Ampbioxas.'' Tha 
author described thu anatomy of^^. lanceolaltu 
orked out in a series of sections made from 
arous qteramani collected by him at Naples, 
In opposition to Stiedo, the truly perforata struo- 
tm» of the pharynx waa assarted. A true body- 
caviw or coelone distinct from the atrial chamber 
was described, and it was shown to expand and 
attain a large devalopmeot in the post-atrioporal 
region of the body. A pair of pigmented canalj 
were described, apparently represeutinK the vert^ 
bmte renal organ in a d^enerate or else a nidi- 
EKntary conditioa Johannes Miiller's pores of 
the lateral canala were ahown to be hyoid slita 
leading into the pharynx. The attachment of the 
I^uryngaal bars to the wall of the atrium by a 
seriee of phaiyngo-pleural septa was minute^ 
described. It was further shown that the maiv 
ginal ridges of the ventral aurtaoe (metapleura) 
ore hallow, containing a lymph-epaoe, and that 
they, as well as the plaits of tha ventral ioteg». 
OKtit, disappear when the atrial chamber is largely 
distended with tha sexual products, Drawings by 
Mr. W. J. Fanning, of Exeter Collage, were sub- 
mitted in iUustiation of the above stotamento. 



ROTAL Asiatic SoctbtT (Monday, June SI). 
Snt EuwABD CoLBBRooKE, Bort., M.P., in tha 
Chair. Major R. D. Osbom, and Messrs. H. B. 
Ridddl, K O. Q. Thomas, and F. Lethbridge were 
elected members. Major H. F. Blair. R.E., ex- 
hioited several heads and sculptured cornices from 
the Buddhist ruins on Tukhtr-i-Bhai in Eusufzai. 

A discussion took place on Major Blair's re- 
marks, in whi^ Dr. Leitoer, Dr. Bellew, and Mr. 
Jamee FewiuBOD took part. 

Mr. F. Pincott oezt read a paper on the Tri jAla 
of Buddhist sculpture, in which he endeavoured 
to dear the mists which enwrap early Buddhism, 
by fiudinii umple and reasonable explanations for 
some of the most important Buddhist auiblems. 

General Sir Jaroea Alaxonder than lULhibited 

drew tl 

the so-called prostrate obelisk which was pre- 



20 



THE ACADEMY, 



[JpLr 8, 1875. 



WDtod to the EDgliah nation in lecognitjoo of 
MTvicea reDdered to li^jpt in the battle of Alex- 
endria, htiA never been removed to England, while 
tbe yrench, trho had in later yean been presented 
with the obeliak of Luxor, had it tnoBported to 
Pwia, where it now graces the Place de 1ft Con- 
corde. This, he thought, did oot reflect much 
credit on tbe Knglieh nation. He had endeAvouied 
for some Tears to get the obeliBk transferred to 
London, die Metropolitan Board of Works having 
sasigned a Bite for it on tbe Thamee Embankment. 
In spring hist he went to Egypt to ascertain 
whether the Khedive would make anj difficulty 
about die removal of the monument, when the 
Viceroj told him that Englkudwaa quite welcome 
to it. There had becoi considerable danger of the 
monument being broken up for building parpoees, 
or transferred to New York; but he hop^ the 
Socie^ would co-operate with him in getting the 
Government to grautasum of monej for its trans- 
port to London, where this noble block of granite 
would form a handsome ornament and a worth; 
tioph; of former victories. 



AirrHSOPOLOOICAL Ihbtitutb (Tite*dm/,Junt 22). 
OoLORUL A. Lake Fox, Preaident, in the Chur. 
A p^r by Mr. Herbert Spencer was read on 
" The Comparative Psychology of Man," a com- 
prehensive mapping otit of the whole field of en- 
quiry, which will, we understand, be published 
in IJis forthcoming philosophical journal called 
Mind. 

Mr. John Forrest read an account of the natives 
of Central and Western Australia, which we 
noticed in our scientific colnmos laat week. 



ZooLooicAL Socmr or LoinMiir (TAursAiy, 
June 24). 
Tax tenth and last of the course of popular 
lectures at the Society's Gardens was delivered by 
Dr. Pye-Smith," On the Locomotion of Animals. 
After some remarks on the movements of some 
plants and tow forms of life, the general rule was 
iNd down that locomotion is produced among the 
higher animals either by ptiihiitj/ or by BiiUing. 
Thus, in running, leaping, or waUcing, the impetus 
is obtained by the foot pushing against the ground, 
while pulling is exemplified in the use of the 
hands u clinibing by monkeys and of the beak by 
parrots. Swimming may be compared either to 
paddling, as io the movement of a swan, or to 
sculling, BS in whales and the swifter fish, in which 
a strong undulstory motion is caused by the rapid 
lashing of the tail. Flight reeembles swimming 
to a considerable extent, out is more complicated. 
The reason that the otherwise merely austnining 
down-stroke gives a propelling impetus appears to 
lie in the atructure of the wins:, the front edge of 
which is always stiff and rigid, wheresa the hind 
part is more or leas yielding, and bends to a certain 
extent to the resistance of the air. 



Geological Sooiett ( Wtdnttday, June 
3. EvABB, Es«., V.P.R.S., Preddent, 
Chair.— Mr. Mallet offered aome remarks in sup- 
port of bis theory of Volcanic Energy, and in 
answer to the objections urged agtunst it bv the 
Kav. O. Rsher and Professor Hilgard. Mr. flicka 
read a paper " On the Phyacal Condition under 
which the Cambrian and Lower Silurian Rocks 
were probably deposited over the European Area." 
Tracing the distribution of metamorpnic rocks of 
pre-Oambrian or Laurentian age, he showed that 
the old continent must have extended from Scot- 
land to Scandinavia and Russia, and thence to 
Asia, not to mention two Urge Laurentian areas 
in America. Overlying these old rocks uncon- 
formably are conglomerates, pointing to beach- 
conditions. The succeeding Cambrian and Silu- 
rian etrata were deposited in water of varying 
depth, and the author indicated this by colouring 
a vertical section in tints varying in intensity 
with the depths at which the sedimeDls were 
thrown down. The Rev. J. M. Mello deacribed 
bis researches in a bone-cave at Cresewell Grafts 
in the north-eastern part of Derbyshire. This 
cavern has yielded a remarkable assemblage of 
mammalian remains, which have been examined 
by Professor Bush. They include bones of the 
aratie fox (Cants iagopui), the glutton {Oulo 
liucut), the Irish eUs {Cervui megaceros), the 
tichorhine rhinoceros, the mammoth, etc. Flint 
flakes indicating human occupation were also 
foimd. As this was the last meeting of tbe aeeaion, 
a long list of papers had been announced, but the 
remaining eleven commnnicati""* wo™ i^iannul 
of summarily. 



B disposed 



NmsiUTic SociHn (Thuriday, June 24t). 
Thb annual meeting of the Nnmianialic Societjf 
-was held on June 17, at the Rooms, in St. Martin's 
Place. No papers were read, but the annual 
election of officers took place ; afterwarda Mr. John 
Evans, the President, and Mrs. Evans, held a re- 
ception, which wBB well attended, and at which 
eoina and antiquitiea were exhibited by the Presi- 
dent uid others, and a fine series of electrotypes hj 
Mr. Tebbs. 



SOCIXIT OF ANTiauAKIES {TItaridity, June 17). 

Professor Rollestok read a paper on " Further 
Researches in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Fril- 
ford, with remarks ou theNortbern Limit of Crema- 
tion aa practised by the Anglo-Saxons in England." 

In tnn first part an account was given of the va- 
rious relics found at Frilford since the date (tbe 
beginning of the vear 1360) up to which hie 
memoir in the Archaeologia, vol. xlii., had carried 
tbe record. 

The second part of the paper, relating to tbe 
northern limit of cremation as practised by Anglo- 
Saxons in England, was illusbrated by a ojm 
number of drawings of urns obtained from the 
East Riding of Yorkshire. 



of these discoveriee. Dr. Schliemann believed tbat 

the Trojan war took place at a date long previoni 
to that when Homer lived, and vras inclined tu 
fix the interval at about 3,0tX) veare. 

Mr. Gladstone, who was called upon by Lord 
Stanhope, the President, spoke of the great debt 
which tlie public owe to Dr. SchlieninnD. not 
only for his discoveries, but for the example of 
devotion and imI which he has afforded. H« 
thought that his arguments in favour of Hisaarlik 
being the site of Troy were very ditlicuh 
to meet; and the character of the reniuni 
aupported hie conclusion. Many articles made of 
copper were found, but none of iron, o metal evi- 
dently rare in Homeric limes. The pottery ws£ 
hand-made, not turned on the wheel, an imple- 
ment which apparently was only first cominr 
into use when tlie lUad was written. Mr. Glad- 
stone dissented from Dr. Schliemann's view as W- 
the interval between the war and the poet. Ac- 
cording to Homer'schronology,Dardanus foundxd 
the city six generations before Priam, and bia 
name is found in Egyptian inscriptions of the 
nineteenth dynasty, which is ascribed to tbt 
fifteenth century before ChriaL This Mr. Glad- 
stone thought was as distant a date as could fairlj 
be assigned for tbe exiatence of the city, althou^ 
nearer than Dr. Schliemann desired to place it. 



SocxEiY OF AimanAKisB {Thvrtdaj/, Jwnt 34). 
Dr. Scelibkank read a paper on bis discoveriea 
on the site of Troy, and exhibited a large number 
of photographs of the locality and of the objects 
found during his excavations. He commenced by 
giving a topographical description of the plain of 
Troy, wbicn is entirely alluvial, and had doubtleee 
at some remote time been covered by water : but 
he showed reasons for believing that in the time 
of Homer its extent was, roughly spoaking, the 
same aa at the present day. The course of the 
Scamauder, however, has been altered, and its 
wesent bed passes through the site of the 
Greek camp. Dr. Schliemann then referred 
to the unanimous opinion of Greek authors that 
nium Novum was built on the lite of tbe ancient 
uty, and proceeded to describe his own laboure 
and their results, which are already familiar to 
the public from the translation of the Doctor'o 
work published by Murray. His excavations 
brought to li^ht the remaine of three cities. 
Among the relics of Ilium Novum he discovered 
the foundations of two Doric temples, dedicated 
to Apollo end Athene, built about 300 d.c. One 
sculptured stone from the former represents tbe 
Sun-God in a quadri^, and is a fine specimen of 
Greek art. A cast of it ia now placed in the British 
Museum among the frngmeota of the Mausoleum. 
The remaine, which the Doctor attributes to the 
Homeric Troy, consist chiefly of pottery and 
gold ornaments, many of them decorated with a 
representation of Athene in tbe form of an owl. 
In support of hie theory that y\mi*Snnt originally 
meant owUfaoed, Dr. Schliemann referred to cases 
where Heia, to whom Homer applies the epithet 
fitmnt, was represented in the form or with the 
head of a cow. A few handmilla were diacovered, 
but they were not fitted for making flour, being 
capable of nothing more than crushing the grain. 
Bread was, therefore, unknown, and indeed is 
, rarely mentioned by Homer. From the chanctei 



FINE ART. 

IRE BOTAL AOABEXT EXBIBinoH. 
(Surtft JfitfKM.) 

LandKapm. — This is a very large eection of tht 
exhibition, and a considerable amount and 
variety of talent ia invested in it. The multitude 
of the puntings, and the late period of the eihi- 
Idtion-season, equally counsel us to condense oni 
remarks as &r as practicable ; and indeed tht 
verbal description of landscapes is seldom an ST- 
tractive operation to writer or to reader. 

Mr. Mill^a aends two views, of very divers 
character. The Fringe of the Moor is a naoet dd- 
common piece of realization ; not remarkable fix 
either interest, elevation, or novelty, yet so likr 
the thing, and so direct and firm in trwtment. that 
one is compelled, after approaching the picturr 
with indifference, to admit that it could nardlj 
be better done. The subject is simplv a giusv 
Scotch moor, green in the sun, and the remoli': 
hills partiy in wide liffht cloud-shadow. T^- 
second picture has a subject of far more peculiarii' 
and pathos — indeed, few things could have aseoH' 
ations more touching or mora charming than c 
ancient garden almost relapsed into tbe ^vildno 
of nature, as indicated in Campbell's stanza : — 
" Yflt wandering I found on mj niinoua Talk, 

By the dial^stooe Bg«d and gnea, 
One rose of the wildemeas left on its stalk 

To mark where a garden had been." 
It is late ^tnnm, and a bale of damp grev ani 

S'lowish tint steeps all in pallor and uleita. 
ws rise in the distance ; the hills are taree-clad, 
with white stems and pendent leafless boughs d 
ashes ; a line of river is faintiy seen. A ban. 
seated near the old dial, looks very much in hii 
place. In the foreground are flowering' ruebea. 
broom-clumps, procumbent feme, andmuch heaths 
towards the left. At a litUe distance the genetd 
colour is pale, yet it has much variation, Kud fon 
as well. Mr, Millais betrays, we think, some A 
his too usual want of thought in making tbe " oM 
rose " a dog-rose ; for it ia not a dc^-roee, but I 
rose of Bome cultivated kind, tbat would " road 
where a garden had been." Mr. Hook is k painttf 
whom we seldom fail to OEijoy; in deepiteof afrieoj 
of ours, a practised observer of nature, who iusisk 
on it that the painter's gamut of colour ie scaaq 
and untrue, and who christens his works " Hod^ 
scapes." At any late Wite Smut is a very ca[utq 
" Hook-scape; ' it represents a number of cow 
in a stream, showing marted unconcern at tit 
persistent chatter of a raven, who ia as willing • 
impart new ideas as they are obtuse in receivia 
them. Land of Cuyp is uother brilliant spej 



Jmi 3, 18?5.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



21 



SMI), rick and henlthy. A man ia pouring milk 

irom a pail into a large braas veaael ; a ruddj-fitced 
womaa nolda another Teasel and pail ; the river is 
lull to repletion ; the aky is lighted, but not tians' 
pureut. Another Hook, TAe Snmp/iire Oatherer, 
thoufi;h not equallj good, ia t« be remembered for 
the bold aod thorooghlj efToctive expedient of 
entirelj cuttizlfr off the pathway, aSong which the 
noman ia walking, in the centre of the picture 
touchio;; the frame: we see the narrow track 
which she is aetoallj pacing, and that which she 
will shortly reach after a turn ia the road, but 
not this iiiner turn itself. Mr. Henry 3foore 
sends two extremetj fine marines : SttmmBr MooTt- 
light in the Dowra, where all i^ peaceful, blended 
but not monotonous, perhaps rather too fullj 
li^rhted ; and Outtide the Sariour, a wrecked ship 
coing to pieoea in the incessant and relentless 
dash of billows. Though the use of colour 
here has some tinge of opacity, tbia is a 
jrreat example of aea-painling. The determined 
atudj and indefatigable eiecutire precision of Mr. 
Brett entitle him to similar praiaa for the verr 
different aspect of sea which he has treated in his 
i^'ree and StiepUi of tite (Sumnd Itlandt \ multi- 
tudinous blue ripples eteeped in aunny calm, cleft 
by the bore but pmnacled and golden-tinted rocks. 
Beyood these the sea still stretches far, and mixes 
with the boriion; a barque with expanded sails 
might almost be floating upon either element. 
TVk FaUov) Fidd is among the finest and most 
important landscapes eTer produced by Ur. Oakea, 
grand in its simple reali^. The forwronnd is 
bisected between the brown field, ana a grasay 
space throogh which a rivulet runs into the wider 
central river. In the early spring, the sky is 
gleaming and grey-clouded i the rooks are ban- 
ning to build in the leafless trees. Mr. Smart 
stands prominently forward among the namerous 
painters of rock and torrent, mostly Scottish in 
subject ; bis Gloom of Olen Ogla is an impresaive 
treAtment of desolate mountain-eeenery, with a 
pale and stormy Imnour tbrougb the rolling 
mist. The gi^t proportion of grey hues 
which, along with yellowish greens, consti- 
tute the colour-scheme of the picture, are 
not allowed to become alaty or oppreaaive. ■S'um- 
mer Dnys for Me is a very masterly but not 
spfcially elaborate example of Mr. Alfred Hunt; 
meadows resting in fall but rather pale sunlight 
at the akirtfl oi^ a Welsh mountain. Mr. R. W, 
Macbetb sends, in his Ca' the yowet to the knoices, 
one of the healthiest and sweetest landscapes in 
the exhibition : it ia a genuine piece of rural 
verdure, rich, true, and very broad ; broad to a 
rather dangerous decree, though in this instance 
not tranagraoaing what ia permiasible. Another 
excellent exhibitor is Mr. II. R. Robertson, the 
painter of Jfinier. A. human personage is promi- 
nent here — an old woman sawing a Tog of wood 
bard by a pump : this gives a rather odd yet per- 
fectly appropriate point of incident. A nlougued 
field, with rain in its furrows, lies in retiring per- 
spectii'e ; under a grey dense mass of sky, a light 
tvbitisb lino deSnes the horizon ; crows clang and 
wheel. Along with this we may name A Lona 
Shore, by Mr. A. D. Reid, most striking in its 
truth, which conveys sentiment ns well as sem- 
blance : the grey day is wearing late, & pale sheen 
dapples the saturated beach. 



icapiat, William Davia of Liverpool: it is clear 
tbat no small portion of the father's faculty 
has descended to the son. Not that the 
atter painta in an imitatii'e style ; he goes to 
lature, as bis father did, and then painta without 
tervile dependence on any one. In his present 
picture there are a lai^ number of things 
loneetly observed and realised, and well kept 
together ; the roll of clouds, and impending dark 
iinsa aloft, the shadows on the eballow eea, the 
jale sands in sunlight, the furay foreground. 
'itrfitfed Sheep, by Mr. Mac^^'hi^ter, is nuother 



simple and very enjoyable coast-pietute. The 

sheep ere walking along the grass-tufted shingles 
of a rainy sea-ahore; two of them turn uide. to 
have a look at a seir^ull. A pale gleam of sun 
modifies tbe green into yellow, curving off towaids 
the gTe;^ of the sea. A cascade-picture by tbe 
same painter, Land of the Mountain and the Flood, 
ia very able ; the wMer plunges down with a nub 
tbat makes one, in &ncy, hear tbe impetuous nn- 
intennitteQce of ite roar. Many trees, torn off by 
the wind, lie prostrate on the rocky banks. A 
Mouniahi Stream, Olen Croi/, Arrart, presents a 
much milder aspect of Scottish acenerv, and pre- 
sents it with a fineness of work and delicacy of 
completion in which few landscapiets can vie with 
its author, Mr. Waller Paton. 

We must now, though with some reluctance at 
dealing so cursorily with several highly praise- 
worthy exhibitors, dispose of the remaining land- 

Uolin Hunter, Hoitrt of Reit, and Oioe Way, 
sea-pictures of much ability, but not ao much of 
patient working-out ; the former based chiefly on 
Mr. Henry Moore's style, and tbe latter on Mr. 
Hamilton Macallum's. G. E. Johnson, The Har»»- 
dealer, going along a road deeply trenched with 
rain. Kdwm Edwards, Qain^ioreugh't Zone, with 
leafless traes, a little excessive in rigidity. Peter 
Graham, CrotnngtheMoor,»:ai TwtUyht: in both 
tbeae works certain aspects of rainy atmosphere 
are caught with felicity, but they are sketchy and 
hurried, and waver between the ragged and the 
flimsy. Mr. Orabam can and ought to work more 
soundly than thU. D. Murray, The VaU <^ 

Coruiek, lite of Skye. J. L. Picaering, Duerted, 
an old water-mill. I^Neil, The Falii at In- 
vermoriiton. Loch Nett: this and other landscapes 
by Mr. O'Xeil are agreeable and efficient ■po- 
ductions— one of them (No. 187) not much un- 
like Mr. Hook's work: they evince in the 
painter a sort of capacity with which be is not 
generally credited. A. W. May, HopwoM Wood, 

Winter, with patchea of snow, too unalteringly 
white, on tbe soil amid tbe fir-trunks. R. !■. 
Ricbtuds, On the Colder, patting Thunder-doud; 
true in aspect — a abndder aeema to paaa through 
the trees, which stand out relieved upon a dark 
slaty sky, and the river crisps along its ripples. 
A. Hague, Near Trouibeck and The Someilaadi 
true and ve^ clever, but too much in the way of 
mere biU of effect, jolted in and then left. In 
the former, the nearly leafless trees reach out 
graceful arms. Linnell senior. Wood* and Forettt ; 
a very vigorous specimen of the exbaustlesa 
veteran, — the figures capitally introduced. W. 
Linnell, Happen on the Road, powerfbl, but 
somewhat exceeaive in warmth or colour. H, 
Goodwin, Old Gentility, a town-view with a 
river, a noticeable work. C. H. Brockman, T/t« 
CSote of an Autumn Day, and a very wet one to 
boot ; a aoaked road and time-worn i^ter-mill, 
painted with a light hand. A. Duncan, Waiting 
for the Lifd)oai, a huddle of dim shapes on tbe 
pier, interestingly managed. J. Docharty, Gaffing 
a Salmon and The Dochart in Spate, JSllin, 
Ptrlhthire : ' large works of considerable ability, 
tbe latter being the stropger in subject-matter 
and execution. Percy Macquoid, Wave* ; a 
remarkable study of sea, and of rainy sky 
with green gleams, the foamy foi«ground very 
boldly done, and the marbling of the curved 
breakers highly skilled. W. McTaggart, " 'T«a* 
autumn, and tunthine aroee on the vay;" a 
well-sized view of tbe ragged skirts of a strag- 
gbng village, probably S«)ttish, with childr^ 
making themselves as nappy as lazineaa can do — 
all treated in an open and &ee, if perliape too 
obvious manner. R. W. Allan, Waiting the Tide, 
a capital sea and shore piece. 

We should name also — C. Napier Hemy, Zon- 
don Sioer, the Limehoute Sarae-bttHdert ; A. Par- 
sons, £j:eiint (swallows aasembling before migra- 
tion) ; Baveu, The heaven* decUtrt the glory of 
God; J. W. B. Knight, Twilight; C. P. Knight, 
The Eiitrmice to Sriitol Bocks, Eoenmg Tide; J. 



B. McDonald, Old Convent, Vemoe; Oooke, T/m 
Moaatmu and Plain of Denderah ; Vieat Cole, 
Siehmmid Bill, and Loeh Skaoaig. Iiie of Sk^e; 
£. A. Watarlow, A Rock-bound Coatt ; Sir R. P. 
Oollier, The Wetterhom from Haeenlaiai J. H, 
Sampson, O^ (two fishing-boats launched); J. H. 
Davies, AUington MiU, and Old JUiU-toheel ; F. £. 
Oox, Awtumn, and In the pteatant Orchard-ciete*; 
Hodgson, The Turn of the Tide ; Macartney, Wett 
Wii^ t'n Avtitmn ; A. J. Lewis, Among the 
Birchet ; Thorbum, On the Borough Moor near 
Edinburgh ; C. J. Lewis, A Kentiih Mill, Evening ; 
H. Mscallum, Wabbletwick Ferry; T. Lloyd, 
Summertime, Sooth Devon ; Iisader, Wild Water ; 
H. Martin, Mount'e Ray, Fiehing Village ; Alias A. 
Walls, Caurtynrd of a Dmiy-fiirm ; T. B. Hardy, 
Flood~tide, ScAevemngen ; ¥. W. Meyer, Evening 
at Stotley, near Harwich ; Aumonier, The Thainet 
at Great JUarloiB ; Small, The Mettenger, Autumn ; 
A. Bouviar, Sumet; A. Stuart Wortley, View 
from Whamelife Cragt, Autumn; T. Green, Still 
Watera; J. J. Bannatyne, A Summer Evetung at 
Loch Ave; Bough, Yanwath Hall, WetimorUmd: 
J. W. Mclnlyie, Bridlington Quay. 

W. M. KossKm. 



ART SALB. 

Mbssbb. OoBiariE, Muiaoir, and Woons were 
occupied last week with tbe sale of Mr. Olad- 
stone's collection. Their great rooms were 
crowded on the view days with persons anxious 
to see the collection, but the attendance on tbs 
days of sale was not conspicuously larce, and the 

Elces fetched were not very high. Hut it mav 
remembered that the collection itself wm 
chiefly remarkable in virtue of its collector. 

The Wedgwood stood its ground inirly well. 
The following are some of the prices:— A vase 
and cover, coloured in imitation of brown agate, 
with partly-gilt handles, formed as satvrs' nuaks, 
23^. 7t. ; a green vase and cover, with gilt festoons 
and drapery, and a pair of flowerpots with raised 
white ornaments, 12^ l-'i. ; a milh-iug, sucrier, 
and cup, with checkered blue and white pattern, 
on oval plateau, with border of ribands and ivy 
leaves, 46/. 3t. : a medallion of Oliver Cromwell, 
151. I5i. j an oblong plarjue, with a nymph and 
Cupids aacri&cing before a atatue of Flora, in 
white on aage green ground, in glazed black wood 
&ame, 7Sl. ICtt. ; a fine vase with serpent handles, 
and with Apollo and the Muses in relief in white 
1 pale blue ground, 851, 



A Chelsea cofiee 












and gold, fluted and paintt'd with flowers, fetched 
221. i a tea service sold in deUil for 4.18/. ; the 
largest sum realised for any single piece was that 
obtained for the teapot, Mo/. A set of four vasee, 
of BCToU design, eocraeted with figures, tVuita, and 
flowers — the Seaaons — aold for i-i\l, 6«. Of the 
Worcester china, a teapot and cover, painted with 
poatoral figures In Und^ape, and signed and 
dated 1772, fetched 3W. The same price was 
reached by a dark-blue basin, painted with Wat- 
teau figures ; a two-handled cup with cover and 
saucer, Derby china, was sold for 23/. 12*. Cd.; 
a set of three dark-blue vases, with white scroll 
handles and raised flowers in colours, each painted 
with a medallion of classical figures in a land- 
scape, birds on the reverse, realised 100/. — it was 
ascribed to Worcester, but aome considered it 
Ohebwa. 

There was little of importance in the Oriental 
china which commenced tbe second day's sale. 
The Italian ware followed, and among it we may 
note first a circular Florence dish, with blue 
flowers, sot Of the Capo di Monte tigures, the 
Apollo Belvedere, on eoonised plinth, 221. la. ; 
Samson shiying the Philistines, 3-21. lit.; the 
Idocoon, 221. ; a large plaque, Bni;;-hua and 
Ariadne and other figures m nigh rrliul', QOi. ; a 
coffee-cup and saucer, with the Choii'e of Paria 
and other subjects in reliut'nnd colourx. ;be aaucer 
with cusids and festoons in reiii-t', 1 -i. lOi. ; a 
two-hanaled cup and saucer, i\ith I'iana and 



22 



THE AOADEMT. 



[JuLT 3, 1875. 



■hields tuid festoona on the saucer, 221. ; a paii of 
seated figures of utyrs, on pilt wood pedeaUls, 
281. 17*. Qd. The Quarten of the Globe, a set of 
four tine groups, etich with a. femnle flfrura on 
lock-worii Btand, with b, wster god and emblam&tie 



The GMm&n chinft fetched gnnerallv lower pricM. 
A group of children, Berlia, fetched 13J. 15i. \ s 
Dresden ietuOe withviae-brancli handles, 17l.Qt.Bd.; 
a VienneBe ieutUe, 331. lOt. 

The foUowing objects in old nlver and ailvei- 
pilt attracted notice :— A maBBive silver-gilt tan- 
kud, chaeed with figures SBcrificiiig to the golden 
calf, in high relief, 601. B». ; a pair of oval dishes, 
duwed with landscapes, and with heads in me- 
dallioDB, S7l. ; a pearl nautilus cup, mounted 
with silver-gilt, od coral stem and Bilrer-giLt foot, 
with figuiea of snimals, 201. Bt. ; a silver-^t dish, 
with group of figures in high relief in gold filling 
tlie centre, jewelled, and with enamelled plaques 
on the rim, 521. lOt. ; a silver-gilt dish, embossed 
with fruit and Sowers in coloured enamel, and 
wi^ vartouB precious stones set in high coUets, 
SOI. ; a large silver-gilt table ornament, sur- 
mounted by an enamelled group of a pelican and 
ita young, 9CU. ; a deep blue enamel box, with a 
miniature of a female, and an ivory patch box, 
with Cupid, 151. 15*. ; a pmt of siivei'-plt vases, 
chaaedwith shell and scrolls and set with polished 
stones, SOI. The total of the three days' sale 
amounted to 6,816/. 

On Saturdav were sold the pictures : one or two 
,.. ... _r_ .„^ave 

the Virgin with the Infaat Saviour and S. John 
the Baptist, and SS. Jerome and Catherine and 
the Ma^fdolen reading; behiud — was exhibited at 
Leeds in ]«08. It fell for 483/. Two pictures 
iiom the Davenport Broralev collection — the one 
a Joachim Patenier (attributed to that master by 
Dr. Waapsn), sold for SQL 5s. ; the other, attri- 
buted to Vivarini, sold for 63/. For contemporary 
work tho lajT^est siuu realisod was that obtained 
by a Dvce, A I^adv weitring a Coronet of Jas- 
mine, 420/. The jpictures amounted in ail to 
3,24a/., which, with the money obtained for the 
china, plate, and a few carvings we have not par- 



TflB Marlborough collection of gems was 
knocked down on Stonday to Mr. Agoew for 
36,000 guineas. It haa become the property of 
Mr. Broomielow of Manchester, and of Battiesden, 
Bedfordshire, 

FiTB remarkable pieces of tapestry — tbe designs 
tetken from Raffaelle's pictures on the L<^e of the 
Vatican— were sold for 715/., this week, hv 
Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge. They were wi 
about sixteen feet high, but of various widths. 
The designs of the master have not been cloeely 
adhered to. A note in the Daily A'euv claims for 
them n Flemish origin, and conjectures that thev 
•re work of the early part of the eighteeoth 



NOTES AND NEWS. 
So MTCH inter*8t has been excited in Liverpool 
by the forthcoming autumn exhibition of picturea 
that a return iias been moved for, aud will be pre- 
sented to the next Council fleeting, of all the 
pictures purcha«ed by the Corporation, with a 
view, it is believed, of proving that the Fine Arts 
Committee have been too timid to purchase fi«t- 
rate pictures. This is a satistactory proof that 
public feeling is being at last arouaed, even at 
Liverpool, to the importance of the subject 






ng was entertainod by the Liverpool Art Club 
Monday, in order to congratulate him upon the 
of hia picture, Tlie Babyivnian Marriage 



The .choir of Rochester Cathedra), which was 
opened about a fortnight ago, tvfter works of re- 
storation that have occupied more than two years, 
is a good proof of what con be done in tlie way 
of restoration without destroying the ori^nn&l 
character of a building. Indeed, the principal 
work at Rochester has consisted in clearing nway 
superstructures of later date and carrying out and 
reetoring as far as poeaible the deagn of the 
original architect. Forinstacce, the six Early Eng- 
liah windoWBoftbe apee, which have been long lost 
to ught, have been restored and filled with good 
harmoniously coloured glass. The floor of the 
presbytery has been lowei^ to its original level, 
and by this means the Purbeck marble bases of 
the shafts, before hidden, have been brought to 
light. Some interesting diaper work was also 
discovered on the south walls of the choir, in 
which the Lion of Enghind alternated with the 
Fleur^ie-lis. Above this was a border bearing the 
arms of the varioua bishops of Ilochester iiaia 
Ralph do Turbin, ll]4,andbeIow, n narrow inter- 
laced border. All this had been hidden behind 
the high stalls erected in the seventeenth century, 
but liaa now been restored where it was poBsible, 
and imitated in other places with great care and 
very good efiect- Concerning the new reredoB 
opinions ore likely to dill'er according as the 
critics ore admirers of Sir Gilbert Scott's de- 
signs or not. Wliatever may be thought as to 
its taste, it is a fine piece of workmansUp. One 
feels, however, an uncomfortable sense of want of 
harmony between it and the general design of the 
building, w[iich in almost all other respects pre- 
serves its Early English character. 

-V cuRiotTB piece of art workmanship of the 
latter part of the sixteenth century hits been lent 
to the South Kensington Museum by the Marquis 
of Sligo, and is now to be seen in the Kouth 
Court. It is a four-wheeled chariot in silver, 
dntivD by four horses abreast. Within, five gro- 
tesque figures, presumably o masquerading party, 
are represented. One of them, crowned ns a king 
and seated under a sort of canopy, holds a goblet 
in his hand which an attendaitt, dressed in lurban 
and feathers, is about to fill witb wine. Another, 
wearing a fool's cap, is politely bowing to the 
Bpeclntore. Two others are lighting with sticks, 
while a monkey holdinir an apple completes Ihe 
motley group. The driver of the car pits on a 
seat supported by scroll brackets projecting from 
the aides, and two soldiers armed cap-a-pie ride 
beside it. The car itself is richlv ornamented 
with rfpfmtsf work and studded with turquoises, 
garnets, and other stones. The back of it is 
diapered, and upon it is represented an ape holding 
a snield, upon which is inscribed " Z' imperadorf 
dfl Giomof, daegnalo rd rtrffiutof dn Ltuatfnola da 
Jtmi e Eiatto Vmraa MVXCIIIir Th'iawould 
seem to show that the workmanship was Venetian, 
but moet critics consider the car to be of German 
origin. The artist's name, however, is certainly 
not German. 

Dtuth has jnit stricken down one of the last 
and moBt illustrious representativeB of the French 
romantic school: Baiye succumbed on the 27th 
nit. to on affection of the heart, rendered incurable 
by age. Louis Antoine Barye was bom at Tarie 
in 1706. He served his apprenticeehip with a 
steel-engraver. When called by ^e conscription 
to join the ranks, he entered the engineers, and 
was commissioned to draw plans and model reliefs. 
After 1804 he entered the studio of the painter 
Gros, and followed the courses of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. He took part in several competitions, 
and won a priie of the second class. Happily, be 
did not gain the firat prize, which, by sending him 
to Iionie, would certainly have impaired his 
originality, and hja Inlent attained a surerdevelop- 
ment on his native soil. He belonged to a poor 
family and worked in jeweUers' shopB. In 1&>7, 
however, he was enabled to exhibit some huBts ; 
but his reputation was chieliy made at the follow- 
ing Salons by his studies of wild animals, to which 



he gave a character that has never been surpassed, 
or even equalled. He once showed in a group of 
Thetem ^fighting icith the MinUaur bis twofold 
talent of expressing the forme of men and of 
animals. His success in the presentation of the 
latter haa caused his high qualities as a portrait- 
sculptor to be forgotten. Hehas, however,executecl 
several statues of men on horseback, and has given 
a proof of his great decorative talent in four 
groups— the I'ean, War, Force, and Order which 
crowu the angles of two of the pavilions of the 
new Louvre. He became a member of the Acadd- 
mie dea Beaux-Arts in 1868. He was also a 
painter, and painted various wild aTii m>ln in 
water-colours — lion^ tigeia, hoars, and stags — with 

?reat power of drawing and very vigorous colour. 
Ve shall hereaflar devote a special article to this 
eminent artist. He was also an arUst and dealer 
in bronzes, hut sold no works except of bis uwu 
modelling. He has brought once more into vogue 
the almost forgotten method of Matin g "a cire 
perdue," a process which destroys none of the 
delicacy of the model. 

Che of the most competent arclritects of the 
French school, Henry liabrouste, member of the 
Institute, is also dead. He was bom at Paria in 
1801, the youn^ brother of an architect and a 
man of distinction, who was the head of the 
College Sointe-Barbe, fiunoua for its liberal tradi- 
tions. He entered the studios of Vaudoyer and of 
Lebas, and in 1824 gained the grand' prize of 
Rome. Bis studies, executed while he waa a 
student, of the Temple of Neptune at Paeatum, 
have remained bmous. He was commissioned in 
1843 to rebuild the library of Sointe-Genevieve 
near the Pantheon, which was originally installMl 
in the buildings of an old convent. He resolutely 
broke with the academical traditions, and pro- 
duced a building at once original and elegant, and 
perfectly adapted to the requirement of study and 
to the convenience of the puUic. Ho was de- 
nounced as a Komontic ; but the applause of public 
opinion was so graieral that the Institute found 
itself compelled to ofler bira the chair left vacant 
by the death of Hittorf. He was a man of most 
li'bcral mind, ever open M new attempts, and lent 
the protection of his name and authoritv to the 
schools which profesBed modem science, notably 
the school founded by M. Emile TrSlat, 

The productions of the pupils of the Scbo'il oi' 
Rome, painters, sculptors, engravers on metal and 
on precious stones, have been on exhibition since 
Sunday lust at the Ecole des Beaux-Arta. Thay 
are nuiueroua and interesting. We may raention 
among the paintings an excellent composition of 
Bai/it/ieba m the Bo(A, by a second-year student, 
M. Ferriei', who distinguished himsalf at tha 
Salon as a colouriat and draughtsman by a Gitnu- 
tnede carried offta Henven by thtEtigU of Jupiler. 
M. Ferrier is a pupil of tho master of MM. ;Vlphouae 
Legroa, Fantin and Solon, M. Leeocq de Boia- 
baudrau, who has been sacrificed by thu admini»- 
tration because the course of teaching opened by 
him in the Rue de I'Ecole de M^ecino gave um- 
biage Ui the pedants of the Ecole des Beaux- .Vrta. 
We may aleo note in sculpture the contribution 
of M. Idrac, a first-year student, who sends a copy 
in marble of the Faun toith the FltUe, and a larjjo 
baarelief of the Good Samariian ; he obtaineii 
the prize two years ago with a very touching group 
of OrjiheM imng Eitrydice. M.' Ooutanj too, ft 
fourth-vear ."tudent, exhibits an aDegorical basrelief 
of Agncidture, a statue of Rot, and a great detro- 
rative basrelief of Oediptu ami thr Sph;rn.r, vi-orhs 
of great charm, although not free from lunn- 

TnERP. baa just arrived at Paris a most interest- 
ing collection of Chinese works of art Irouifht 
over by M. Sichel. It appears the late lim- 
peror Kienlong, anxious to ruplaca hie treasures 
destroyed in the burning of the Summer I'alace by 
the French and English troops, siint emissaries tti 
every port of bis dominions to collect them ; but ; 
on tiie death of the Emperor, the guardians uf hi;> 



Jpi.r 3, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



23 



inftat II I Mini euiaed ihB yrbaie to be lojil by 

public auction. M. Sichel was one of tha chief 
DuehaaerH, Mid tbeee, tog;eU)er irith the objects 
ae iuu T"''iff"K coUected at Pekisg, fona s seiiei 
of worln of the highest iutereet nod importiutce. 
Hie coUeetuu is not ^et wboll; unpacked, but will 
ba diqil«rad in tha 3tue Pigaile, untH dispersed hj 
puUic sale dther in Puis or London. 

A BTATtn of Fire Laeordure, esacnted by the 
scid|>tor Bomussieux, has just been iiuiugnnled at 
Flavignj. 

The 7omi^EiBr<^ Spain me a. large pnrchaaar 
of the wwrka o[ Fortuay at the late «aLe of hia 



y\x hara noaivad H. F. Oaillard'e eiwi 
iD^ of the Pope and the CaiEt« de Gm 
boid. We spoke of the fiitt in diaciuainir ac 
of the works exhibited at the Salon of 1674. 
is a raj remArkable example of modern line 
^linii- ^B head of the Cumte de Chambord 
ulTered to the enpraTer less opportunity for notice- 
able skill in moaelling, but it is in no — 

inconeidarable work. 

Tke Munich puien annoance that a Oeoenil 
Oennan Azt and Industrial Exhibition nill be 
held in the sumiuet' of 1876, at Munich, 
memonte the twenty-fifth jubilee of the Art 
Associatioii of BaTana, The eihilritiMi wiH 
etude the wotka of old a* well as modem maati ., 
and dicolaie have been addressed to a lai^ 
number of the leading arUats and manufacturers 
in Germany, uniting' tbem to send in contribu- 
tions. Ute Kinfr of Bavaria has inibrmed the 
ERsidtnt of the Association, Herr Ferdinand von 
'iller, direeUv of the Royal Kviize Foundry at 
Slnnieh, that aa patrmi of the axhibitiixi he will 
cuBbikite > sum of 10,000 flanna towaide its ei- 
peaaea, in the hope that the undertaking may t«nd 
in the promotion of a higher state of deyelopnieiit 
in the cultivation of art, and to a better and more 
correct appiedation of artistic products. 

.1 coBRESPOKDGSi at Ober-Ammerjfau states 
that the KTonp of the Crucifixion in stone ordered 
In the Kin y of BaTaxia will shortly be erected on 
tiie moosd above the stage on which the I^rarion 
Bby is perfonned. The eoet of the carriage alone 
T> eMtmated at 20,000 florino. The inhabitants of 
Ammct^n tneaa, on the oeawian of tha 
liira featinl, to put &e Seicol (^ tkt Crom 
I he ><ta^, m perfennance in which about i^ut 
iwn^^ns take part. The &heoi o^ the Crou used 
ID fuimer years to exert a greater power of attrao- 
li-o ihan the Psasion play itsetC The play was 
'■" b«^n on June 21, ana to continue, by means of 
the uan&l repetitionB, until September 30. 

AcoiXMBAi, statue of Alexander ran Hamboldt, 
modeUad b; Profeesor Drake, has been recently 
trhibtted to dmt artist's studio Ib Berlin, pre- 
lioaily to tta Mng sent to America, where it is to 
he caM in bnmia and aet op in the great Inter- 
DBtionAl ExhibstiMi at PliQadel|Jua n«xt year. 
The statoe mneaents Humboldt at about sixty 
years of a^e, ueaaed in the coatome of the time, 
bat with a desk &lling in large folds thrown 
acrose his shoulders. He is standing, holding in 
riDt; hand a roll of paper against his breast, and 
mtiDg the other tigntJy on a large ^lobe. The 
%ure is uon than three nitne in hei^t. 

A KEiBOOFSCnvi fine art exhiUUon is now open 
it Nancy, in Lorrain^ and is said to be ooe of 
the nM«t important axhibitioiu that have a> yet 
btai hold ut the pTOTincea. Lonaine baa pro- 
duoed ft goodly number of Badve artiata, and iWr 
wutka foim an intereetiiu' feature ; beside this, 
however, all the rich collectors and amateors of 
the proTince have contributed most generously all 
their gn«tett treasures. " The exhibition," gays 
VArt, "is quite an unexpected revclstion of the 
utiatie wealth of the country." It is, like last 
MBiner'a azhiUtiOB at tha Palais Bourbon, for the 
htMtitof the jMor French of the annexed pro- 
TiMea. 

Ml. Edwabs Thomai, F.R.S., has ktdy 



written an interesting little paper, which we 
understand will appear in the Journal' of the 
Koyal Asiatic Society, on a Jade Drinking-cnp of 
the Mo^ul lidupetDr Jebaogir (a.d. lOlUJ, ooe of 
the curiosities disperaed at the sale of Uie late 
Colonel Setoa (luthrie's Oriental collection. 
JeULDgit was renowned for his exploits in the use 
of the wine cup, and Mr. Thomas gives us a con- 
aideiable amount of infbnuatiiHi on the subject of 
the Emperor's orgies, detived £ram Jebangir's 
autobiography and &om the contanpomry records 
of the l^lish Ambassador ; but in a quols' 
tion from the fbrmer be misaes the point by 
(Huitting' to give the continuation, in which the 
Emperor remarks that while he had moderated 
his own potatiois he a«ner allowed his subject* 
to drink at all I Jehangir seems to have been 
well aware of the sdvanlases of that excdlent 
system of toleration which oegins and ends with 

A YKBT fine faronie vaee' was lately found at 
Cattanzaro, in Magna Graeeia. Tlu peasants 
who found it brobe it to a»certain whet it con- 
tained, no doubt hoping to find coin. It was, 
however, filled with glass vases, which were un- 
fortunately all smashwl by the ignorant tinders. 
The bundles only remain, and these are now in 
the possession of the Prince Stroizi, in Florence. 
The art is of the tinest onalify, and the losa thus 
resulting from the barbaiisni of these peasants 
utterly irremediaUe. 

A BARE and beautifnl spedmen of ancient art 
has been acquired by the Director, Sipnor 0am- 
murini, of the Egyptian and Etruscan ftluseum in 
Florence. Some time ago, in Iti74, a oeasFrnt in 
the VhI di Ohiana, near Tomta, fiiun^ a small 
antique vase, which uuha[^ily be brt^e with his 
spade. He sold the largest trajncent to a vendor of 
antiquities in Florence, from n-hom Signer Gam- 
manni purchased it for about 300 fnincs. it is 
of the same class of art as the famous Partland 
vase in the British Mitseum, and is of glass in 
two layers- the inner an intense blue, the upper 
a solid white. It has been cut with the wheel as 
a cameo would be, the wheel-marlis being very 
vinble. The subject is a baechic ncritice, and the 
art is very fine. About a fifth part of this beau- 
tiful lacrimatory is wanting; but a prize having 
been offered to any person who might bring the 
rest or any part of it, more has lately been found 
in the soil on the sai 

nly four vas 

Portland is the most important and beautiful, and 
that now in the ^luseum in Florence may be con- 
sidered the next in rank as a work of ancient art. 
It: whs rumoured some time ago that the 
house of Michel Angelo, bequeathed by the last 
descendant, with its contents, to the city of 
Florence, was to be decorated eifemaliy by artists 
in grafitto, who volunteered their designs and 



THS 8TAOB. 

Tms week there has been nothing r 



t the c 



ion of Hamkt i 



I at the 
the 



This was for some time doubted. The house is 
witJiout architectural ^eteosions of any kind. If 
Michel Anoelo ever lived in it, that was a sound 
motive for leaving it in its present state ; but there 
is no reason to tldnk that he ever did so, or ever 
oven saw it, and its decoration in commemoration 
of him is equally naeleas and unmeaning. lately 
ike front Imw been covered up with scafiblding, 
new window-oils and string courses are being pro- 
vided, and they won required as a mere question 
of neceeaajy repair ; but the tnuMmotation of the 
house externally into a modem Flotentine habita- 
tion is also in prepanttion, the new plaster being 
laid and ready for the artists. These as usual — as, 
iii &ct, is invariably the caie in Florence — have 

Ioairelled over the desuus and their execntion. 
his local chanctor of t lonotim artiBts has dis- 
tinguished tbem for muty generations, and ' has 
* a fertile souroe of unfinished wwk in their 

/e city, and may save the Biunarroti bmilv 

bo4Ne feara a ridiculous transfonnation, which 
could only hai-e been thought of in the present 
ittite of tasta in Florence. 



dred nights since the Isst'day of October in 
year, aod that feet is a test from which some 
might disoouree on the rising appreciation of 
Shak^ere on the boards. The conolttsion might, 
nevntheless, be wrongiy drawn, after all ; many 
eitcnnutanoes havii^ contributed to ensure for 
Samia its course of a couple of hundred per- 
formances. That the etage success is both un- 
precedented and renuuteble we do not far a 
moment deny. But it argues, in truth, among 
our plftygoers, no constant devotion to Shakspere for 
Shatspemt's sake. The great actors of old days 
wlio played Hamlet, played it moi^ or 1^ liom 
rtieir youth upwards : the world of tieir time 
was accustomed tti see Shakspere at the thaatro, 
and Shaksperian parts were the parts that actors 
naturally lell into. They were not, in the great 
days of the theatre, very wont to take the town 
by atorni. HamJet was played now by one man, 
now by another, and lor a few nights only, 
with the interest of the audience assured j with 
its esteem probable, but with its euthusiasm, or at 
all events its wonderment, uncertain and even un- 
likely. If ooe man failed or half succeeded, there 
were other men to whom the audience was ac- 
customed. To the individual actor the ex|teri- 
ment mattered much, but to lie audience eom- 
paialJvely little. And the absence of long runs, 
the frequent changes in actor and in piece, the re- 
appearance now for B. few nights, and now a year 
later for a few nights more of any given actor in 
any given part, led to the gradufll maturing of 'the 
character in the actor's hands, so that the audience 
hardly knew at what time the performance which 
had tagun by being not very extraordinary, had 
become great. All this is entirely changed is our 
day, or what remains of it remains only at the 
Th&tre Flanks or the Oddon, where perform- 
ances, however csrelol in their eiuemtie, ore often 
tentative aa regards an individual. A promising 
performance at the Od^on ripens slowly into a 
perfect one at the Theatre Franeais; or at the 
Frsn9ai8 itself from tha beginning, the thing 
matures : Sarah Bernhardt seen for Sie third time 
in Phidre is found better than on the first ; Qot'a 
Mercadet is not quite what it was ten yeaw ago r 
Delaunay, the^ say, takes a new view of a 
favourite part in De Musset. But the London 
public sees no process of this sort. It sees three 
kinds of ambitious first appearances in a grmt part, 
but little of development. The first m when a 
young man, who happens to have the money, takes 
a theatre that they may see his Hamlet. The 
thing has been done, but they decline the invita- 
tion. The next is when a toilsome and useful 
performer, to whom the puUic is accustomed in 
secondary parts, thinks a benefit performance an 
excellent opportunity for ajwearing in the first. 
And the thud is Mr. Irvinn's case— and to it we 
attribute much of the new Hamlet's popular sac- 
csas^ — tbe case of a man who before touching the 
drama of Shakspere, either in a great part ot a 
small, has made a &me, baa called forth great ex- 
pectations, has aroused a uniijue curioeity. After 
wiiat Hr. Irving had done in piecce as varioin as 
Two Btmu, Tke Belli, £agme Aram, and lOckf 
Ueu—eaeh success an extraoidiuary one, and 
whether deserved or not, at all events wholly in- 
dividual and peculiar— the Town, with its new 
interest in the Theatre, was sure to Iwttle ovw 
Samiee. To go and see it was a social 
duty: the merit of tbe actor might m^e it a 
pleasure. And then it was diacnssed ; and pnttii^ 
aside, on the one hand, one newspaper writer's 
hysterical praises, end on the other, one maga- 
ima writers patronage, it cwne at last to be 
commonly acknowledged that here for the first 
time in our day was HanileL And so, for a 
couple of hundred nights, the actor's force and the 
public curioaity have filled n theatre. Bhak- 
^lere has taJien his turn with Mr. Wills and Mi. 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JoiT 8, 1875. 



Albery. But the piwae is ohioflv with Mr. Irving, 
mid not for the public The public has developed 
no new taate, hut has riiuplT been faithful to an 
artist 'who had proved himself great. 

Mb. Ibviks annonnced to the audience, at the 
two-hundredth TepresentatioQ of Handrt, that the 
Lyoeum Theatre, which cloees to day, will re-open 
in September. Macbeth, as has been preryiouBlj 
reported, will be the opening piece, and in due 
time it wiU be euceeeded by Mr, Tennyson's 
Queen Mary. The farce will be ehanj^ monthly, 
for the particular advantage of the pit and gallery, 
and proDably of Mr. Compton also, who has played 
«ncs the autumn in IS*h out of Water. 

Me. Bdckbtorb's fiiendit— or as many of them as 
could get iuBide a theatre— filled the Haymarket 
on Saturday night, to rally roimd that genial 
comic actor on the occasion of his benefit. The 
performance itself was not such na to call for any 
comment : Mr. Sothem's acting in ])avid Onrrick 
is already ao well known, and thia waa the itAple 
of the evening's entertainment. Mr. Sims Betres 
had as usual volunteered to sing two aonga, and 
as he is never so gracious as when singing without 
bwig ptud for it, he sang not two but three, in 
answer to applanse. It is the custom, a« every 
pla^^oer knows, for Mr, Buckstone to Bay a few 
worda on these occasions. His speech ia tame to 
read ; funny to hear ; for he knows how to record 
eitccess with soma modesty, and how to acknow- 
ledge failure with infinite good humour. Mr. 
Buckstone on Saturday began by reminding the 
audience that he had been for twenty-two years 
lessee and manager of the Haymark^ and that 
they might think the time had come for him to 
retire. Ha had no intention of doing so. 

"But, vhile etill remaining the ttasee, you will be 
glad, to hear IhAt the geoenl lUBnagement of the 
theatre, both b«foie and behind the curtain, will 
dBvolvenpon Mr. Sothem. Norcquld I have given it 
into better hands. He hss untiring induBtry, ia a 
great disciplinarian, and a wonderfiilly atlmctivB 
aetor-ral! valuable qnalities in the uonduct of a 
thealre; but Ihough by this conceasioa I shiill be 
relieved troai much aniieCy and responsibility, I hope 
you irill still be glad to see mo as an actor, and give 
me the gratifjing feeling that Tou are not yet tin>d of 
me. I hare no inleEtion or dosica to lag a useless 
veteran on the stage, bat while yon conljnua lo 
Teceiro me so warmly ni you have done tliia evening, 
I shall yet endeavour to do my beat to please you." 
Mr. Buckstone commented upon the commercial 
success of the past season, in which OurAmeriam 
Couiin and Damd Garrick had been a sufficient 
attraction. For next season he promised his 
frequenters Mr. J. C. Clarke, the American comic 
actor, and Mr. H. J. Byron — in a comedy of bis 
own. Mr. Sothem would also appear in a new 
and original part. 

Thb Haymarket le-opened on Monday night, 
under the temporary management of Mr. Edgar 
Bruce. The company is, in the main, that from 
the St. James's, and the pieces are those which 
Misa Litton has produced either there or at the 
Court. The Zoo— the funny after-piece, with 
music by SuUivan — ia played at the IDiymarket as 
after-piece, as it has lately been at the St, James's, 
while the principal piece of the evening is that 
which had the greatest success achieved by the 
late Court company; we refer, of course, to 
Brighton, bv Mr. Marshall, adapted from the 
Saratoga of' an American writer, Mr. Bronson 
Howard. Brighton is a bustling fnrce, in four 
acts instead of one. It is entirely extravagant, 
and was received on Monday night with every de- 
monstration of enthusiastic approval. It owes 
something to its actbg. The best actors are 
thoroughly familiar with their parts, but Tima doea 
not appear to have sensibly staled them. Mr. 
Wyndhiun renituns as he was at the Court, the 
representative of that hero of many adventures, 
Bob Sackett His performance is one of much 
spirit, but not of the very high artistic value that 
has been claimed for it. Mr. Bruce has fortunate 
moments. Mr. de Vera repnwnts one Cartw, 



whose manners have not the repose that the name 
of his impersonator suggests. Mr. W. J. Hill- 
one of our funniest actors — is entertaining as 
Vanderpump. The dull ws«gle of his head and 
the awkward haods now clutching his pocket 
handkerchief and now his folded copy of the DaUg 
Teiegr^h, as he aits, ill at ease, on a bench in the 
hall>af the Grand Hotel, suggest something near 
to a study from life. The part of EfBe Reming- 
ton, to which during many nights at the Oourt 
^eatre Misa Litton gave some charm, is played 
by Miss Edith OboUis, with look and manner re- 
calling, if we mistake not, those of Miss Ada 
Swanborough. Miss Pauline Markhora, returning 
from America, plays Mrs. Alston suitably, and the 
other women's parte — those of Mrs. Vanderpump, 
Virginia, and Mrs. Carter— are pleasantly repre- 
sented by Mrs. Clifford Cooper, Misa Murielle, and 



DstKY Lanx will open, it is said, on Sep- 
tember 2, with Mr. Dion Boucicault's Shauahraun. 
?diss Bose Lecleiq is engaged to act the heroine, 
and it is likely that Mr. S)ucicBult himself will 
appear in the piece. 

At Mr. J. Clarke's benefit at the Adelphi on 
Monday, Messrs. James and Thome appeared in 
the musical farce A Oreen Old Age, and Miss 
Furtado in her original character of Esmeralda in 
Sotre Dame, yicholat Xicldebg was also acted, 
and the Bonnie Fithtai/e completed the ample 



Tee Criterion gave us on Tuesday La FUle de 
Madame Angot in French. Good aa the piece is, 
in man^ ways, in English, it is of course much 
better in. French; and with the interpretation at 
the Criterion by the well-knovm Brussels company 
little lault is to be found. 

It is said to be in a new piece by Mr. Weatland 
Marston that Mr. Sothem will appear, on bis re- 
turn to London from the provinces. 

Thb Princess's Theatre, which vras to have 
closed last week, remains open at all events until 
this evening (Saturday), the profits being promised 
for the Bufierers by the French inundations. 

Ih Book the Third, Chapter the first, nUyed 
nightly at the Court Theatre, the heroine s part 
is now acted by Miss M. Cooper, who succeeds 
Miee Amy Fawsitt in the character. 

The performance on Tuesday at the Thd&tre 
Fran9sas was for the benefit of ue suiferars by the 
Toulouse inundations, and was the occasion of 
Mdlle. Blanche BoretM's second appearance in the 
Kue Uichelieu. 

Those who know the Parieian theatres know 
that the tapeure-pompiei'e play a great part in 
them. Their buckets, their water pipes, their 
uniforms, are at all times every where. The safety 
their presence guarantees is not purchased at a 
small cost, and the sum charged by the town for 
their attendance bos just been incr^ised. A small 
thing in itself, one may say, but just the Inst 
burden on the over-laden backs of the Parisian 
managers, burdened already with excessive " droits 
des pauvres." It has therefore served to bring 
■ misfortunee to the front, and 
devoted an article to ex- 
position. The Ambigu Comique, 
after jte one succcm of Mdlle. Faigueil in JiMe 
Michel, — the first for several years — has closed its 
doors; the Ohatelet is seemingly lost to hope;, 
the manager of the Thtitre Lyrique Dramatique 
has paid thirty thousand francs to thepoor this year, 
and has himself tost fourteen thousand by the 
simple process. The Chateau d'Eau is closed ; 
the vaudeville, by strange luck of the moment, 
has found a little piece unexpectedly good, but its 
gloomy past — a past without a single triumph, on 
the Cbausa^e d Antin — is well Iniown ; and a 
leading theatre of comedy— the Gymnose — has 



oes pauvies. i( nos u 
their grievances and misfi 
a leading journal has de 
plaining their position. 



) wiii- 

lowledge. 

M. ABBkirE HouBUTx is aaid to he a candidate 
for the post of manager at the TfafifLtre Lyrique 
Drunatique. He had foimerly M, Perrin's place 
at the ThSitre Franfois, and though familiar t- 
some as the author of a work on Lionardo da 
Vind, ia more widely known as the writer of very 
bold stories, and the editor of a magazine called 
L'AfHitt. 

The Figaro announces that M. Emile Aujpa 
and M. Labiche are at work together on a piew 
for the PaluB Royal ; an intimation whiefa, not- 
withstanding the wit in La Baule and the Bucces* 
of Messrs. Meilhac and Haldvy, is, as fsr as k 
concerns the author of Le Fib d« Qiboyer, to V 
taken with great reserve. 

The Parisian revival of Lee Deux OrpheUaa 
cannot long continue, the engagements of^ MdDe. 
Dica Petit and Mdlle. Ang&Ie Moreau taking thea 
elsewhere. _^___ 

MTTSIO. 

A Memoir uf Michael WiUiam Balfe. Bt 

Charles Lamb Kemiey. (London : Tinalev 

Brothers, 18?5.) 
It is not very often tiiat the honour is paid 
to the memory of a masician, especially bl 
English mnsician, of pabliBhing his biography 
in a large octavo vohime within a few yeorj 
of his death. This hononr, however, h»« 
been allotted to the composer of the Bohr- 
mian Oirl ; and the present work appeam ty 
have a donble object — to narrate the leading 
events of Balfe's life, and to make a Tigorooi 
attack on those who venture to deny bin 
the highest rank aa a musician. 

Wi^ regard to the biographical portioir 
of Mr. Kenney's book, it has the great merit 
of being thoroughly readable. It is written 
in a light chatty style, plentifully inter, 
spersed with anecdotes, and not too long, 
bat sadly deficient in dates. Moreover, thr 
life of Balfe waa so fall of vicissitudes, and 
compriaed bo many cnrious and even roman- 
tic incidents, that in parts it reads rathe.- 
like a novel than a biography. 

Michael William Balfe was bom at Dubt 
May 15, 1808. His musical aptitude sboweu 
itself so early that at eight years of age m- 
read of bis playing a violin concerto hj 
Mayseder at a concert. At the age of fift(t:i 
be lost his father, and Immediately after thi> 
event he went to London with Charles Horn, 
the singer and composer. There he obtained 
an engagement as violinist in Drury IjOuc 
Theatre ; and by hia excellent violin playine 
soon attracted notice, and was r(used to tht 
rank of first violinist, playing solos alter- 
nately with Mori. 

Not very long after this — we cannot sat 
how long, for Mr. Kenney's volum.e ia no- 
ticeable for the almost entire absence of dat-es 

Balfe was seized with the idea of becoming 

a vocalist, and commenced an assidaow 
course of stndy for this purpose. His firsi 
appearance on the stage (at Norwich as 
Caspar in the Freitchvlx) was, however, a 
failure, in consequence, says his biographer, 
of nervonsnesa, and he returned to his 
former post at Drury Lane. In the year 
182&, as far as we can make oat from the 
few indications in the book, a Koman noble- 
men, Count Maezara, happening to meet 
Balfe ftt an evening party, was so impressed 
with the likeness of the youth to a son he 



JliLT 8, 1B?5.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



26 



had recently lost-, ih&t be offered to adopt 
him and take him to Rome to parsne his 
mnsical studies. The whole affair, as the 
biographer xajs, haa all the ^r of a chapter 
in a novel ; the episode is well told by Mr. 
E!enney, and certainly reads like romance ; 
however, the facts are apparently indis- 
putable. At all events, Balfe went to Italy 
under the Count's protection ; and though, 
for some not very apparent reason, tho con- 
nexion between them was severed in the 
following year, his patron stiU continued 
his kindness, placing the young musician 
□nder the care of Federici at Milan. It 
was here he wrote his first work for the 
stage — the ballet of La Perouse, which was 
produced with snccess at La- Seals — Mr. 
£enney gives us not the least idea when. 

Space will not allow us, and unfortunately 
it is impossible from the volume before us, 
to tbilow Balfe's career closely. A few facts 
may, however, be briefly given. From Milan 
Balfe went to Paris, where he studied 
singing under Bordogni, after which he 
made a second, and this time success^, 
appearance on the stage as Figaro in II Bar- 
Here at Lee Italiens. The state of his health 
shortly after caused him to return to 
Milan, and he there obtained an engagement 
throogh an influential friend as fi.rat bari- 
tone at the opera of Palermo. Here in 1829 
(the dat« is fortunately given in the com- 
■ plete list of Balfe's operas at the end of the 
volume) he produced his IRwalldi se gteeei, 
the first of nearly thirty operas which flowed 
from his facile pen. He appears to have 
remained in Italy till 1835, sometimes sing- 
ing, sometimes composing. Before leaving 
this part of his career, we must call attention 
to a very remarkable omission iu Mr. 
Keuuey's book. In Mendel's Coneenationa 
Lwicoti, one of the best and most complete 
of the German musical dictionaries, under 
the article "Balfe," we read: — 

*' WheD engaffed in 1835 at the Fonice Theatre 
in Venice, ho fell into ill repute through a veir 
unhappj alteration of the text of Mej'erbeers 
Croctato, which he wished to nirBnge to suit better 
the taste of the day ; the attempt fiiiled eutirelr, 
and Bulfe, who by other enterprises also had made 
himself numerous euemieB, saw himself obliged to 
leave Italy altogether." 

Snrely a fact of such importance as this 
ongbt to have been mcutioned iu a bio- 
graphy in which many less important details 
are recorded ; but the only reference to the 
engi^ment at the Fenice is in these words 
(p. 100) : " he is next to bo found at the 
Fenice iu Venice, still singing in conjunction 
■with Malibran." The omission certainly 
seems to reqnire explanation. 

Balfe's first English opera, The Siege of 
Jtochelle, was produced by the English Opera 
Company on October 29, 1835, and from 
that time Balfe's position may be said to 
have been established. It is needless to 
enumerate all his subsequent works. The 
best known, and perhaps the best, the 
SoJiemiaii Oirl, was bronght out iu 1843, and 
the JJaughteT of 8t. Mark in the following 
vear. In 1846 he became conductor in Her 
Majesty's Theatre, a post wliich he held till 
1852. In 1857 Miss Louisa Pyne and Mi-. 
William Harrison commenced their joint 
management of English opera at Covent 
Garden Theatre, and for them Balfe com- 



posed his later operas, among which the Bote 
of Cantile and SataneUa were Uie most 
popular. In 1864 he retired &oin aotive 
work, sold his house in London, and bought 
a small estate in Hertfordshire, where, ex- 
cepting occasional jouroeys, he passed the 
remainder of his life. His only composition 
of importance during this period was his 
opera Tke Knight of tite LfAtpard, better 
known as II Taliemano. He died on October 
19, 1870- 

Balfe's merits as a composer may be 
briefly summed up in one word — tenefhuiess. 
He had abundantly the gift of melody, but 
he had very little besides. Mr. Kenney in 
various parts of his book is exceedingly 
bitter against the critics, because they almost 
unanimously deny to Balfe the possession of 
the highest musical powers. A few " elegant 
extracts" will show the style in which our 
author writes on this subject : — 
' " The writera of these abstniBe profundities are 
' often totallv ignorant of the subject they bo glibly 
handle, ana would be puzzled to take part in a 
boy'B ' contb concert. They get tneinselves 
coached in all this technical trash by some needy 
disappointed pTofeasor, who is gkd for the price 
of a dinner to vant his miBsnthropy by the same 
stroke alike on the more prosperous jouruoUst, 
whom he renders ridiculous, and the successful 
brother musiciau the growth of whose laurels hs 
helps for a time to retard " (pp. 134, 136). 

" To look back at these elTusione, as I have 
done, fills one with astomsbment, that peisons 
capable of expressing tbemaelves in the language 
of educated men should have allowed the paltriest 

eJoiiaj and the most short-sighted malice to 
ve overcome in them all sense of decency, all 
dictates of prudent judgment, all habits of ordi- 
nary courtesy, to Bay nothing of common respect 
for truth" (p. 170). 

" Priggish pedantry, fsetidions dilettanteism, 
and the malice of profesaioDsI envy, had appar- 
ently barked and snarled themeelvea hoarse " 
(p. 104). 

"... the carping crew who had so inceasantly 
yelped at his heels " (p. 3S1). 

It would be easy to add to the number of 
these unpleasant quotations ; but we will 
merely remind Mr. Kenney of the well- 
known saying that abuse is almost in- 
variably a sign of a weak cause. Oar author's 
enthusiasm for the subject of his memoir is 
perfectly natural and excusable; but we 
believe and (we may add, for bis own sake) 
hope Mr. Kenney is not a musician ; and if 
he be not, he is not qualified to judge 
between Balfe and his critics ; and we say 
most emphatically that be baa no righl> 
whatever to bring against the latter such 
wholesale cliarges as are contained in the 
above extracts. At the risk of being accused 
of " priggish pedantry, fastidious dilettanfe- 
iem, and the malice of professional envy," 
we will venture to express a deliberate 
opinion that, excepting melodic invention, 
Balfe lacked nearly every requisite of a great 
composer. His operas are mere collections 
of pretty tunes, and absolutely nothing more. 
In general style one is as like another as two 
peas ; indeed, we believe that any number of 
pieces might be transferred trora one to 
another (provided only tho words were of 
the same metre) without the works sust^ning 
the least detriment. Balfe's melodies are 
always pleasing, but very often common- 
place and sometimes even vulgar; and a 
mere collection of pretty tunes will not 



m^e a great opei». Bat as Mr. Kenney 
seeiOB to attribute the opinions expressed by 
oritios concerning his hero to jealousy and 
malice, we will give him the opinions of two 
eminent German aathorities upon the sub- 
ject, — opinions which neither jealousy nor 
any personal motives could have influenced. 
Mendel, in, bia Convenatiotu Lexicon, already 
referred to, says : — 

"Balfe'a s^le, in all his operas, whether com- 
posed to Italian, English or Fueueh texts, is the 
modem Italian, which he treats with sfaiU. His 
melodies, without being original, are flowing and 
natural, his harmony is sometimes choice, and his 
orchestration, if not striking, is clever and not 
overloaded. Depth of idea and thought, and 
breadth of conception are wanting to Balfe's 
music; on the othsr hand, it happily hits the 
&sh)onaUe style, and is well adapted to those who 
are disposed for a little light enlerteinmeut. It 
is to be regretted that so great a talent as Balfe 
nnquestionably possesaes could so utterly estrange 
itself from the art of his native laud, that even 
atW his return to England he could find no 
means to recover from the ahsllow etjie he had 
adopted." 

BerusdorPs Neiie» Univertal Lexicon der 
Ton/LTuiKf is even more severe; its judgment 
is aa follows : — 

" His music is verv supeificisl, and is a glean- 
ing of all lands of Italian and French sciaps ; yet 
it shows here and there a pleasing vivadty." 

But we have said enough on this point. 
We have felt it our duty to draw attentiou 
to it alike for the sake of tho readers of this 
volume and of the critics whom Mr, Kenney 
has, we cannot but think, treated unjustly. 
Such remarks as those quoted form the only 
drawback to the eujoyment of an otherwise 
most interesting volume. 

Ebkhbzbb Pbout. 



TsK grand concert at the Alexandra Palace in aid 
of the lutemational Mosart Institution took place 
on Tuesday afternoon last. Owing to the abeeniv 
ofMdme. Nominn-Nriruda throu^ indisposition, 
the double-coucerto which she was to have plaved 
with Herr Straus was QBCessarily omitted. Ttoiigh 
this was a disappointment, it was not without 
compensating advautages, as the programme was 
quite sufficiently loug RS it was, including a sym- 
phony, a coucertu, two overtures, and fourteen 



mlp: 



Asw 






the whole of the n 
works. There waa onlyonepiece to which eiceptioi 
could be taken. This wsa the "Kyrie"and "Gloria" 
from the so-called Twelfth Mass, a work very popu- 
lar in this country, but which is now generally ad- 
mitted by the beat authorities on the subject to 
be spurious. In other respects the selection was 
cellent, and included the " Jupiti " 



[ JVoirro, t 



to the Zmibtr/ldte and J 
pianoforte concerto in D minor, admirabry played 
bv Mr. Obatles Hallfi, the songs " Voi che sapete " 
(Mdme. Demeric-Lablache), " Deh vieni (lUdme. 
Ruw-Perkina), " Dove sono " (Miss Rose Heisee), 
" Gli angui d'infamo" (Mdlle. Bauermeiater), 
"DallaauB pace" (Mr. Edward Lloyd), "Vedio 
mentr'io sospiro " (Mr. Santley), and " In dicaen 
heil'geu Hallen " (Herr Behrens). Mdlle. Geor- 

S'ne Schubert made her first appearance in ^g- 
nd in the son^ " L'Amero " ftom H Jit Puttore, 
with great success, the violin obbligato b^g 
pUyed by Herr Frwis Schubert. Various duets 
and choruses completed the prc^Tamme. Ibe 
conductors were Sir JuUus Benedict and Mr. Weist 
HiU. 

Maillakt'b Let Drapont de Villars waa pro- 
duced at the Gaiety Thaatfe on Thursday week. 
The music is in the light modern French style, 
very piet^ but not very strong, and the libretto 



26 



THE ACADKMT. 



[JptT 3, 1875. 



OdBtuns some rood eitiwtioiu. The fettc 
vaa, SB aeaae tiway* to be the esse wiih tb« oom- 
' puiy engaged at this theatre, reniArJtsble for the 
wuwlltiiice of iU cnifinble. I^e principal Bomano 

Sit, Roee, was capitally min^ and «ct^ W 
dlle. Priola, and Al. HerWc ae Srh-ain, M. 
Borde as the jealous innkeeper TTiihaut, eod 
M. Mnrtfn as Belamy wera also as ^od ai usnnl, 
'Die auhonliiMta parta ^vere adequatel;f filled b; 
Mdlle. Be Vaure and Messn. Joinniwe and Oajda. 
On Monday last Masai's La Necet de Jtamtette and 
Adam's i> Oidltt neie given, the latter tot the 
first time. Of the fomiei work we spoke recentlj ; 
a Mcond bearing oonfimted the iirst bvouiable 
iiosieesion of the mnaic; aod both t^e singing 
ana acting of Mdme. Naddi and SI. Martin, upon 
whom nearij the whtda vork of the opera de- 
ToWes, were admirable. The opetsa of Adolphe 
Adam are ahnoet nnknown in this conntrj', though 
a few of his oTertnres are lamilior to coucert^oers 
at the Or^BUkl Palace and elsewhere. An <i})por- 
tnnitj of bearing one of his wivks in its mtirety 
was theraforo e^edally welcmne, and the vety 
thin attendance on Monday was douhtleee doe to 
tike miseasUe weather, lie C/iuift peaaeaseti the 
. advantase of a c<^t^ libretto bv Meean. Scribe 
and Mdeeiille. There are but three characters 
besides the <^tub in the whole work: but with 
Terj simple means the libKttists have developed a 
moat amosing plot The music is full of melody 
and piquancy, and in many places niSt unworthy of 
Auber. The opera was most charmingly sung 
and acted by Mdlle. Mary Albert (BeSjy), 51. 
Barbet (Daniel), and M. Dauf^in (Max). Mdlle. 
Albert was exactly aoited with the part of the 
vill^e coquette, and the Max of M. Dauphin taaty 
be retarded as a companion picture to hia ezcel- 
l^t Seiveant Sulpice in La FHie du Siffiment, 
while lo. Barbet a^i the rich young peasant hnd 
exactly the " air un peu bete,^' by which he is 
described in the course of the piece. One of the 
great merits of these performances is that the parts 
seem to be tUways allotted exactly to the right 
artiaL No one who knows the various style of 
acting of the members of the company could 
suggest, in Le ChdUt for instance, any alteration 
in the oast which would be an improvement. To 
this, doubtless, amoBg athei causes, may be attri- 
buted the remaricahle excellence of the <nnmU>. 
Fra IXavoh vrae announced for Thuraday evening. 
( >f tUa we muat defer our notice till next week. 

The concert of the Musical Artists* Sodety 
yesterday week was in all respects a most suc- 
cessful one. We referred to the programme in last 
week's Acadeht, and need not therefore give it 
now m txteiuo. The larger instmmental works 
show nnmiatakeable talent, and were well received 
by an appreciative audience. The performers 
were Misses Sophie Ferrari, Jessie Jones, Mary 
r>avies, Aonie Buttcrworth, Ellen Day, Bolton, 
£mma Baraett, and Olive I'reacott; Messrs. H. 
G. Banister, Eaton Faning, J. Lea Summers, E. 
H. Thome, Henry Hohnes, Walter Pettit, Ohariea 
Gardner, and Arthur OT-eary. 

Me. John Thoius'b Grand Harp Concert vres 
>riven at St James's Hall on Thuraday week last, 
when the conoert^givor introduced several of bis 
onn compositions. 

Tbe programme of Signor Rendano'a pianoforte 
recital at St. James's Hall last Wednesday oom- 

Srissd a Fantasia by Hoiart, MeodelasahnB Pre- 
tde and Fugue in E minor, Bach's "Italian 
OoneertD," Beethoven's Sonata in £ flat, Op. 31, 
No. 3, and smalker pieces by Lulli, Jadassohn, 
Schumann, W. Q. Ouaiira, Martini, Chopin, Scar- 
latti, and yignor KeBdano himself. 

Mk. J. B. ^Welch's concert at the Langfaam 
Hall last Wednesday evening, at which, with the 
exceptiou of 5Ir. Franklin Taylor and Herr 
Daubert, the whole of the perfonnera were 
pupils of the coDcertrgiver, oeservee especial 
mMition for the exceUenoe of the music perfonned. 
Of twenty pieces included in the pregsamme just 
noe half vtere by the great German masters, 



Handel, Clock, Moiart, Weber, Mendalseohu, and 
Schumann ; the modem Italian school bong re- 
prewDted by Dooiaetti, Verdi, ami Piatti. Tha 
trashy ballad was ccmspicuoua b; its ahaence. It 
is gratifying to find that we have conscientious 
teachen among us who teach nothing but good 
music. Such a one, if we may judge from hb 
concert, is Mr. Welch, and therefore such perfor- 
mances as those given on Wednesday merit re- 
cognition. 



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AtTmnoaKAFHT OF Sr. Thoius Qutbius, by tbe Ber. 

S. B. DBDUUOKn t 

SWINBL'bNI'B EGfi&Tfl ASQ STODIES. by O. SAljiTHBURT . 4 

Us Bmens's Hisronv op Italian LmaiATi-RE, by the 

Mew Knvau. by Waltbb KACiaAxa . . . . T 

Nons AHD Haws 10 

Nnna of Thatel 11 

SKuontHia rsoM the Hatto.s Papebs. . . .12 

PABIS LETTKE, bj a. HOKOD IS 

Srlbcisd Books 14 

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cocJt ; " Memy a .," by B". J. PnnilTHn . 14-li 

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SdBtcB Born (HerEOROioor. Oeoiioot, ZnoLoav) . IT 

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Horn AND KawB K 

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Okaiuiab and BEAnma Book dI cbs Absthean Lahocasf, 
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Kni in PBKpM Hl»r01lT. By CWtUn ARTHUR GHfr- 



thEK-UwuoEialf arfiillHjik.''— .VvBat,^A*nauL ' ' "" 

THE LEPE & GROWTH OP LANGUAGE. 

idye Phtitoliy in rate CeltriE. 



The GHILBHOOS of RELIGIONS. In- 

tliidina a 9iAplo AoEOUDt of the filFth Biid Groirth of ICsTb* 
•nil Lanadi. By EDWARD VIMOD. r.lt.A£., Aethdr 7 
■■The^lldieodrfliiWotW.- "Jrown »io.6i. 
-HariudWSiuSnr A^Uds ef nyle:.... Jl esM^ni Hh 



ai Comliill, atd 12 FstwluMtn liow. 



July IQ, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



27 



aATVXDAY, JULY 10, 1876. 
No. 166, Ntw Seriet. 



The Editok cannot widertdhe to return, or 
to eorrevpond ioti& the wnien of, rqeded 
mantuoryat. 

It w parUmdarlij requettod that oS. ImaineM 
htten regarding th» aupply cf the paper, 
^., may be addretigd to ihs Pcblisheb, 
and not to the Editor. 



LITERATURE. 

A Chronicle of England during the Reigru of 
the IWort, from A.D. 1485 to 1559. By 
Charles Wriothesley, Windsor Herald. 
Edited from & MS. in thepossession of 
Lientenant-Oeiientl liord Henry H. M. 
Percy, KC.B., V.C, E.R.G.S., by Wil- 
liam Douglas Hamilton, F.S.A. Yol. 1. 
(Printed for the Camden Society, 
MDCCCLXXV.) 
This is one of the most important pnblica- 
tions issned by the Camden Society. It is 
the -work of one who lived thron^h the 
whole of the time be has chronicled with 
the exception of the reign of Henry VII., 
the annals of which do not extend over 
more than six pages. The earlier part of 
the reign of Henry VIII. is very briefly 
chronicled; bnt from the time the author 
entered npon public life as Bouge Croix Pnr- 
soirant in 1524 at the early age of sixteen, 
the details of public events, chiefly in Ijon< 
don but occasionally in the country, are 
very full. The name of the writer is 
wholly unknown to history, and but for a 
few tensions to others with whom he is 
connected, which occur at interrab in the 
diary, would never have been discovered, 
as the MS. &om which the Chronicle is 
printed is not an original, bnt a copy in an 
unknown hand, of the seventeenth century. 
Under an entry of the year 1540, he speaks 
of his cousin, Mr. Tboinae Wriosley, being 
knighted and made secretary to the King. 
This was the celebrated Chancellor Wriothes- 
ley, who was so summarily got rid of by the 
Council in the first year of Edward VI. 
The minute accounts which he gives of the 
City and Court banquets lead to the suppo- 
sition that he was a member of the CoU^e 
of Arms. Now Charles Wriothesley, the 
son of Sir Thomas Wriothesley, who had 
been Qarber Principal King at Arms, was 
created Windsor Herald in 1534, and, ac- 
cording to Noble, lived on into the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth— and it is noticeable that 
the Chronicle terminates in the second year 
of Elizabeth. The Chronicle itself, being a 
continuation of Arnold's Chronicle, might 
nataraUy have been made by Charles 
Wriotheslev, whose great nncle was Richard 
Arnold. The authorship of this Chronicle 
is not of much importance, thoagh it is satie- 
&ctory to have such good evidence to settle 
it. The value of the Chronicle itself is very 
^reat, as it sappbes a considerable number 
of &cta which were not known before, and 
throws light upon dates and other joints of 
bistory which were doubtful. The incidents 
atladed. to are naturally of very small im- 
portance in themselves, out tlie omtenta are 



a very nsefiil record for r^rence. It has 
been well edited, though perhaps there is a 
Buperfloi^ of explanatory notes — a fault 
which, if it be a &nlt, is on the right side. 
And the volume has been enriched by the 
insertion of theBaga de Secretis, Pouch VlII. 
and IX., which appear in print for thd first 
time, and contain probably all that will ever 
be known of the trial and conviction of Anne 
Boleyn. The Introduction also will prove 
valuable to readers who are not quite 
fitnuliar with this period of history, though 
the editor has not always expressed his 
meaning clearly, nor again has he always 
been oorrect in bis statements. - Thus, when 
at p. xliv. he says — speaking of the funeral of 
Francis I. — that at the requiem mass in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, Bishop Ridley of 
Rochester " greatly commended in his sermon 
the said French king departed for setting 
forth of the Bible and New Testament in the 
French tongue to be read of all his sub. 
jects," he is quoting the words of the 
Chronicler, and adds on hie own account : — 

" This commendation of our authar of Francis T. 
for his religious enlighten meat in encoursging the 
epTead of the Scriptures, reads «omewbst strange 
when wa call to mind that it was under his 
government that the Tiingliiih tiaiulstion of the 
Sciipturee was summarily stopped at Paris in 
compliance with a lemoDstraoce of the French 
clergy." 

It may be observed that the author gives 
no opinion himself, but simply states the 
fact of the Bishop of Rochester's oonmien- 
dation of Francis. Moreover, Mr. Hamilton 
Aould be more careful in assigning the 
sermon to its right author. It was not 
Ridley n'ho pronounced the eulogy on the 
profligate monarch, but Holbeche, who pro- 
bably was told by Bomerset what to say, 
and then perhaps earned bis immediate pro- 
motion to the richer see of Ldoooln, to make 
room for Ridley to succeed him at Rochester. 

This is an incident belonging to the 
reign of Edward, the greater part of which 
.will be chronicled in the second volume, 
which we hope to see published for the next 
year's subscription to the Camden Society. 
It can scarcely &il to throw a little light on 
the scandalous transactions of the reign of 
Edward VI. 

Sometimes, too, t^e editor goes beyond 
his province, as when he gives a very flimsy 
account of the versions of the Engbsb Bible 
a propot of some remarks upon the suppres- 
sion of the edition printed at Paris. Neither 
do we think he exactly estimates Charles 
Wriothesley's opinions when he says that 
the progress of the Reformation had his 
sympathies. Nothing is more pl^n than 
(jiat the author went with the Kmg in the 
abolition of the P^»al snpreuiacy, but was 
heartily in fovonr of the old learning, and we 
may observe that this is just the state of 
mind one should expect &om a member of 
the College of Arms, and a near relation of 
Chancellor Wriothesley, the particular Mend 
of Qardiner, Bishop of Winchester. And 
now that we are on the ungractons task of 
finding fault, we may notice an instance in 
which the editor appears to have misunder- 
stood the chronicler. 

Under the year 1536 the author writes, 
p. 54 :— 

"This years, in August, the scisme, sessed 



cemiog the articles of our faith and other cere- ' 
monies of the Ohurch, the which tjie bishoppa of 



Of course the stops are by the editor, and 
the sentence is quite unintelligible. It 
ought to have run thus : — 

This veor in Au^t the schism ceased here in 
England of the divemty of preachers; for the 
King seat a hook of certain artielea, &e. 

We have no fault to find with Mr. Hamil- 
ton for following the current of opinion 
which assigns January 25 as the date of 
Anne Boleyn's marriage, on the strength of 
an expression in one of Granmer'a letters, 
" mudi about S. Paul's day," but it seems 
worth while to mention here that, aSbee all, 
it turns out that the Roman Catholic histo- 
rian, Nicholas Sanders, is right in his date 
when he wrote November 14, thus proving 
the conjecture that Heniy waited till he 
was assured of Anne's fecundity to be 
utterly wrong. What Cranmer meant by 
S. Paul's day was the festival of 8. 
Erkenwald, which was nsually kept with 
great solemnity at S. Paul's Cathedral in 
London, and was sometimes called S. Paul's 
day, which was on Noveniber 14. ' This was 
the day on which the remains of the saint 
were, in a.d. 1148, removed from the centre 
of the church to the high altar, and if the 
marriage took place on toat day nothing can 
be more prot>er thui the birth of Elizabeth 
in the following September. We are afraid 
the npsetting of this story will do bnt little 
for the defence of Anne Boleyn's chastitv. 

As to the darker charges brought against 
Henry's second Queen, viz., that of poison, 
ing his bastard son Henry, Duke of Bicb. 
mond, and of contriving the death of her 
rival Catharine of Aragon, the evidence is 
far less conclnsive. Our chronicler speaking 
of the young Duke says (p. 53) : — 

" It was thought that be was privily poisoned 
by the means of Queen Anne and her brother 
l^rd Kochford, for he piaed inwardly iu his 
body long herore he died. God knowetb the truth 
thereofl'' 

Bnt as the death of the Doke of Rich- 
mond took place more that two months. 
after the execution of Anne Boleyn, the suspi- 
cions commonly entertained against her can 
scarcely be pressed farther than to show 
that there are many other indications t<j 
prove the dislike entertained by the nation 
at large for the new alliance, aM the affec- 
tion abill entertained for the good Queen 
Catheirino. Certainly, we are unable to sec 
the force of the argument obscurely hinted 
by Mr. Hamilton, that the presence of the 
young Duke at the execution might poS' 
sibly be accounted for by his " conviction 
that be wae actually the victim of some in- 
sidious poison." As regards the stress laid 
on the celebrated tetter purporting to be 
written by Anne to Heniy from the Tower, 
we quite agree witii Mr. Hamilton, who 
follows Lingard in pronouncing it a forgery. 
The style of writing is such as Anne Boleyn 
was utterly incapable of reaching; and if 
she could have penned such an epistle, she 
would have known, at least as well as Mr. 
Fronde, " that it was better calculated t« 
plead her cause with posterity than with the 



28 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JntrlO, I8yfi. 



King." The beet defence that can be set up 
for Aoae Soleyn is Cranmer's belief in her 
innocence, bnt it ia a defence which adds 
another blot to the infamy which attaches 
to the Archbishop's name. If the story that 
Alexander Alesse tells as of bis seeing 
Cranmer pacing up and down Lambeth 
Gardens in an agony of regret or remorse 
on the morning of the execution be true, 
and if he really said she wonld that day be 
a saint in Heaven, it wotdd be a strong tes- 
timony to the injastice of her condemnation, 
as Cranmer was certainly likely to know as 
mnch about the qneation of ber ^^t or 
innocence as anybody. Bnt it ia qnite pos- 
sible that the Scotchman invented the whole 
story to curry fkvonr with Qoeen Elizabeth, 
at the very beginning of ■whose reign he 
narrated it. K it is false, there is an end 
to the argument for the Queen's innocence ; 
bol if it is trae, it is plain that Cranmer 
believed in ber innocence, and it wonld be 
s probable iuferenoe that she was innocent ; 
bnb the character of the Qaeen wonld be 
vindicated at the expense of the Arch- 
bishop, who must then be pronoonced 
guilty of the most dastardly cowardice in 
sacrificiDg a woman whom he knew to be 
innocent without a single effort to save her. 
The principles of the Reformation moat be 
content to give up at least one of their two 
principal advocates in this reign. Mr. 
Hamilton has evidently a teudemeaa for 
Cnuuner's character which we do not pro- 
fess to share. He says : " As for Cranmer, 
he ought not to incor mnch censure, con- 
sidering he acted in this matter ont of mo- 
tives of humanity " (p. 41). He has quoted 
fl^)m Cranmer'a celebrated diplomatic letter 
of May 3, 1536, the o:n)reaeion that his 
mind was clean amazed ; bnt he might have 
also quoted, in illnstration of the homanity 
and Christian love of an Archbishop, the 
opinion that if she were guilty, " the more 
men loved the Gospel, the more they would 
hate her." Sttrely the ob^racter of Cranmer 
is written most legibly on the &ce of his- 
tory. When will Protaslants learn to read 
it aright p 

We have almost confined onr remarks to 
one part of the Chronicle, bnt the whole of 
it is nearly eqn^ly interesting — and espe- 
cially we commend to onr readers the ac. 
count of the arrival of Anne of Cleves, and 
ber reception by the King at Booheater. The 
passage from there to Greenwich and thenca 
to Westminster is evidently described by an 
eye-witneaa. 

As a further illustration of what may be 
gleaned ftom a contemporary chronicle like 
this, we may qaote tHe last passage in the 
volume : — 

"The sixth dav of Novenib«r (i.«. 1547) the 
OoQTOcation of tlie Bishops began at Powles, 
afore whom DTeached the Bishop of Lincoln, who 
made a goooly aermon in I«tin, and for Froloca- 
tor of the I>owet Houm for the clergy was chosen 
Doctor John Taylor, Dean of Lincola, and puson 
of St. Peter's in Oornhill, in Loudcm." 

The loss of the registers of Convocation 
gives a value to every paaaage which makes 
reference to its action. In the present case 
the chron|clep has made a mistake of a 
day, for it was on Saturday, November 5, 
that they met. The fact of the new bishop 
of Lincoln, i.e^ Holbecbe, preaching the ser- 



mon is, we believe, quite new. The day 
before the same i^ronicler infinms us a£ 
Ridley preaching at a maaa of the Holy 
Ghost, at which Qie " Gloria in Dxcelns, iiia 
Creed, Sanotus, Benedictus, and the Agnus, 
were all aung in Engtish." Here is another 
important fhot which illnsirotes the mod» 
in which the Beformers were content to go 
through a service which tdiey considered to 
be little less than Uasphemona as oelebvsted 
aocording to the ancient ritual. 

ITtCHOLAK POCOOK. 



WeebmiTister Drolleries, hoth Parts, of 1671, 
1672 ; being a Ghotee CoUeetion of Songs and 
Poems, sung at Oourt and Theatres, with 
Additions made by " a Person of Quality" 
UTow first reprinted from the Original 
Editions. Bditedj with an Introduction on 
the Literature of the Drolleries ; a <Mpion8 
Appendix of JTotes, etc., by J. Wood- 
Mi Ebsworth, ICA. Cantab. (Boston : E. 
Roberts, 1875.) 
It would be a cnrious though perhaps an 
unprofitable specnlation, how far the " Con- 
aervative reaction " has bean reflected in our 
literature. In poUtdeai grim eanMstaeas. 
and dry dingineas of atatiatiea have given 
place, if not to a more exoellent, at- least to an 
easier way. It seems that the Palmeirsto- 
nian laissoz-faire, ISce Drydm'a Love, will 
have its hour at laah Reprints are an im. 
portant part of modem literatoro, md. in 
them there is a perceptible ii^xsidon of 
aeverity. Their intwwst is no longer mainly 
philological. Of late, the B«etomtion has 
been the fiivonrito period for revival. Ita 
dramatiEts are marching down upon ua &oni 
Edinburgh, and the invasion is seoonded 
by a royaliat movemratt in Linoolnsbire. A 
Boston publisher ha« begun a aeries of 
drolleries — intended, not for the genoral 
public, but for those students who can 
aiford to pay handsomely for tiieir prediJeo- - 
tion fbr^the bywaysof letters. 

The editor pleasantly iUuBtatites tira tea-, 
dency to which we may owe the edition 
itself. He is, if not ezacUy a Divine-rigfat 
man, ajtborough Cavalier, who 

" Against Soctories a wnr tovI'1 mgb, 
And chooM tbo Kiogj aab Commons, in diawntion." 
He is somewhat of a larudaior tampons acii 
(tboagh his degree was taken no further 
back than 1864), and he has the fellow- 
feeling we might expect with " Lovers both 
of court and city." He ainga a Prelude of 
graceful apology : — 
" Who comsa to this quaint hostelrj need bring 
No peevisti vissge and no railing tongns, 
Gmdging the merry Inys tiiftt herft mw encg, 
Hating to hear the dinkiag glassM ring : 
Good store of vianda on ihe board Uiey Sing, 
Choii^ fruit aod flonars in plenty groupaa among, 
Sach OB laochus lorod when earth wag young,— 
Autumnal grapes, irith (RirlKnds of tho spring. 
Come! thongli at timea Satyria notM nnj acnuA, 
Few are the iroids nnehMte that mast your e«r; 
We ask QO Joodett tnai^ to ^thet round. 
Yet many a pure and loTiog hymn thrills here : 
Scholars of life mature will lutunt the ground. 
And leave unscaan'd irtiate'er would mar thacheer," 
The Introduction ia delightAil reading, 
with quaint &nciee hw« and there, as in the 
"imagined limbo of nnfinished books." 
The only part which readers would willingly 
let die is that reflecting on certain right- 



reverend &t>hers of. the English Chnrcb. It 
jars unpleasantly, as an intrusion of the 
ordinary new^i^»er world into that " de- 
lightful lond of Facade." Besides, a good 
Cavalier should treat bis bishops with respect, 
extending to their failings the ample forgive- 
ness with which he mantles the errors of 
those "not quits heroic enough to esoape 
the taint of their naoesaitons oirouzaatances." 
There is tmt^ and pathos in his excuses for 
the royalist versifisrswho "snatohed hastily, 
recklessly, at such pleasures as came within 
their reach, beedlesB of price or conse- 
quenoea." We may nob admit that they 
were " outcasia wi^oui; degradation," but 
we can hardly help allowing that "there is 
a laanbood visible in their failures, a gene- 
rosity in their protnsion and unxeet. Thc^' 
are not atainless, bnt thay afibct no oonceai- 
ment of fanlt& Our heart goes to the 
losing aide, even when, the less haa been in 
great part deserved." 

There is a atoain of amiable perversity in 
Mr. Ebsworth. HebringafarwwdMaoaalay 
aa " counsel for the defence " in the matter 
of republishing the characteristic literature 
of a bygone day, however offensive it may 
be to onr later morality. At the same time 
he holds Charies Lamb's theory that the 
province of the dramatist is a merely con^ 
ventional world — a theory exploded by 
Macanlay in the very essay from which (fee 
"defence" ia taken. The&cfc'is,tbatiin his 
contemplation of the follies and vices of 
" that very distent time " he loses ail appre- 
hension of their grosser elemnnts, and 
retains only an appreciation of their wit, 
their elegance, and their vivacity. Without 
offence be it said, in Lancelot's phrase, " he 
doea something smack, something grow to ; 
he has a kindof tasto," — and so niivewetoo, 
as we read him. These trite and tickhsh 
themes he tonchea with so charming a 
liberality that Ma generons allowance ia 
contagions. We feel in thorongfaly honest 
company and are ready to be heartily 
charitable along with him. For his ia no 
unworthy tolerance of vice, still leas ^ly 
desire to polish its hardness into snob Pe- 
titions brilliancy aa glistens in Grammout. 
It is a manly pity for human weakness, and 
an unwillingnesa to see, much less to pry 
into, human depravity. ' ' It would have been 
a joy for ua to know that these songs wera 
wholly unobjectionable ; bnt he who waits 
to eat of fruit without a apeok must go 
hungry through many an orchard, even 
past the apples of tbo Hesperides." 

To the excellence of the overture the concert 
hardly correaponda. Great is the power of 
aelection. In nothing did Scott show greater 
tact and insight than in his choice of scraps 
of old ballad for quotation by his cbatacters. 
There is an inatanoe in tiiia volume. A 
long, rambling any-mefcre Cavalier lilt haa 
just aix lines wnich are striking and spirited, 
and these lines see Roger Wildrake's anateb 
"Hey for the Cavaliers." So Mr. Bbawortfa's 
happy gift of "leaving nnscanned whato'ei^ 
may mar the cheer" haa rendered him 
insenaible to much tbat will weigh heavily on 
readers less mercurial or of alower discern- 
ment than himself. They will get weary of 
the nymphs, kind or cruel, and or the awaina, 
happy or despairing. To their colder judg- 
ment the Borrival of some of these pieces 



JIHT 10, 18?C.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



29 



•mm imp]ytl>»dMdne«oftheTeBt. lAiul (ae 
m Abe lawdin^ omb of lAmb'a "Mr. H.") Oie' 
brilliftwcy of itha prologue 'wiU have isjared 

Azid jet'the little book is well worth the 
attention of any one deairouB to have a 
bird's-eye view oPtbe Bestoratioii " Society." 
Its scope is &r wider than its title wonld 
indicftto. Tbe "Drolleries" include not 
only Ufte rollioking ronse of the staggemig 
Uades -who "love their hnmonr well, boya," 
tlie bojrlesqae of the Olympian rereJB in 
"Hnnting the Hare," the wild vagary of 
TotDi of Bedkm, uid the ^bes of the 
BsaedicbB of that day against the holy 
■sWe, bat lays of a delicate and airy beauty, 
a dic^ or two of exquisite pathos, Lomejy 
dittwH MwakiBg patriobic mamorles of the 
AhdmIa and the Low Connti^y waa^, and 
"ioyal GRUtona " sang to the praise and 
g^o^ of King Charlea. The "late and true 
itovy of B fdrioss scold" might have en- 
riched &e badget of Aotolyoos, «nd Feste 
woold have fiMind here a store of " love- 
Bonga," and a few " BOim^ of good life." 
1^ eoHeetion is of course highly loiscel- 
IsBeoos. After the stately meaanre nu^ 
ooma a jig^th homely " dnok and nod," or 
even a diasonant strain from the " riot and 
iU-nuu^^ merriment " of Cmnna, 
"HMsight aboUi uid rareirj, 
XipBj dance, and joUity." 

E. C. Bbowne. 



The ZoU and Sottile QotpeU. An Essay. 

By the Eev. -S. Baring: Oonld, M.A. 

(London : Williams & Korgate, 1874.) 
Ub. BAXBia-Goinji is well known as a writer 
of varied aocompliahmentB, and he has chosen 
a sabject that is both interesting and im- 
portant. We may be, indeed, a little donbU 
nil as to the expediency of joining together 
in the same volome a discussion of writings 
so different as the mediaeval Toledoth Jescha, 
which is fiimply a sort of ecarrilons travesty 
of tlie Gospels employed by the Jews against 
the Christians, and (in a sense) gennine 
primitive works, like the Gospel according 
to the Hebrewe, or according to the Sgyp- 
tiuix ; bnt perhaps it would be captions to 
alkge this as an objection. The reason 
fr(£ably was simply that the author wished 
to prodace a work of a enf&ciently enbetan- 
t>al raie, and what we have rather to regret 
is, periiaps, that English opinion, or English 
pobiiBhers, do not seem to favour tbe issoe 
of short monographs in a pamphlet form. 

A" nnfortnnate solecism catches the eye 
of the reader on his first opening the book. 
The first thirty-six alternate pages are 
headed " The Jewish Anie-Gospels," for 
" Anti-Glo^elB " — at the best a Darbarons 
coupoand. The anther explains that this 
was an oversight in the revision ; bnt it is 
a qoestion whether any expense ought not 
to nave been intmrred sooner than send ont 
to &e worid anything that has so nnsoholarly 
aniqyearance. 

It IS, we are e&aid, a slip of the seme sort 
by which we find, on page 269, the marvel- 
loos compound aimaioi (sic), and on page 
223, Schneckenburg written twice over for 
Schneckeabocger. We are not aware that 
there is any anthorily for the statement 
(p. xzL) that Fhilo was born between 



thirty and foi^ years before Christ. The 
date oanaUy flss^aed to tiaa Alexaodritte 
philosopher is abont B.C. 20, and it can 
-hardly have been moch e^ier, as he headed 
an embassy of the Alexandrine Jews to Rome 
in A.D. 39. We most also hesitate to en- 
dorse the use of the term " Nazarene " for 
the Jndaizing or Petrine party in the Ohnrch 
generally. It is more properly confined by 
most writers to a piH*icular sect of the 
Ebionites who diverged lees than their com- 
panions from the orthodox tenets. 

These are minor points i bat there is one 
more vital objection that we have to bring 
against Mr. Banog-Gloald's prooednre. Ho 
is &r too sparing in hie referesce to the 
anthoritiea for the statements made. The 
reader is thos left entirely at sea as to the< 
comparative value to be attributed to them. 
Anyone who is at all converaaat with Ger- 
man theology (and by £ar the most of the 
liteiatnre of the sabject is German) acquires 
gradually a toleraUy fixed estimate of the 
different writers, and can tell, merely l^ 
glancing at the foot of the page, what amount 
of weight he is to attribute to a statement 
in support of which their names are adduced. 
But in this volume the secondary authorities 
either are not cited, or are cited in a vague 
and general manner that dees 'not admit 
discrimination. 

To give an example of the inconvenience 
that is oansed by this. Among the argu* 
ments to show that the Logia of St. Matthew 
were originally written in Hebrew, we find 
it allef^ (p. 3.65,) that the phnse " that 
which is holy" (ro&7ioi'),iQMatt.Tii.6,isa 
mistranslation of an Aramaic word meaning 
"a gold jewel for the ear, bead, or neck." 
We turn to Meyer's Commentary and we 
read, not in the text but in a foot-note, 
" that Michaelis, Bolten, fiichhom, Bert- 
holdt, Kninoel saw in ro &yioy a mistrans- 
lation only- deserves to be noticed as a matter 
of history." If Mr. Barings Gonld had given 
us his authority, we should have known at 
once how to estimate it ; and the misfortune 
is that the same kind of ancertain^ follows 
us aU through. We do not know what is 
new and what is old, what has been sifted 
and what has'not, what is probable and what 
is merely plausible conjecture. 

It may, perhaps, he worth while to men- 
tion an ingenious theory of Mr. Baring- 
Gonld's in regard to Man»on. He thinks 
that the Gospel which Marcion used was an 
earlier edition of St. Luke, and our present 
Gospel a second edition, put forward by the 
Evangelist himself &om additional materials 
supplied by St. John. This last suggestion 
is rather gratuitous ; bnt the other portions 
of the theory are the more taking as there 
is a growing tendency among text critics 
to assume a double edition of the third 
Gospel. The ext«nt and pejaistency of the 
omissions in a certain class of MSS. seem 
to be best accounted for by the hypothesis 
that the earliest copies of the Gospel were 
issued without these passages, and that they 
were subsequently added by the Evangelist. 
It is just conceivable that Marcion's Gospel 
might have represented this original incom- 
plete edition. As a matter of fact, however, 
there is no real meeting point between the 
two theories. The omissions to which 
attention is called by text criticism are on a 



very much smaller soele than thetrenehaltt 
exoiaions of Marcion. Neither do theycoin- 
oide with these even as &t as they go : fin*, 
though there is no evidence in regard to 
Luke xxii. 43-44 or xxiii. 34, it appears that 
xxii. 20 and the phrase Aro^oE fttiifttitv in 
xxiv. 9, which are wBoting in Mareicn's usual 
allies, D and the old Latin, were yet eoiu 
tained in hie Gospel. We merely note in 
passing that this possible combination breaks 
down. Mr. Baring-Gould is in no way rs- 
sponNble for it, except in so far as his tdteoty 
might ha,ve home a little more working ont 
and oomparison with the fiwsbs. He has seen, 
qnite rightly, that tbe passages omitted by 
Marcion'miist have been by tfie namr hand 
as the rest of the Gospel. 

We have been really-sorry to ha^' to m^ee 
complaints of what is in many re^wots a 
pnuseworthy bot^. The author has brodEon 
up new and productiTe gioand. -He haa 
treated his subject witJi much acutenen 
and ingenuity, and in a flexible aad graeefiil 
style. To an BngUsh reader we can well 
believe that his work would prove stimolat- 
ing and su^estive ; but it koks these essen- 
tial qnalitaes of exactness and precision 
without which true scientific reeean^ is 
impossiUe. W. Sahday. 



Itaiian A^s: •Sketeket in. ike Mountauit «f 
(PieitK, Lombardy, iAe Trgntitio, ontZ 
Tmutia. By Dongas W. i'reehfiold. 
(Ltmdon : -Loi^manB & Co., 1875.) 
Beattfoj-^oUoftheContinmi. By H. Baden 
Pritchard. (London: Tinslay BiDthera^ 
1875.) 
The two works whose titles stand together 
at the head of this article are signs of a 
growing tendency to protest against th© 
exclusive claim of Switterland to be the 
playground of 'Europe. No donbt, as Mr. 
Freshfield pots it, it is true that 
" if you can put up with the crowd, there is no 
place where great scaw-peakB are lo well seen Bs 
m the Demeee Oberland ; that ^ere is no climb- 
ing whicli equals t^t te be had within twenty 
mu«e of Zramatt; that the ioe seenery on Mont 
Kane is unaumasable in Europe, and tbe climate 
of the Upper Engadine is the most bracing aoutb 
of the Arctic Girale." 

Bat then there are many peoi^e who caut 
put ap with the crowd, who abject to the 
big hotels and big bills which are the 
inevital^ accompaniments of a visit to 
Switserland. Mr. Pritohard tells those who 
like wandenng in beaten tiaoks, bnt in 
tracks not quite so beatrai as those which 
lead over the Wengom Alp to Grindolwald, 
what is to be seen in soch places as the 
Pyrenees or the Bavarian highlands. He 
has not got mnch to say, and he makes odd 
blunders sometimes, having moreover re- 
course a Httle too &eqaently to legends and 
tales which look as if they had previously 
done dn^ in a succession of local guide- 
books. Bat be seems to have derived plea- 
sure from his trip, tmd if he can induce a 
good many people to follow his example, so . 
much the better for them. 

Mr. Preshfield's work is of a very different 
order. His object is to draw attention to a 
rarely visit«d tract of country abounding in 
natural beauties, stretching away from the 
1^0 Maggiore to the Pelmo and the Yal di 



30 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JcLT 10, 1875. 



the region tram, the Schlem to the Steiner 
Alp. 

It is hardly possible to read Ur. Fresh- 
field'a pogGB without comparing them with 
those of the aathoTBoftheDoIomifeifounJai'iM. 
Members of the Alpine Club will of conrae 
prefer Mr. Freahfield's book. He has plenty 
to tell of peaks and crevasses, matters about 
which Messrs. Gilbert and Chnrchill were 
absolntely silent. Bat those who belong, 
aocording to the nomenclatnre which Mr. 
Fresbfield has borrowed from the Vatican, 
to the Snbalpine class of hunaDitr will miss 
that sense of the hnmonrs of the Alps which 
gave snch a charm to the storr of the 
wanderings among the Dolomites. Ko donbt 
Messrs. Gilbert and ChnrchiU owed much 
of their power of loolcing behind the scenes 
to the &ot that they were accompanied by 
ladies. On Mr. Freshfield's terms it is of 
course impossible that there shoold be ladies 
of the party. Ton oan take yonr wife if 
yon please to Pinzolo ; bnt if yon are firmly 
of opinion that the only feaaiblo ronte from 
thenoe to £dolo is over the top of the 
Adamello, your domestic relations are likely 
to be for some time in a state of considerable 
tensioii. Bnt the difference is mainly dne to 
Mr. Freshfield himself. He cares a great deal 
for the monntains and very little for their in- 
habitants, who generally drop his knapsack 
when they come to the edge of a glacier and 
make straight for home. Ifordoeafae care at all 
for what may be called the fon of the thing. 
ITobody can walk long in regions where 
strangers are little known without finding 
plenty of amnsement. A priest looks in at 
snpper time, asks to have the hononr of 
sittii^ down with strangers who come &om 
so distant a country as England, and imme- 
diately begins to enquire abont the Thames 
Tnnnel ; haymakers gather ronnd yon and 
sigh " Miserere " when they hear of yonr 
long travel ; a bustling host hnrriee in with 
a cush^l of £at bacon and expects yon to 
eat it with yonr fingers. Things of this sort 
either do not strike Mr. Freshfield, or he 
considers them beneath the dignity of his 
■work. 

Taking him therefore on his own gronnd, 
his book is one heartily to be recommended 
both to those fortnnate persons who have 
Bteength and nerve enough to enjoy the 
glories of the high Alps, and to those who 
are debarred by comparative physical weak. 
ness from doing more than envy the com- 
plete mountaineer. Very few can ex- 
pect — 

' " to walk a mile or so along a ledge no broadar 
"than the sill which tuiib imderaeath the top-etory 
windows of a London square ; with, for twice tha 
height of St. Paul's crow above the pavement, no 
. shdX below wide enough to arrest your iolL" 

But any one with moder&to powers can 
enjoy uiat lovely mountain walk which 
leads from Gaprile np the steep to Sta. Luoia, 
and over the wooded slopes under the tower- 
ing Pelmo into the sweet Val di Zoldo, and 
w&ch ia described in chapter idii. in terms 
which will not be thought too strong by any 
one who has ever looked upon the scene 
nnder &vourable conditions of Uie atmo- 
sphere. 

Mr. Jreshfield has a stronger attraction to 



these valleys than the mere feet of their 
isolation. There is a beauty in them, he 
holds, and be is clearly right, which is not 
to be found on the northern slopes of the 
Alps. 

"AfW a week," he saye, "of hard moun- 
taineering at Zennatt or on the Oberland, the keen 
cotoorless air of the lUfial or Bell Alp begins to 
peJl upon my sensee ; the pine-woods and chUets 
to remind me, against my will, of a German box 
of toys. I riffh for the opal-coloured waves of 
atmosphere which are beating up against the 
southern Blopea of the mountains, for the Soft and 
varied folifige, the frescoed walls and far-gleaming 
campaniles of Italy." 

Of all the districts described by Mr. 
Freshfield there is none which appears so 
attractive as that which lies between the 
granite of the Adamello and Fresanella on 
the west and the Dolomites of the Brenta on 
the east. Its varied beauty and grandeur 
will probably come to be known soon to 
that class of people who have found their 
way in the wake of Messrs. Gilbert and 
Churchill, and who are beginning to grumble 
at the now crowded inns at Cortina 
and Caprile, where a few years ago a tra- 
veller had the whole house at his disposal. 
But Mr. Freshfield need not fear the intro- 
duction of a mob of tonriste. It is a long 
way, and is likely always to be a long way, 
from Finzolo to a railway station ; and, be- 
sides, the neoessijiy of stammering some 
kind of Italiwi is a great obstacle to the 
multitude. It is true that a little Italian 
will go a long way. A traveller latoly came 
home safely after shocking the kindly feel- 
ings of the Caprile landlady by asking mildly 
for "&nciallo rostito " for dinner; and a 
man who could ask for " fanciullo rostito " 
withont being treated by the matrons of the 
village as Orpheus was treated by " the rout 
that made the hideous roar " would probably 
make his way anywhere. 

It is impossible to do justice here to Mr. 
Freshfield's book. His is no mere gnide- 
boolc, though even, regarded in that light, 
it ia -extremely valuable. He has a trained 
eye for the beantiee of nature, and the rare 
power of conveying by the pen something 
of those impressions of grandeur and love- 
liness which are inexpressible by words. 
Making no profession to be a scientific 
observer, he brings down from the top of 
the Pelmo a confirmation of the theory of 
the coralline origin of Dolomite. "If," he 
says, " we imagine the level of the Adriatic 
raised a trifle of 10,000 feet, the glacier 
would exactly represent an atoll of the 
Southern Ocean." 

After this he has a right to express his in- 
dignation at the remark of a scientific 
German that the first ascent of the Monte 
della Disgrazia was " wholly devoid of scien- 
tific results." Just as if, when a man has 
been woridng hard in an honest way for ten 
or eleven months, he had not a right to re- 
fresh himself for farther labours by the en- 
joyment of the beauty of nature, or it may 
be of mere .physioal exertion, because he 
does not happen to have gone through that 
laborions traming without which he can 
never be anything more than " a scientific 
dabbler." 

It is only f^ir to add that Mr. Freshfield's 
invitation to the Italian Alps is strongly 
seconded by the beautiful illustrations wiUi 



which his volume is interspersed. All who 
mean to shoulder a knapsack this year witli- 
ont having absolatoly settled their plans 
ought to lose no time in procuring ibia 
vohme. Suiuxl It. Gabdineb. 



Glmpaea of (he Sv^ematuiral. By the Rev. 

r. G. Lee, D.C.L. (London ; H. 8. King 

& Co., 1875.) 
People whose interests are social, or lite- 
rary, or political, rather than scientific, 
are sometimes vexed and sometames 
amosed by the bitterness with which 
men of science speak of divines. They 
are tempted to sneer at the pose of 
martyrdom which the most popular lectnrers 
are so fond of asBoming. At the worst, one 
thinks, science only incurs the dielike, and 
rouses the pulpit eloquence, of a few amiable 
clerical persons, with a t&sto for decorative 
ritual. The talk about priestcraft seems 
rococo, a memory of days when Giant Pope 
and Giant Presbyter were atill in a lusty and 
morose old age. So one is inclined to think, 
till such a book as these Qlimptet of the 
Si^ematwral, by the Rev. F. G. Iiee, comes 
to prove that superstition is still alive, still 
cruel, that the eyes of her votaries are 
bUnded as of yore, and that their feet would 
binbeswift toshedinnooentblood. It would 
be easy, and true, to say that Mr. Lee'sbook 
is a mere ferrago of nnanthenticated marvels, 
piled together to form a buttress to tlie 
author's oreed. The queer Anglican travesty 
of Catholic religion and Catholic ritos loo^ 
none the better for these hideous fragments 
of savage delusions built on to it, like sculp- 
tured horrors from a Mexican teo calli let 
into the wall of some prim modern All 
Saints', or St. Gengulpha s chapel. 

The motive of Mr. Lee's book is to prove 
the existence of what he calls the Super- 
natural, by adducing ancient and modem 
instances of the marvellous. To this in- 
dustry nothing comes amiss — the miracles of 
hagiology, the dreams of old clergymen, the 
ghosts of legend, or of fireside stories, 
the "spiritualistic manifestations" of the 
Homes and Marshalls — all are equally 
edifying in his pious hands. He renews, in 
short, the argument of Glanville, and of 
Heni^ More, who, in the end of the seven- 
teentJi century, combated scepticism vrith 
ghost stories, and made the drummer of 
Tedworth beat " the drum ecclesiastic." It 
ia tempting, of course, to ask in this place 
for a definition of the Supernatural. The 
position of science is that " the law cannot 
be broken," the law of the universe that is. 
Mr. Lee's argument seems to be that the 
wonders he publtshes are instances of the 
providential infringement of law. But tbis 
is anything but obvious, for if a ghost, for 
instance, as in the story given in vol. i. pp. 
60-70, can bo exorcised by certain pre- 
scribed rites, then a ghost is as much subject 
to law, as amenable to the proper remedies^ 
as a cold in the head is. Mr. Lee appears 
to think that apparitions — say, for instaacef 
the ghost of a girl mentioned iu vol. i. p. 
120^ or instances of second sight, are 
" supernatural." But suppose that these 
stories, and all the other tales of " levitated " 
chairs and tables, and so on, could be 



Jdit 10, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



SX 



Mtlientioated, they ironld onl^ be cases of 
tEe BiotioD of rare and nninTeatigated laws 
of nature, not of the infrmgemeDt of known 
laws. According to the BpiritnaliBt theoiy 
oertain men and womea are giS»d with the 
power of establiahing a " magnetic atmo- 
sphere," of rach a character that diaem- 
bodied epirita can make their ezistenoe 
visible or andible therein. Probably no- 
tbiog of the sort is true, but if true it is 
not Bopematnral. Other perBons, again, 
are credited with a certatn gift of ecstasy, in 
w^hich space and time are not annihUaled in 
their conBoioasnees, na happens in an ordinary 
F a in t i Ti g fit ; bat are made carionely trans- 
Inoenty bo that distant persons, or eoenea, or 
erraitB, are £alt as if they were present. If 
tkete facts eon be ettaiUahed, the resnlt will 
he that science most recc^nise new laws, 
and new exceptions to known laws. She 
would hare to reoogniae that the "Uanes 
are somewhat," that a force sorviTes the 
death of the body, and that it can make 
itself manifest to people in the body. That 
would be very interesting, bnt it would not 
be " Bapematoral." In the meantime, what 
doee Mr. Lee do towards estahlishing the 

From a writer who qnotes with approval 
icmarkB (m " the nn&astained dicta of Sir 
Charlee LyeH," we have a right to expect 
names and dates for &cte. :Mj. Lee gives 
these only occasionally. He is " not at 
liberty to mention" the name of a clergy, 
man who is " a disoemer of spirits." He is 
not often at liberty to name his antborities, 
and that becaiue they shrink fiom fear of 
ridicule. Where is the spirit of the old 
confessors, and how fiJlen is the Chnroh, if 
her sppporters withhold evidence of enpreme 
importance, evidence which might help to 
save the sonls of thoasands, from fear of 
being laughed at ! The writer of this article 
is in possession of a varie^ of facts which 
would gladden Mr. Lee. Ghoste and warn- 
ings are constantly reported to him, and 
though he does not think that they 
establish any view of the world, except that 
which regards it as a very secondrate and 
impetfect one, he has no scmple in offering 
to supply tlie Rev. iSr. Lee with plenty of 
names and dates, including an account of a 
very odd snpematnral animal, warranted to 
appear before the death of people in whom 
it is kind enough to interest itself. 

It is not worth while to go throagh the 
Church miracles, such as those of the 
Thundering Legion, the cross seen by Gon- 
stajitine, and so on. If anyone is satisfied by 
the evidence for these, goit. As for the 
African confbBSors and their tongues, Mr. 
Lee insinuates that Mr. Twisleton only 
addooed one case of a patient retaining the 
power of speech after nis tongue had been 
removed "with marked dexterity by the 
skill of an operator," Was that really all 
that Mr. Twisleton made ont ? Then there 
is a long story of the exorcism of a spectre, 
from the diary of a Hr. Ruddle, wiitten in 
1665 — about which we must ask in the 
spirit of Toad in the Hole, " nbi est ille 
diary ; " and why is Mr. Rnddle called also 
ISt. BndalF We might probably as soon 
expect to be told the name of the distin- 
guished physician in London (vol. i. p. 58), 
who said to Mr. Lee that he believed many 



oases of epilepcfy were only to he " duly and 
rationally accounted for by the Chnstian 
theoiyolpOBSeBsion." Christian, forsooth ; ss 
if the theory of possession were not Tongan, 
Fijian, Malayan, everything that there is of 
most sav^e and debased. We don't sa^ 
that the theory is incorrect, we say it is 
primitive and savage, as well as Christian ; 
but this affair of savagery brings as to the 
very worst feature of Mr. Lee's book. He 
recognises the historical continuity of witeh- 
craft and its survival in the spirit rap- 
ping circles of to-day. Holding this view, 
he says that the penal stetutes against 
witohoraft enacted by James I. were 
" sorely needed." All the innocent blood 
shed by the Sprengers and Mathers, all 
the torments by which peasant w'omen 
were driven to confess, as if they had been 
crimes, the dreams of starved sleep, the de- 
lusions caused by narcotic drugs, do not 
draw from Hr. Lee a sigh of pity or of 
horror. He does allow that the custom of 
pricking was " cmel," bnt beyond this one 
admission we have observed no sign of the 
loathing which these clerical brotalities ex- 
cite in every civilised man. Mr. Lee's work 
is inaccurate as well as callous, and a glance 
at Michelet's La Soraiere, or at Michelet's 
autborities, Will show him that sorcery was 
not, as he says, " of course more ordinary in 
countries which are not Catholic," as Scot^ ; 
land and North America, than in France. 
Clerical cruelty, sacerdotal jealousy of rival- 
msgiciana, is of one sort, whether it be the 
cruelty of priest or presbyter ; hut at least 
the Salem puritans learned to be ashamed 
of their butcheries. The only moral Mr. 
Lee draws from the 500 burnings in one year 
in Ceneva is directed against " the slaves 
of Satan," that is, the victims. One 
can only hope that people of his peculiar 
school do not share, at least, this particular 
survival of debased fanaticism. Considered 
spart &om doctrines, as a mere book of 
bogies, Mr. Lee's volumes are inferior, in 
our opinion, to Mr. Dale Owen's works, and 
to From Matter to Spirit, a book which no 
nervous person should read. A. Laho. 



OlFST FOLK TALKS. 



Cher die Muiidarton vmd die Wa/adeTungen 
der Zigeuner JEaropa's. Von Dr. Franz 
Mifclosich, Part IV. (Wien : Karl Gerold's 
Sohn, 1874.) 
The fourth part of Dr. Miklosich's great 
work on the dialecte and the wanderings of 
the European Oipsiee (see Agaheicy, No. 110) 
conUins a number of very noteworthy Gipsy 
songs and stories current in Bukovina, the 
original texte being accompanied by an inter- 
linear Latin translation, as well as by notes. 
The stories, which bear evident traces of 
having been snli^ected to a strong Slavonic 
influence, are in general similar to other 
folk-teles collected in the provinces border- 
ing on the Lower Danube, such as the 
Wallachian Tales edited by the Brothers 
Schott, bnt they contain some peculiarities 
which render them specially interesting. 

The first is the story of the Qaeen 
who is wisely accused, by a rival who 
supplants her, of having brought forth 
puppies instead of princes. In t£e present 



version she is buried up to the waist in the 
ground, and condemned in that position to 
suckle her alleged canine progeny. Mean- 
while her genuine cbildren are slain and 
buried, and from their grave spring up two 
trees. The trees ani felled, and irom their 
wood is made a royal conch which takes to 
talking by night. So it is bnmt, but from 
its ashee fly two sparks and light upon two 
lambs, which straightway torn to gold. The 
lambs are slain, and from their intestines 
proceed two doves, which take the form of 
boys, and toll the whole story to the King. 
The metemorphoses through which the chil- 
dren pass aro very like those mentioned in 
the Egyptian tale of the " Two Brothers," 
in which the Bull, which had been the 
younger brother, is slaiu, and two drops of 
his blood turn into two trees, which take to 
telking and are cut down ; but from them 
flies a splinter, which causes the birth of a 
boy, who eventually makes the whole matter 
clear. 

In the second story, which is almost the 
same as the third of Jtilg's Kalmakigche 
M&rahen, a tele widely current in the east of 
Europe, some of the incident^ are remark- 
able. When the hero, who has descended 
into the lower world, and has been left there 
by his faithless companions, saves a brood 
of eaglets &om a dragon, he is eaten np by 
the hasty mother-eagle on her return. Bnt 
as her e^lete weep at the sight, she spite 
him out again, and then renders him the 
good service mentioned in all versions of the 
tale. At the end he calle upon his trea- 
cherous comrades to join with him in shoot- 
ing arrows straight up into the air by way 
of ordeal. His arrow strikes the ground 
before him, bnt theirs fell back upon their 
heads and they die. In the fourth story, 
whicli is of a somewhat similar character, 
the traitors are killed by the falling back of 
"their own swords, which thsy are obliged to 
fling np on high. This species of ordeal is 
very curiona, especially as a mention of it 
occnrs in the great collection of stories of 
the Turkish races in South Siberia, edited 
by Radloff. The third story, that of the 
Deceived Dragon, is purely Indian (see 
Benfey's Fa/n^atantra i. 506), though the 
form of the word signifying dragon, zmeu 
(in Russian xmei means a snake), shows 
that it has passed through a Slavonio 
channel. 

The liM story is a very incoherent version 
of a tale which in Russia is known under 
the title of " The Lame and Blind Heroes " 
(EiMwan Folk-Talei, No. 33), and which 
describes the ferocious conduct of a snper- 
naturally strong prineess.whoia overcome, not 
by the prince who woos her, but by his com- 
rade, whose feet she chops off by way of 
revenge. At the end she is cat into pieces, 
of which three heaps are made. Two of 
them are thrown to the dogs ; of the third 
a woman of ordinary strength and of femi- 
nine character is created, in whom the 
prince finds a satisfactory consort. The 
sixth story is that of the hen which laid 
golden eggs, only that in the present version 
the egg ia of diamond instead of gold, and 
it is a stop-&ther, not a lover, who tempte 
the mother of the ohitdreu who have eaten 
the hen to put them to death. 

The seventh story is t&at of a youth who 



■THE ACADEMY. 



[Jdlt 10, 187E. 



gains tbe Ijand of a prmceas hy pretending 
to grtcsa what are certain marks she bears 
upon her body, he having really bribed her 
b^ means of golden pigs to let him hare a 
Bight of them. The ending is wngnlarly 
extravagant, even for a Oipsy tale. The 
eighth is very cnrions, especially is its con- 
clnsion. A prince who has inyosted in 
wings obtains access by their aid to the 
chamber of a Sleeping Beati^, a seclnded 
princess. "Dience he carries her off to the 
top of a high monntain, inaccessible to 
ordinary mortals, where she bears him a 
eoa. One day, while he is at the foot of the 
mountain, one of bis wings gets hnrnt. He 
is in despair, bnt God comes to his aid, and 
the mother and tbe child are transported 
with the prince to his home, tbe prince 
pledging himself to give np in retnm for 
this serrice that which he holds dea»«st. 
One day, in chnrch, God, under the disgnise 
of a beggar, demands the child. A straggle 
takes place, and the child is torn in half. 
Bnt it is soon pat t<^tlier again, and all 
goes well. 

The ninth story is that of a wise yonngest 
brother, a sly " Boots " well fitted to deceive 
doll Trolls. He first saves himself and his 
brothers from a witch, who intends to kill 
them bnt is misled into sWing her daughters 
instead, and he then performs a variety of 
Herculean feats. A cnrious incident is his 
bathing with impunity in a bath of boiling 
milk, being aided by a magio horse which 
cools it with its breath. His master at- 
tempts to follow his example, and is 
straightway boiled to death. No. 10 tells 
how P6tri P^ofrnmos (Petms Facie Por- 
mosns) slew dragons of a thoronghly Sla- 
vonic kind, fiirnished with twelve and 
twentf-foor heads apiece. No. 11 is tbe 
story of a mother who, in a fbrbidden or 
Bluebeard's chamber, finds a dragon which 
her son had there imprisoned, and conspires 
with it against her son's life. He is cut 
into email pieces by the conspirators ; but 
Ijnna, Tetrad, and Farasoeva (Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday) bring him back to 
lifb, performing — which is noteworthy — the 
double operation always required in Russian 
stories, involving tbe application of a water 
which animates as well tu a water which 
heals. On coming back to life, he cute up 
the dn^on, and he deprives bis mother of 
her eyes. This ia all the more inconvenient 
for her, inasmuch as she is forced to do 
penancj until a vast measure is filled with 
ner tears. 

Ko. 12 JB tbe Indian story &miliar to us 
as the Norse and Gennan tate of " Trne and 
False," in which a poor m^ is blinded by his 
wealthy brother, bnt is enabled, by means 
of information conveyed by a conversation 
he overiiears, to recover his eyesight and to 
attain to prosperity. No. 13 describes a 
petrified city, the inhabitants of which the 
hero all bnt saves by holding oat several nights 
against many devils. Bnt unfortunately he 
is too impatient, and visits prematurely the 
daughter of that city's rnler, so that the all 
bnt broken spell recovers ita power, and the 
city relapses into its stony sleep. No. 14 
narrates one of the many forms of the 
Imogen story. In it the deceived husband 
sets his calumniated wife adoat on the 
Danube ; bnt she escapes, dresses as a man, 



and afWa time becomes a king. Dventnally 
she forces her calumniator to conf^ his 
guilt, after whidi she bas him cnt to pieces. 
But she forgives her hasty husband, and 
confers on him half of her royal power. 
The fifteenth and last story is very like tbe 
second part of "The Water King and 
Vasiiissa the Wise " (Bueaian Folk 2bfes, 
No. 19), which is itself very similar to the 
Sanskrit story of Sringabhuja. In the Gipsy 
tale, the escape of tbe youth who is eloping 
with a devil's daughter is dne to the unfilial 
astuteness of the young lady. Porwhen file 
devil, her father, is close at hand, and asks 
her how he is to cross an intervening river, 
she recommends him to tie a mill-stone 
round his neck and jnmp in. He does so and 
is drowned. Therenpon she abandons her 
husband for three years, by way of penance 
for having suffocated so near a relation. 

Let us hope that Dr. Miklosich will goon 
fevonr us with the next instalment of bis 
most interesting and most valttable work. 
W. R. S. BiLarOM. 



The Fariah Net : Jimo U'g Dragged, cmd whai 
it Oatchei. By Geoi^ 0. T. BactJer, Au- 
thor of " Tha Sevens Ages of a Village 
Pauper." (London: Chapman & HsJl, 
18?5.) 

Bt " the Pariah Net," Mr. Bariley means 

the present Poor Law' system — a system. 

wbicb, in his opinion, converts poverty into 

Snperism, and, like a net-, entangles bope- 
ely in it« meshes all, be they good or bad, 
who may once have oome within its sweep. 
To establish his position, he recites tbe for- 
tunes and misfortunes of theDiddlego family, 
and shows bow all Uie members of it arrived 
by widely dinwse routes at the same end — 
the worlionse and a pauper's coffin. The 
story is a sad one, and, we are assured, an 
over-true one ; it certainly oontains much 
that is worthy of serious attention, and from 
one point of view is not- a bttle alarming. 
But its perusal has more than once impressed 
upon UB the troth that nothing may be more 
ftUaoions than iaots, and that te cnll from 
blue books or newspaper reports a few cases 
of misnianagement, or something worse, and 
allow the reader to suppose that in these he 
has enough evidence te form an opinion on 
the matter, ia a course not likely to promote 
the writer's true and laudable object. The 
Poor Law system, like every other human 
institution, is very fiir from being perfect, 
and yet, either by reason or in spite of it, 
the number of paupers in England and 
Wales has been steadily decreasing, and 
there are other bopeftil features in the pre- 
sent condition of things. In most unions less 
and less is now given in out-door relief, and 
the conviction is spreading that " the Honse 
test," though it presses hardly on some 
cases, is on tbe whole tbe fiurest and most 
satis&ctory. The rate of wages has every- 
where advanced, and we cannot but think 
that it will combine with the spread of edn. 
cation to encourage more thrifty habite in 
the working classes, by making the attrac- 
tions of the home superior to those of the 
Honse. No doubt there will always be men 
like Toni Diddlcgo, who, trained as a pro- 
fessional pauper, became an adept in pro- 
curing for himself all the advantages of bis 



profesKon. ^s marriage with a sbiftlen 
wife, bis bodily injuries, bis conslatntio^ 
tendency to i^enesa, his large family — tiU 
in turn were fresh sonroes of profit to him 
for bis unsornpnloos astuteness was more 
than a matoh for the penetration of & 
Board of Guardians. Bnt snitAy every aha. 
ritable institution is liable to be similarly 
abused, and no machinery can be devised 
which will in every case distinguish with 
unerring precision between the good Mid 
evil. We heartily sajqiort Mr. Bartley in his 
condemnation of mere alm^ving. We be. 
lieve, with him, that it does more thananght 
else to destroy the spirit of independence in 
the recipient, and to foster in the indolent 
giver the delusion that his alma are charity. 
Audi again, we thoroughly agree with hiin 
in the view that we shall never approach to 
completeness in our dealings with distress, 
unti! in every union there is a system of 
charity whioh shall work side by side wiih 
a system of relief Once more, we fiill; 
sympathise witb all that Mr. Bartley eajs 
upon the subject of Workhouse Schook 
Here and thwo they may be well conducted, 
and the eril reenlte of tfaeir operation be for 
awhile unseen, but they are utterly wrong 
in principle, and must prove so in praotioe. 
To use an unsaiv^ury simile, attaching s 
sohool to a workhouse is like building a hos- 
pital over a cesspool. Union schools nnist 
be separate establishments, removed as &r 
as posrible from tbe walls of the workhome 
and ite banefol in&ueaices. 

We regret that Mr. Bartley should think 
it needfiii to express in his pages such ■on. 
mitigated scorn for two classes in the coffl- 
mnnity (if such we may term them) — tiie 
clei^ and the guardians of the poor. -The 
former we need not defend, though we too- 
not help saying that Mr. Bartley must haw 
been eiceptioi^y nnfortnnato if he has not 
found among diem the readiest supportera 
of the schemes of providence which he ad- 
vocates. But we must take leave to eipitss 
OUT opinion that the guardians of the pan 
are not tbe mean, ignorant, and tyrannioal 
class whioh he represento them to bo. We 
do not claim for them any special gift of in- 
sight into character, judicial feoulties of l^s 
highest order, or a spirit of the purest phi- 
lanthropy ; but wo can assure Mr. Bartley 
that there are Boards (other than urban snQ 
suburban) where no time and trouble are 
grudged by those who attend them in tfc) 
discharge of duties whioh are often laborioM 
and never iBmunerative. Mr. Bartley con- 
demns, as we have seen, the Poor Law sys- 
tem ; bnt if that be in fault, its agwits aw 
deserving of pity rather than of blame, 

The object of the book is so good, and 
many of the suggestions it contains are so 
valuable, that wo are sorry not to be able to 
give it our unreserved commendation. 

Chaklbs J. Boimsos, 



A ooLLKonoir of poems, betting tbe tide of 
Deioret: and othm- SJtyme* of the 3eidh, and » 
novel from the pen of Annie Ohambere Kalchun, 
of Danrobin, Tennowee, ajithoress of NeUy Brackrn 
and the translation of MarceUa : a Ruman Idi/U, 
will he published shortlj, in London and Boston 
simultaneouely. The writer is descended from «" 
English Cavalier fiunily, and also from the " DeTon- 
shire maxiyt," John Biadfbrd. 



JCLT 10, 187fi,3 



THE ACADEMY. 



lltB Siatory oflntUa.ati^ld -hy iU own Bit- 
tarima: tJia SMiamtKa^an Period. Poat- 
biiimt>aB I^psrs of the late Sir H. U. 
Elliot, K-CB. Edited and Oontiiniod 1^ 
PyofmBor John Samoii, M.B.A.S., BteS 
Collage, aandhoiHt. Vol. VI. (London : 
Trfibaer 4 Co., 1675.) 
This newly published volnme deals mainly 
with ■writcra of the period of Alcbar and 
Jahingir, as may be inferred from tlie titles 
of many of the works ■which it reviews ; and 
shonld be no less welcome than its predeces- 
sors to the student of Oriental history. It 
consiate of nineteen articles, varying in 
length and interest, and an appendix eqnal 
, in biilk to a fifth of the whole. 

Of the authors bronght to notice, Abul 
!Fadhl and Farishta -will probably be the best 
known to the majority of civil and military 
readers of Persian in the present day. In- 
dian Hnnshis commonly esteem the first as 
a master of style, whose " Insha," or col- 
lection of letters addressed to monarchs and 
great men, is quoted as a model of refined 
epistolaty composition. English critics, 
however, are divided on his merits both in 
this respect and as an historian. Of the 
Akbanmna, for instance, the subject of Fro- 
fesaoT DoWBon's first article, the editor takes 
a more favourable view than Sir Eenry 
Elliot i thongb, let ns add, he would have 
hesitated to express it had he not been snp- 
ported by the opinion of Mr. Blochmann, 
the latest tmnslator of the Aiyin-i-Akbar. 
Apart from tiie question of historical nse, 
Ablil Fadhl, like most Oriental anthors of 
his class and surroundings, can be judged 
only in his native dress. The AkbarnSna 
can hardly be cited in evidence of his real 
genioB. It is in his correspondenco with 
men of exalted station that he baa left his 
mark npon a literature rather Indo-Persian 
than Persian; and supplied the scribes of 
modem Hindustan mtii a stock of circum- 
locntjon for daUy quotation or example. His 
TcpnUition in India is somewhat analc^ous 
to that, in England, of the author of the 
Sutory of the Behellion and Sir Edward 
Syde's letters ; saving that we claim, greater 
conunon<«ense for onr own less popular 
countryman. Ko translation, we maintain, 
can fitly interpret a Btrjrle which owes more 
to the music, measure, ling or jingle of par- 
ticular words than to metaphor or meaning. 
That this remark applies to the Akbamima 
in common with non- historical books, no fur- 
ther proof need be supplied than a reference 
to the original text of a passage taken at 
random in the interesting volume under 
review, headed "Prince Kamr&n gets pos- 
Bession of Lahore" (pp. 10, II). Let not 
the reader imagme that plain designations, 
such as "the Emperor Babar," and "the 
Emperor Humiyfin," represent in any way 
the literary and courtly Slinister's mode of 
expression in talking of such illustrious 
potentates; and as for the three stars fol- 
lowing the statement that " Hnmitylin, in 
the goodness of his heart, recqgaised the 
crafty Mirza Eamrdn as governor of E&bul, 
KandahAr and the Panjib • • • " (pp. 10, 
11), they may have been kindly meant and 
judiciously interposed, but they are de- 
structive of the author's identity. Those 
cmel asterisks have excised some dozen lines 



of orthodox redondancy, in which are half- 
a-dozen euphonic and laudatory couplets 
from Mirza 'Kamriiu to tbe Emperor, testi- 
fying his haute eonvdSraimi. for one who 
had permitted him to turn out by treachery 
a governor of his own imperial nomination, 
and substitute himself in the coveted of&ce. 
We may note that Bri^^ makes the title 
" Mirza " follow the name " Kamr^," 
according to the approved fashion with 
royal princes ; but the particular MS. of 
the Akbamama which we now hold avail- 
able for reference does not in this respect 
differ from Professor Dowson's quotation. 

Muhammad Kisim Hindu Shah, better 
known as Farishta, is another author more 
of Indo-Persian than of Persian repute. 
He is said to have reached India in his 
twelfth year, and never to have returned to 
his native Persia. His history of Maham> 
madan India is a work of exeeptiooal value, 
and has long been known in England throu^ 
the translations of Colonel Dow (1768), Dr. 
Jonathan Scott (1794), and General Briggs 
(1829). The labours of the two first-named 
gentlemen were directed to the History of 
the Kings of Delhi (mainly hat not wholly 
Farishta's), and tbiA of Kolbarga, Bijapur, 
and Ahmadnagar; bat it is by the third 
that the weightier ia«k <ma aecompliehed of 
presenting to the English reader a Histoiy 
of theMnhammadan. Power in India, wherein 
Fanshta is far more thoroughly translated. 
Exception to completeness is to be foand in 
the Livet of the Saintt, which is altogether 
omitted ; the Introduction, which is rendered 
in the bare abstract ; and certain cnrtailments 
which, if not always unimportant, would no 
doubt allow of reasonable explanation. On 
the other hand. General Briggs has at- 
tempted to supply, from other sources, 
deficiencies admitted to exist in his original ; 
and has given also 

"adnoDdogwlepitoneof tin vara of tkePor- 
tuguMB in iLodia, as eamiMted vrith Uke hiatoiy 
of the Dakhin, tablee of compnative chronoloffy, 
an alphabetical Ii«t of the proper names, titles, 
and oriental words, with explutstions attached, 
an alphabetical list of names of countries, monn- 
tvDs, rivers, and towns ; end, interapeised, several 
valuable notes threuglioat tbe work." 

It is only fair to the memory of the dis- 
tinguished translator of Farishta to recall 
the great loss experienced by him during 
the war with the Peshwa, when he was him- 
self on du^ in the field. On Ifovember 5, 
1817, the Pdna reeidency was attacked and 
sacked, and the Marhatta troops set fire to 
the houses of the town. "My own family," 
he tells us in the preface to his first four- 
volume edition, " had the good fortune to 
escape with their lives ; but the whole of 
my property of every description, including 
my library, tc^ether with my manuscripts, 
the labour of so many years, was lost or de- 
stroyed." We do not observe any notice 
that it was this calamity which deprived the 
world of an original history compiled from 
many sources, and has substituted for it the 
" small part of a mass of historical matter 
that can never be recovered." 

Ma^ English critics will perhaps agree 
with Professor Dowson that the cavilbngs 
of Von Hammer on the General's method of 
transliteration is " unworthy of one of the 
most distinguished Orientalists of the Con- 



tinent." Kor would it be difficult for an 
average Oriental scholar and good practical 
colloquistof the present day to retort upon this 
critic's own favoured system. Why a single 
Arabic letter, well represented by an Enghi^ 
"j,"Bhouldbeqnadrupledand written "dach," 
because it is so pronounced in a Enrc^ieon 
langDBge not English, may be accounted tar 
in philology, but can scarcely be made .cl6«r 
to cosmopolitan practice. The International 
Congress, which is to meet at St. Peteiebni^ 
in September 1676, should seriously try to lay 
down a rule for spelling Oriental names in 
the Boman character ; and only in the event 
of failure in universal apphcation, should 
each counby concerned fell back npon a 
separate device. 

One word more on an author who, with 
many others of like nse&ilness, has not 
oreated mnoh stir in the ontaide world. The 
June Jrmy Lm* of 1875 ifl the fiirt ftom whioh 
the name of John Bri^jfs has been misaing 
for many months and years. It must have 
appeared in the Indian Lists for throe foil 
quarters of a century. Death has but just 
removed this worthy soldier-scholar. He 
will be found in Murray's authorised iasne 
for May — ^not under the head of " Bank, 
HonouN, and Bewards," but in a quiet and 
somewhat isolated record of " Geneial Offi- 
cers of the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay 
Armies," second iu the roll of full Generals. 

The contents of Mr. Dowson's sixth volume 
may be partionlarised under six heads :— 

1. Histories or memoire especially bearing 
on the reign of the Emperor Akbar : each 
asJAbtil Fadhl's Akhamiina ; ita comj Jehoa 
byBhaikh Iniyat Ullah ; a seciHid Akbns 
nima by Shaikh Illahdad ; Shaikh Faidhi's 
letters to Akbar ; and the personal memoin 
of Asad Be^. 

2. The more general history of Shaikh 
Abdn'-l-Hakk, brought up to the forty-second 
year of Akbar ; and the enlarged edition of 
the same work by Nlim'-l-Bakk, father and 
son ; the general histories of Tihir Muham- 
mad and Hasan bin Muhammad, the last of 
which is considered " a compilation of little 
use to the Indian historian;" and the Indian 
histoiy of Farishta. 

3. A mixture of pereoual biogn^hy and 
Indian history, by Abdu'l Biki of KahA- 
yand ; and a history of propliets, philoao- 
phers, khalif^ and kings to the flfliy-flrgfc 
year of Akbar. 

4. Two autobiographical mdmoirs of the 
Emperor Jahangir; with a conclusion l)y 
Mohammad Hadi. 

£ The Ikb&ln4ma-i- Jab &a^ri, a histony 
by Mu'famad Khan of Bibar, Humiiua, 
Akbar aud Jahingir ; and two memoirs of 
the reign of the last, by Kamgar Khan and 
an author unknown. 

6. The " Siibh-i-Sadik " of SAdik Irfa- 
hini, fitated to he a voluminous history " or 
high repute in Asia." It treats of various 
ocuntries and kinga in the reign of Shah 
Jahdn. 

Space feils to do justice to the Appendix, 
which contains valuable reprints and tiana- 
lations. We eeleot a Bpecimen of the book 
from, the articles eaiumerated. 

A pleasant little bit of sober description 
of Oriental ceremonies may be perused and 
studied with advant^:e by those who are 
about to make India the field of professional 



34 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 10, 1875. 



iraA. II is an exbaot from Shaith Faizi 
(p. 147) or Faidhi, called by the" Emperor 
Al:bar the " Prince of Poeta," and stated hv 
his own jonn^r brother, the &mons mi- 
nister and liiatorian Ab&l Fadhl, to be the 
author of " a Persian versioa of LiUwati, 
esteemed the best book on Indian arith. 
metic." • The writer ia narratiiig to his 
Imperial master the particnlars of an emtwiB- 
se^ with which he had been entmsted. 
He has pitched his tent with dae regard to 
representative privilege, and is abont ' 
receive a distingnisbed visitor: — 

"The teot was ao anaDged as to have two 
chambera ; in the second or innermost of which 
ths royal thcoDe was placed, with the f) 
embroideied ciubion on it, over which the cai 
of velvet, worked with gold, waa erected. 
royal sword and the dresses of honour were pUced 
on die throDe, as well m Your Majesty's letter, 
whilst men were BtaDdiee around with folded 
hands. The horses also tnat v/^ie to be given 
away were Btanding ia their proper place. Kaja 
'AM Kh&n, accompanied hv hie followers and the 
vakH and magistrate of the Dakhin, approached 
with that respect and reverence that betokened 
their obedience and goodwill to Your Majesty.' 
They dismounted some distance fVom the tent, 
and were admitted into the outer chamber. They 
approached respectfully, and were permitted to 
proceed onwards. When they entered the second 
chamber, and saw the royal throne at some dis- 
tance from them, they saluted it, and advanced 
with bare feat. When they arrived at a certain 
distance they were directed to stand and make 
three salutatioaB, which they did most reepect- 

Ailly, and continued ataading in the place 

"When a fitting opportunity offered, I addressed 
him (the chief viaitorj warily, and said I could 
show him how he might promote his interest ; 
but the chief part of my discourse consisted of 
praises and eulogiums of Your Majesty. He re- 
plied that be was a devoted servant of Your 
Majesty, and considered himself highly favoured 
that be had seen Your Majesty's goodvrill and 
&TOttr. I replied, ' His Majesty's kindness to- 
wards you is KTsat ; he looks upon you ss a most 
intimate fiiend, and reckons you among his confi- 
dential servants ; the greatest proof or which is, 
that he has sent a man of rank to you.' At this 
be bowed several times, and seemed pleased. 
During this time I twice made signs that I 
wished the audience to close ; but he said, ' 1 am. 
not yet satisfied with my interview, and wish to 
sit bsre till the evening.' He sat there four or 
five gharii (an hour and a half). At last the 
betel-leaf and scents were brought, I asked him 
to give them to me with his own hands. I gave 
him several pieces of betel with my own hands, 
at which he bowed seveial times. I' then said, 
' Lst us repeat the prayer for the eternal life and 
proeperitv of His Majeatj,' which he did most 
reepectfully, and the audieaca was broken up. 
He then went and stood respectfully in hie place 
at the edge of the carpet opposite the throne. 
The royal horses were there. He kissed the reins, 

S'iced them on his shoulder, and saluted them. 
e then took bis departure. My aitendtmt 
counted, andfmmd that ha made alUxjether twmly- 
^v« talams. He was exceedingly happy and con- 
tented. When he first came in he said, ' If you 
command me I am ready to make one thousand 
salams in honour of His Majesty. I am ready to 
sacrifice my life for him.' I observed, ' Such con- 
duct befits friendship and feeling such as yours ; 
hut His Majesty's orders forbid such adoration.' " 

Up to the present day in Persia, notwith- 
standing the inflneoce of Westeo^ diplo- 
matic ethics, mnch of this kind of verbal 
and superficial Stiquette is still observed 



in approaching the ''27*^ presence or a 
royal commissioner. Here, too, the con. 
ventional social distinctions, however disre- 
garded (according to English ideas) in confi- 
dential intercoaree, are minnte and strict, even 
to the precise place assigned to a visitor on 
the carpet, or to his chair if he nae one. Bnt, 
after all, this ia mere ceremonial ; lees ha- 
miliating, perhaps, to the inferior personage 
concerned than the habit;iial, thoogh unre- 
cognised, slight practised in more highly 
civilised lands ; and far more intelligible and 
capable of e:xplanation than are the laws of 
a Fashion which arbitrarily exalts and abases 
its votaries to anit the convenience of the 
hoar. F. J. Goldsuid. 



NBW NOVELS. 

Her Husbimd'a Keeper. By Mrs. Mackenzie- 
Daniel. (London : 0. J. Skeot, 1875.) 
Love's Victory. By B, L. Faijeon. (Lon- 
don : Tinsley Brothera, 1875.) 
First i'am'liea in the Sierrae. By Joaqnin 
Miller. (London : Bontledge & Sons, 
1875.) 
The Wheel of Fortune. By B. A. Ryder, 

(London : Chapman & Hall, 1875.) 
St. Simon's Niece. By Frank Ijee Benedict. 

(London : S. Tinsley, 1875.) 
Number Seventeen. By Henry Kingsley. 

(London: Chatto & Windns, 1875.) 
Woman'f Ambition. By M, L. Lyons. (Lon- 

don: S. Tinsley, 1875.) 
Agoct a year ago we had occasion, in re> 
viewing Mrs, Mackenzie- Daniel's last novel, 
to speak somewhat favourably of her as a 
character-monger. Her Httebartd^e Keeper 
merits not a little praise in the same way, 
bat it can hardly be considered an advance 
npon Esther's Wooere. There is a decided 
thinness about the story, and this thinness 
is not strengthened either by the descrip- 
tions or the dialogue, in both of which de- 
partments Mrs. Mackenzie-Daniel has a 
great deal to learn. She has, moreover, 
handicapped herself heavily by adopting a 
most obnoiious hero. DavidFletcher — "poor 
David," as bis historian is fond of calling 
him — is a gentleman who, to nse the words 
of his righteoasly indignant mother-in-law, 
" has an aptitude for lying quietly down 
and letting people trample upon bim." As 
he is middle-aged, is in possession of an 
ample fortime, and has, when the story 
opens, just experienced the priceless bless- 
ing of losing an intolerable wife, this apti- 
tude seems a little contemptible. But Mar- 
garet Bellew, the heroine, does not think 
BO, and accepts with rapture the taek of put- 
ting some heart into the limp and not lovely 
David. The mother-in-law, Mrs. Bellew, a 
toad with a precious jewel in her head, is 
very well drawn, and so indeed is Margaret. 
Bnt we should like the latter much better if 
she did not inform her husband that she in- 
tei;ded to take " a bit of lunch " with her 
mother. It would be very trying to the 
nerves of a stronger man than "poor David" 
to hear his wife talk of " a bit of lunch." 

A certain portion of the press is of opinion, 
aa the flyleaves of Love's Victory inform us, 
that the mantle of Dickena baa &illen upon 
the shoulders of Mr. Faijeon. That poor 
mantle has been acquainted with strange 
pegs during the last five years, la the pre- 



sent oase we can, of ooune, easily enough 
I see the anppoaed resemblance between uie 
two writers. It cooaista simply in a deter- 
mination, felt or affeoted by both, to aee 
nothing but folly and knavery in the upper 
classes, and to r^ard virtue aa the almost 
exclusive property of the lower middle ranks. 
To show thia determination, Mr. Faijecm 
haB collecf43d a medley of cbarftcters equally 
remarkable for novelty and truth. Tbo 
swindhug banker — the profligate banker's 
son — the virtuous actress (l6. Farjeon is 
particularly good at the virtuous actress) — 
point the easy moral and adorn the unvar- 
nished tale. Then there is a mysterious 
American, who is (on the author's autho- 
rity) tremendously sarcastic, and whom Mr. 
Farjeon persistently calls " the American 
gentleman," with what object we know not. 
That sarcastic age may not lack its foil of 
ingennouB youth, there ia a virtuona and 
verdaot Australian. The effete aristocracy 
of England ia represented by Lord Beaa- 
morris, who has taken his name (adding an 
r) from Thackeray, and has endeavoured to 
take bis language from Dickens. These pro- 
mising characters are combined in a story 
which carries out their promise moat tho- 
roughly. It is a pity that soch a pretty title 
shonld have been seized by such a silly book. 

We do not think that Mr. Joaquin Miller's 
present little book will much increase his 
fame among English readers. It bears a 
strong family likeneaa to T/w Luck of Boar- 
ing Carmp, but cannot be compared with it 
in point of merit. The civilising influence 
is here a woman, not a child, and the inte- 
rest, instead of being concentrated, is a 
good deal frittered away. When one has 
once been clearly informed that in order to 
be the noblest work of God it ia chiefly 
necessary to have a good gjxjwth of hair on 
one's chest, to divide one's time between gold- 
digging and drinking poison oua whisky, 
and to indulge in oatha wnioh would doubt- 
less be blaaphemouR if they possessed the 
antecedent qualification of meaning — subse- 
quent repetitions of the dogma lose much of 
their value. It is interesting to know that 
Mr. Miller thinks nothing of any man or 
woman who has not a large nose. But &om 
the elaborate manner in which be annoonces 
the opinion it would seem that Babelais, 
Erasmus and Sterne were strange to him. 

There is a certain ingennonaness and ab- 
sence of pretension about The Wheel of F<yr- 
tune which makes it difficult to treat Mr. 
Ryder with aa much stemnese as perhaps 
he deserves. It is quite true that his banker, 
merchant, barrister, major, captain, and 
young women, speak and behave in a man- 
ner which is quite unlike that in which any 
possible banker, merchant, barrister, major, 
captain, and young women would speak and 
behave. And his occasional disquisitions 
are a little trying. But he seems to have 
done his best to describe what he has actn- 
ally seen and observed, and that ia some- 
thmg, if but a little something. There is 
one scene, however, of a lurid morality which 
we rather doubt his having actually seen. 
In this scene a general, a cabinet minister, 
a recorder, a marquia, one or two lighta of 
the universities, and posiihh (the author is 
careful not to commit nimseu) some clergy- 
men in laymen's dress, play chicken-hawd 



Jblt 10, 187S.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



36 



for the nsnal appaUing Bomg, with tbe umal 

fhaatij coolness. It onght to be unpreaBiTe, 
at somehow isn't. 
8t. Simon't Niece is a book of a rery dif- 
ferent order, and deeerree to be dealt with 
BerionBly. At the outset we are introduced 
to the heroine, Fvtnnj St. Simon, contem- 
plating probable destitution od the heights 
of Montmartre. Soon, howerer, her nnele. 
appears, having made, or being about to 
Eoake, hie fortune in an American mine, and 
a gruid household in Paris is set np, lavish 
of expenditure, and enjoying the beat society 
in " the Colony," as Mr. Benedict empha- 
tically calls the American residents in Paris. 
Certain outlying mentbers of this sacred 
band appear, and the plot thickens. It 
appears that Miss St. Simon has had a 
frantic but honourable paasion for an angel, 
ically beautiful Englishman, debauched and 
impecunious, Talbot Caetlemaine by name. 
He can't many her, thoDgfa by no means 
loth to do BO, and avows his intention to 
catch if possible Helen Deverenx, an Am^- 
can heiress of immense wealth. Miss Deve- 
renx, in her turn, has been io love with, 
and has been mysteriously separated &om, 
a countryman, Gregoiy Alleyne. These 
promising materials are soon made "thick 
and slab." Castlemaine hunts Miss Deve- 
renx np in Devonshire, where she is staying 
with a girl-friend. He succeeds in getting 
the American to accept him, but unlnckily 
at the very same moment falls iu lo7e with 
the fnend. This awkward state of things is 
ingeniously got out of, and he marries the 
&iend. Meanwhile Fanny, who has sworn 
TMigeance on Helen Deverenx, sees her way 
to it in attracting Alleyne, who appears on 
the scene, and is very speedily "hooked." 
But the marriage does not take place imme- 
diately, partly owing to circnmstoncea, and 
partly to a dutbolical desire on Fanny's part 
to tonnest her betrothed and Miss Deverenx 
as much as possible by bringing them to- 
gether. In this she succeeds admirably, but 
at the eleventh hour a grand smash takes 
place. The mine collapses, St. Simon has 
to quit the oonntiy, end his niece in the 
tnrmoil, and fancying that Alleyne has de- 
serted her, gives way to her wishes, and 
consents to ^ope witii Gastlemaine. From 
this, however, a revulsion of feeling on her 
own part, and the gooi ofGces of a certain 
Boland Spencer (who. plays an important 
minor part) save her. A railway accident 
and a final scene of explanation terminate 
the book, Castlemaine being killed, and 
Fanny taking to good works. This plot is 
powerfully worked out, and the characters 
support it well. It ifl impossible to refuse 
very high pi^se to the heroine. We think 
indeed that Mr. Benedict has not nnfre- 
quently sacrificed literary to dramatic effect, 
ud that Fanny's ways and speeches are 
oiten ingeniously impossible. And we doubt 
the truth of ihe finale. A girl of Miss St. 
Simon's character, training, and habits is 
not likely to be so suddenly and effectively 
struck by the fear of losing her person^ 

girity, which is the motive here alleged, 
ut after every deduction is made, the book 
is one of unusual merit, and by all means to 
he read. The manner iu which Mr. Benedict 
manages to get through the high-wrought 
passion of the final soene without any &lse 



notes ifl very remarkable. By the way, it 
would give us the veiy greatest pleasure if 
this antboF would inform us yrhaA sort of 
being a " jnbey man " may be. 

One of the hardest lessons which a. re- 
viewer of novels has to learn is — not to lose 
his temper with Mr. Henry Kingsley, One 
can easily pardon the EoUy of any casual 
person who takes it into bis or her head to 
write a novel. Bat it is a little too bad when 
a man who can command fair scholarship, 
an attractive style, and enough loose wit to 
make the fortune of half a dozen novelists if 
it were concentrated, chooses to waste his 
powers on the preposterous extravaganzas 
to which Mr. Kingaley has for some T^^^rs 
chosen to set his name. Of these perform- 
ances, N-umber Seventeen is one of the worst, 
with which we are acquainted. We have 
no patience with its impossible peer, its im- 
possible lawyer, its impossible milliner, its 
impossible Home-office clerk, its impossible 
Eton boy, its impossible everybody. The 
impossibility of the whole thing is only 
equalled by the impossibility of conceiving 
how a man of Mr. Kingsley's powers could 
write such trash. But unfortunately custom 
has rendered even this impossibility possible. 
To any brother "of the reviewing schism" 
who desires to signahse his powers by an 
imitation of Macaulay on Montgome^ we 
can recommend WoTnan'e AmhUion. Being 
ourselves not that way inclined, we can only 
indicate its chief points. There is a gentle- 
man who " never was so solemnised in his 
life " as when he attended a certain funeral. 
There is an authoress (we presume) who 
talks about " the other members of her tale." 
There is a young Englishman who accepts 
the post of "attach^ to the Turkish Am- 
bassador," and presses his beloved's letters 
to his burning forehead. It may be suf- 
ficient to dismiss the latter proceeding (and 
the book) in the woids of Mr, Mill, " It may 
L very appropriate mode of expreasing 
3 devotion ; bat anyone who had appre- 
ciated ite efiect on the pro&ne reader would 
have thought it judicious to keep it back." 
Qeoaas StinrsBtRr. 



CITBBBirr EISTOBICAI, LmBATCBK. 

Mb. OBBie&TOH'B Hiitory of Soma (MacmiUan 
& Go.) reminds us once more that in the matter 
at historical handbookB at least we bout to be 
much hett«r thxn our fathers. At the outset he 
touches the right chord by pointing' out that the 
explanation of many important facta in modem 
Europe is to be sought in the ntorv of old Rome, 
and he proceeds b^ a judicious selection of &ct8 
to bring into rohef those sociai and political 
changes which are the true subjects of nietorj. 
But Mr. OreightoQ takes care not to &11 into the 
mistake of omitting the tales which have been en- 
joyed by so many ganerations, and in epite of hia 
cramped apace he nnda room for Cincinnatus at 
the plough and Uie schoolmaster of Falerii. In 
' ' ' if the Empire, Mr. Oreighton leans rather 
the peesimiat . view than would have 



hia v 



irof 



pleased Thierry, and he ia evidentiy of opinion 
that Rome did not, any more than Sarmatis, 
fall " without a cnme." But the benefits of the 
£m}Hie are plainly, if not very euthuaiaatically 
stated. 

In another edition Mr. Creighton will perhaps 
give UB a map to illustrate the war between OaeMr 
and Fompey. Those which he has given us are 
umAiI and commendable as much for what they 
do not give us as for what they do give ua. 



It may be pointed out, however, tkat the shading 
of No. S does not quite answer to the dsaenpticn, 
and that a little iteration of the Uuk liiie ia 
No, 9 would expreas the tnth abont HamubsTs 
wanderings in outmanoeuvring TkUna. Tbe«oB- 
atant remtition of the phrasea " Yon tee," " You 
will see, " So yon see, is probaUy meant as a 
vehicle of jam or jelly to help down the pilL But 
the medicise is palatable enongh in itself not to 
Btand in need of such aid, and it is likaly to prove 
irritating to the teacher. We come to a mcoe 
important matter. The stor^ of Appius Olaudins 
is a difficult one to tall mrgmibtii p«ai»que. But 
Burely some vague Words might be used to convey 
a sense of the unutterable wrongdoing of the 
tyrant. Those who read for the firat time that 
Appius "wished to have for his servant the 
daughter of a plebeian eallsd Viigiaius," will ha 
apt to think that Virginius was a great brute for 
murdering his daughter rather than let her go 
out to service. 

Mb. Guitisis' SiUory of tie Homan Empin 
from TheodotniM to the Coronation of (AarUi Ma 

Oreat (Rivingtona) ia so good that we could wish 
it bad been eetter. The period with which it 

deals ia neglected in schoola for want of text- 
books, hut is full of most important historical 
teaching. Mr. Curtus' littie hook is admirably 
written for teaching purposes ; it ia clear, definit^ 
well-«Tranged and inteieating. The author tells 
ua in l^e preface that his " chief authorities 
throughout have been Gibbon^and Mil man." He 
adds rather oddly that his only " original research 
has been a frequent reference to li^mhard." We 
wieh he had added Finlav uid Bryce to hia list of 
Buthois, and then his book would have been mora 
accurate and more full. Mr. Gurteia' only fault is 
that he doea not know enough. He goes out of 
his way to make a statement about early Roman 
constitutional history, "long after the '&mily' 
hod expanded into tiie 'gens,' and the 'gens' 
into tiie 'curia,' and the 'curia* into the ' tribe,' 
and the 'tribe' into the 'city.'" Surely be 
knows that the tribe and ths curia exiated sioe by 
side, and that there wee no expansicm of one into 
the other. He misses many punta in the changes 
introduced by Gonstantine which Ilnlay would 
have Bup^ed ; nor does he adequately apprecaste 
the financial system of the Eastern Empire. The 
political eignittcance of the leouoelastie struggle 
IS entirely overlooked, and the contrast of the re- 
lations between Ghurch and State in the East and 
West is not brought into prominence. Of the 
exact meaning of the change that came over the 
constitutional position of Italy in 476 he doea not 
seem to be clear, and tries to hide obscurity by 
using inverted commas. "Odoacer," he aaya, 
" was ' king,' and ruled Italy for fifWn yean." 
On the next page he aaya rightly that the Emperor 
Zeno "was asked to resume the Imperial pow«r 
and to name Odoacer ' patrician ' and repreaenta- 
tiye of the Emperor m Italy." When we go 
further we find the confusion becomes worse, 
" and Theodoric now atjled himself ' King of 
Italy.'" Mr. Curteis quotes Mr. Freeman's "Gene- 
ral Sketch," but has neglected to obeerre ths 
caution which he there gives to the unwary: — 
" Though Theodoric reigned in Italy he was never 
called King of Italy, but only King of hia own 
QotJiB.'' Mr. Gorteis has unfortunately not got 
that clear view of the constitutional theory of the 
Roman Empire which alone can g^ve preciseness 
and accuracy to any view of its history during the 
period of which he writes. 

Fblyehrmiam SmmlpM J^gdtn MonacJti Cb^ 
(rmni : toother with iAe Bnglith TrmAOiofu rf 
John Trtvua and of m Unknown Writer ff the 
FifteentA Ontwy. Edited by the Bev. Joe^ 
Rawaon Lumby, B.D. Vol. V. (RoUa Seriee). 



In this volume Higden'a »mnrriTig nanatn 
fkvourite "History" with EngliahiDWi ia Hm 
fifteenth century— reaches to the oloaa of tha first 
quarter of the seTenth centnry. As an iUnstn^ 
tion of what a Benedictine monk of the fourteentt 



SB 



,THE ACADBMT. 



[J«g 10, 1875. 



wUUar -to Wu5v« ktmnt the mat, tl 
aDd(nibtadly«Mnaiiii»lue. In the 
Mr. li^l^ hM bMn at coMdoaUe 



defartive 



«rled{re ot'^ttnal mia-atetoment, aitd aho the 
■BufMB to which Higden ^ma inddited for iae 
fliete or feUw. The eridence iiuiliiMB him to e^ 
clkde that his anllMt kd aoMW to nuts wtitan 
thn Mr. BKbii^ton mppoMB, in hia pn&oe to 
■(oL i., a&d Uie li*t, he ooiMden, " raprasenta a 
wv laifT^ fiald of IhsMtoie foi tiie noied at 
which the Pol^hranioon ivas compoaed. 



ieet on which he pto\ 

inaight easoallj annded into the state of leamisg 
in Bbg'land «t libiB ^eiiod is -aomelimeB of con- 
iddemMe Tslue. It is of intareat, for eiamplB, 
to note diBt, «Hhoiigb TbomaB Aqaittns had hean 
dead Bome fifty years, the influence of the aohoot- 
sun had not jet peuetmted into all our Engliah 
moDaateriea. The Bapremacrf of St. AngustiDe 
over all other teachars vhether of the lAtin or 
Greek Church, honever far it might have become 
aeknowledgcd at the uniTorBitiaa, was not yet oni- 
TenaUjrracoeniBed ; otherwise we should not meet, 
ae here (book iv. c. 18), -with such -waim prgdse of 
Origea,«ndfKimuch concenuDg his life and hiljieal 
labours. Siaiili Latmipottae orantt Ennium, eaya 
Higden, tic Orimtem cuneti expotitores tunt 
ttoati. He ia fuUj aware indeed that Origen is 
not infallible, and even falls into occasional doc- 
binal error; but then, he mgea, a^uimrfo dormitat 
Momtrm — already, it would seem, a hackneyed 
quotation. Perhapa no better insight into the 
unister inSuencea brought to bear upon theoliwi' 
eal Btudiee in the fourteenth and fifteenth oentunea 
could be gained, than hy tradng the aucceflarre 
changea b; which this Qreelc father came to be 
I^^arded as of no authority in the Romiah Ohnrch, 
until in the sixteenth century we find OaHcoigne, 
■Wolsay's treaeurer, taiing George Joye wi^ 
reading " Arigene," " whyche waa an heretike." 

Mr. "Lnmhy in no wHy extenuates the excessive 
creduli^ and love of the marvellous shown hy hia 
antiuir, but when he oheerrefl that " Eigdan seems 
to be the fint historian who ventured to throw 
discredit on Geofirey of Monmouth's iftbles," he 
appeare to forget the vigour with which WiOiam 
of Newbury, a cenlupy before, attached the 
"ridiculgua-tgmenle" of " the man named Geof- 
frey." If Higden, when he anproaches British 
bistory, is more soberthan Geo&ev of Monmouth, 
it seema to be chiefly because he has the sense to 
Ibllow Bede and the Saxoo Cbrouicle, though he 
Bsems to be of opinion that Maiionus 8cotua is as 
good an authority as either. 

But the ven- defects that make the Tolu- 
eirmiam of aueh snail value to us, were merits m 
an age delighting in the mar*-elloos, and hence 
the po]nilanlry of the work and John Trevisa'a 
tranalation for tbe benefit of those who were un- 
able to read the Latin. As a specimen of four- 
teenth century English proae, his version takes 
mnk with the Travels of Sir John Mandeville and 
Wydifa English traota. It is probebly little 
more than a dialect, and one, as we should be 
{irepared to find, from the localities where lie 
tnnslator passed his life (as Fellow of Queen's 
College, Orford, and " persoun " of a Gloucestep- 
ahire town^, leas affected than others by Danish 
and Norman elements. Ilenco, when Caxkm a 
century later undertook to print it, be speaks of 
having "somewhat changed the rude and old 
Engliik, that ia to wit, certein wotda which in 
theae days be aeilher used De nnderstood." Of 
tUs nngnlarty it^nd change in our laivuage, the 
■eeand Torsioti from the Harleian M8., )iere given 
in the editoiB, BlbidB 'a ueeM illuatration, and 
"*-*»Wy **«» of placing it before the reader 
•orvas-toi-rBnder these voiomes at least as valuable 
to the atodeBt of the history of the Engliah tongne 
«Bto the inveatipatoT of mediaeval leamii^. In 
Us first pralaDe iUr. liumby has already pointed 



oat 'MDie of the peodianlies of the forms in 
■^yiaa's version. 

Tkb eoMKtff fcr Fromiating Ohiiatian J£now^ 
lege has been fortunate in '•ecuring the services of 
three Buch men as Dr. Birch, Mr. G. Smith, and 
Mr. "W. S. W. V«ux for its series of ancient his- 
torisa from the monuments. Good and popular 
histories of Egypt, Assyria, and Terais are nww 
ae c e aa lble to the public in -a dieap and Kttractrre 
fbrm. We need hardly stiy that the vtAmauB em- 
b«^ the newest iufonwtion obtained from the 
da uij a hB FBMttt of the mtive reeoidB, *aA that, 
smaU «nd handy ae they are, thm contain much 
that will be of interest even to the student. _ A 
perasal of the books will show bow large and im- 
portant are the historical results already gained 
Mm the inscriptions, and how tboronghly they 
have temsformed our conceptions ef the ancient 
Eadt The vohnnes will be of -apaoal value in 
aehooh where t«xt-bo<^ «diieh repeat the tMshy 
^A. arrraeous statements of fif^ years ago are 
too often put into the puoil's hands. The theo- 
Itwieal auspices, too, under which the volumes 
have been prouuht out will recommend them to 
that la^e class of readers to which new facts and 
ideas do not veiy readily penetrate. We undei^ 
stand that Hr. Smith is engaged upon a history 
of Babylonia snppleiBentBry to 'that of Asayria,' 
and ainoeraly hope it will soon^paiB. 

To turn from such books to The Ancient WarM, 
by J. A. G. Barton {Blackwood & •Bona) is like 

Visaing from daylight into Cinnnerian darbiasa. 
be author moat have been a fellow-woriter with 
Hr. Oaaaubon, except that what the latter would 
probably have regarded as mytbical Mr. Barton 
takes for historical Cut. We can onl^ mention 
the book to warn o£ readers against it, and to 
trust that it will be studied by no one eicept the 
few who have made the recently revealed history 
of the East tiieir special snbject. To them the 
work may afford some amuaeDMUt. Of modem 
diacoveriee—whetiwr in Egypt, or Aaafiia, or 
ejaewhere— Kiot a wotd seams to have panettatad 
to the author's ears. The Isgeads and fables of 
clawieal anti^itjr, and the landfill combinalions 
of men like Hollin and Bryant, are the stuff of 
whic^ Mr. Barton's Ancient World is composed. 
Of " Shishak or Seeonchosis " we ore told that he 
"is aaid to have conquered India," and to be con- 
aidered by some " the same with Soidiya Muni, 
the fataiiBr of Buddhism ; Qjj) othara Uta same 
with Sesostris ; and (by) othan, again, the same 
with Bacchus." Then we have the remarkable 
informatitm that ofthe kings of Babylon subsequent 
to Sardanapalus "two names only are known to 
us," that " the learned affect" (whatever that may 
mean) " that Samiramis and the goddess Shsma 
Deir of India are one," and that "the kingdom 
of Argoe was founded in B.C. 1866, its first king 
being Inachns, the son of Ocfsnus and Zethys 
(nc). But it is difficult to select the ploms wbei« 
then are so many of them. We have seldom 
seen so touching an example of fitith, but the 
book would hove been obsolete aaventy years ego. 

ParUaituiit and tit CAwiiA «/ England. 
(Bedey, Jaokaon & Halliday). Frofasaor Mon- 
tagu Burrows sketches out — with a view to 
pr on ant guidance — the relations hetwasD Church 
and Slate in the nxtoentb and mare eapecially in 
the aeventaenth century. His view ef the his- 
torical facta may be accepted as satiafaotoiy as for 
aa it goee. He aeee dearly that die Reformation 
ohaagee wore tiieweA of t)w'Eiiig,tfae dsrgysud 
the htitj tnetitra; tUt the tniataks ofCharlee I. 
wae the manmnaaee of the fomwl rights of his 
predaeassora, while be afaandoned their position 
aa repmentativee of the nation, and that the re- 
sistance to the I«ndian discipline waa entirely of 
a consen'stive character. From hie history of the 
past he deduces kssons for the future, Uid, an- 
choring the Established 'Ohnrch on the average 
eonservatiye common sense of religious people, he 
proceeds to discnas the beet meam uf bringing this 
le to bear on the questions which 



may from time to time arise. Is it not, how- 
ever, possible that in arbitrariiy selecting the 
pointa, to which he ealla attention i " ' 

FWeasor Burrows may find bfanstill 
adrift in hta vstieiiiBlioiia af tbe iuhbb i 
He forgets that dua average «cnDRon s«Me had «t 
leaat aoon part in tlra diatwAauaea wfaioh he 
attribntae to Laod'a , innovations, and that the 
proacripticHi of indnie&dent religious thought tav 
the Commons in 1629 had something to do witn 
the eetemonisl revolution, which was the mnne- 
diate cause of the mischief. Nobody cc 
toleratqon of Dissenters in I69B, any n 
aa Profeaeer iBmrewe hdds, onybe^ w«rth nun 
tioning oaaam^ates disestatJMhmwit in 1876.- 
Bat laligions seal, somehow or another, took 
paths in the aeventamlh centniy which woe 
^togetlier surprising to average common aanse, 
and It is qmte posaiue that dimcuHiee may occur 
in the nineteentii century which are not io'he met 
hy Profeeeor Barrows's precedetrta. Edthjb. 



J/0TS8 AND JUBWS. 



H. TaKDmiOTi 'Bxnxfrra, who w 
to be in a nreoariaas state of health, owing to tte 
Roman atUBia, has so ftriecowed as to be able 
to come to Iiondno. 

A E&posx hoB been printed of the uisalii% 
held on the 24th ult. at Willi^ Booms W the 
Auziliazy Committee in aid of the Asia Miner 
Famine Relief Eund. The princ^ feature in. it 
is a very able and complete account of the history 
and gravity of the calamity by Mr. Whitaker; 
hut the other speeches, by the chairman. Sir Henry 
Bawlinson, Hon. T. Bruce, M.P^ Sir Rutherforn 
Alctx^ ; nr. Reginald Yorice, Sr. Botlar JiriM> 
stone, Mr. Hanbury, msmhars at -ParliaitMBti 
I^ird atanlCT of ^fainlBy, and Mr. 0. T. Naarton, 
contain siwm interesting informataon mi the>aub- 
ject. All tiie:^eakne, feun diferant points of 
view, urge moat strongly upon the British puiJic 
the du^ of helping the starving population of 
Asia Minor to tide over their pment great n»- 
ceasity, 

pROPEsaOB "SiAVOV&nw, the Director of the 
Juridical Lyceum of Taro^af, the principal ine 
tirtion of ita kind in Rncda, has arrived in ^ •">» 
where he proposes to mAa a ihort stay, 
member at the Oommiasion for tiie RaorganisBtioa 
of the Boanan Univenitiea, bat, aa they on 
mun^ sopiae «f Gennan models, bo is not lUnly 
to find mach in .England which can he benefidal^ 
introduced into Russia, 

H. Q. ^Buris abtmt to publish fwith Heana. 
Bidier) a vcluine af Aiohaaolqgical Mis aall a ni as, 

TsB finllacticm df the lettersof Loans XI. laldA 
Hdlla. iDapont nd M L. Pannier were abMst te 
sand to oaasfiir the Fianch Hietoriaai Soaia^ 
will be osla^ed in conaaquence of the discevec; 
made at the Archives by M. Pannier of more thaa 
a hundred unpublished letters of the highaat ht' 

A HAOVKL of mediaeval calign^hy'and writing 
has been recently sent to Paris I^ an E n g l iso 
bookseller, who l>oughtit for 36,000 bancs, and is 
on the look-out for a purchaBer at 42,060i 
It is a psahar from the monastery of St. HuWt, 
in Ardennes (Luxambootg'), and ia teown aa tii« 
Paallarof LooiatkeOoad; batiLFaulin Paiia, 
who baa exaaaiaed it, is indined io believe thatit 
bdoi^ied to bis etm Lothaire. Jt is written in 
gold uncials; and contains venea in honour of the 
King towhomitwasprasented. The binding is on 
one side of ivory admirably chiselled, on the other 
of wrought silver representing the King who 
owned the mannscript. This psalter was described 
' hUbilloa in the sevaoteenth oentory, and efaiee 
end of lait eantmy hod bsaa con^dend aa 



byM 
the fl 



Jm.T 10, ims.) 



THE ACADEMy. 



3T 



Tbk agwtpKptm ctnoniele die ftct that Lord 
Walter OamplMll, thiri son of the Dnkv of Argyll 
and 1»crtiuD4&-lBW of -" 



come parinar iu a stocUnoUiig tinn. This ia 
batter thui dieMstoantioauBtolii'Whiah prarailed 
in thaiaai caiiatj of mNRTUig "a Oily madam" 
ta ntvoit a IsoIebb fortaOB, And altliongh an 
ezaotlf paralbl obm might ba hud to tliid^ it 
wnuld be a miataka to sn^sa that the En^lieh 
nobilitj hm always held itaelf aloof from evny 
branch of oommraM. Tho tmth lather ia that 
unce the iNgn of Beu^ VIL th» tiadlnff claaa 
has been laigal^ncrnitod hjrtiia eadats of fimiliea 
which in all conntriea bat l^Jq^and wonld baatyled 
" noble." Whan Uie HemUs Tinted Losdon in 
1696 ttey nooidad a Baoon aa aldMman, ft Fabfiot 
as dtizan and grocer, an Bgeiton aa mnwer, as 
Okeovar aa meichant-taUor, and VBattj another 
name of high repute ie to be foaud in tbe later 
TiatatioD* of the Cit^. 

Thb death is announced, on the 14th ult., of 
Mt. Samael Gardner Drake, of BoBbin, at the ace 
of aerenty-Beven. Hia two hobWes, aaya the 
Jfatim, were genealogy and the kirtory of the 
Indiana of New England, in relation to which he 
pablialied numerouB works ; he was also the author 
of ^Higtoryofthe Fiet Yean' f^-ench and Indian 
War, of the beet hiBtojy of Boston yet produced, 
and of a work entitled lUtult oflUMarcAet arrumg 
thaBrkiOt ArritivM. 

Ii ia worth mentioning that Mz: Bicka'a ahillius 
edition ofPope'sWorks contains, bcaide the peetknl 
works and tnmslatiana, the poet's letters, wlueli 
are peculiarly welcome ia this cheep fbim. 

A xBAnuxroK by Paul Hejna of the poenM 
of QiuB^pe Giuati w at&Mtin^ conaidaaHa at- 
tention m Genutny. ^e peat whoa* woriia now 
appeal in a-Gemu dreaawMbom in M^ 1809 
atUonBiuwnano,aiiddieda*flonBOeof^>op1«cy 
in March 1880. It was no eaiy task to translate 
a writer who «apk>yed the dialect of the pea- 
aantiy of the Apenionas and of the Tuscan low- 
land*, and wiio boasted tiiat when at work be 
" laid aaide the dreaa-coat of refiied society, and 
vnmt about in the peasant's amoek'&ock" The 
difficulty has, however, been not only attocesafully 
but tiiumphsiitly oYCMome br Paul Heyae, who 
has Dontrived to t«tain tba dtjiciova fksehnesa, the 
blended vigonr and sweetaeBs of tha original, not- 
wit halan d i ng- tha absence of bannoniouB rejalions 
between tiie GSerman and Italian lat^nages. With 
T^«td to a deeper tUsoord, the reaolation of which 
ia fbreahadowad ' " - . - 



DanalatiDu, a GerauncritiB makes the following 



"Qinsti's satiFe wft» directed against fcroign domi- 
DBtino, and HpeaaUy ngaiuat Auslxia, in a time now 
w^-^i^ past. HoM can bluns the Italiui poat 
becsuM he sbuck the choidi irilh an angry hand. 
This has tiUNitiaUj altered Com dnn, and the Gn- 
msno^hobia of the Italians baa grrea «a7 to a more 
(sneiliataiy nirit; tliey an now full of enthuriaetio 
recognition rfoar sagcttaem in tlw field of politics and 
of ecienee. It vonld be absmd to make it a repraach 
to 3.eyte that he has gathered us a biilliantl; ooloared 
aud fragrant rose from the garden of Ttnlmn poesy 
together with its thcmy eteaL" 

Ths German papers anmmce the daath, at the 
HionaatBi^ of fieocain, near Coilowiti:, of Grit- 
schits Milenko, the moat aoeomplishsd aid auc- 
cesaful of Sarmn lyrists. Aoiong the peiaonal 
fiienda who helped to bear his oa£a to tlie 
buiyiag'gToand of tiie monasterr waa the weU- 
kno^^ Sorrianpoet Zmaj-Javan JbranoTita, who 
has recently calehrated hit twenty-fifth j«ai's 
jolnlee of authoiship. 

Th» nest raeetingof the Gemmn Anthiopologieal 
Society iitab» held at Munich on the 9th, 10th, and 
11th of Aagutv when m important collection of 
prahistoiic nmains ^m all parta of BaTaria will be 



render this exhibition as intereeting and complete 
BH possiUe, and meaaoree are Ming t«Jnn ' 



arrai^ the objecta to tbe best admntaAe in the 
large hall of the Odeon at Munich, wliicfa has 
been phu»d st the disposal of the managing 
comnutlee. 

Ik the June number of Wettermaaiii IlUatrtrie 
dadtche Mottata-Stfte,A.dolS Stain conaideis the 
deacription given by Tacitus of t^e ffreat Kau- 
machia, celebrated in the presence of Claudius on 
Lake Fucioufi, and compaies it in all its details 
with tbe accounts ^ren of the same event by 
SuetoniuB, and a century later br Dion Caasius. 
To the latter alone we are indebted fbr the 
Bensational incident of the condemned lummacbi- 
arii, who received no merciftil reply to their 
pathetic salntstion " Ave ! Imperator, morituri te 

' ' ' ' " As Tacitua and Suetonius are both 

regard to this occurrence, Br, A. Stahr 

that we must refer these highly- 



naval Migagement to hia 
the ezaggttfttion of trausmitlAd anecdotal lore, 
and that the " Ave ! Impemtor" of tiie de^siiing 
thousands, with tlie emperor's equally aeoreditsd 
reply " Aveta voe," must henceforth be conBJgnsd 
to Uia realm of aeosational fiction. Dr. StMa's 
critical analysis of the varyinp iristorical pictures 
that have oome down to us-of the reign of Olaudios 
merits special attention from the care with which 
he ia known to have studied the pwiod, aa all can 
testify who have read his history of " Agripjunai 
the Mother of Nero." 

Teb atoluTCe of many old casUee and manHona 
in Upper Austaia have, according to a local jom^ 
nal, been mtUeesly cleared out of late yean, bi 
one case alone many hondredweight of ' 
and reocrda wers sent to Trieste to 
waste paper. A good deal of quietly rescued 
treMuie was inoorporated in the smaU library of 
the pastor of Gmunden, Koch, who, ti*o yeare 
ainca, gave one of his loamed &i«idB two German 
parohmtoto, fiagments of an old MS. of tha 
audant Swabian law. These sheete were taken to 
Berlin, and Jrom thence to Munich, where they 
fell into the hands of Professor h. Ruckingor, tbe 
beet authority in tbe preaent day on the subject of 
the ancient Swabian code. The Proftsaor pro- 
nounced these valuable fragments to belong to the 
group which, unless fiirthar invesligfttions over- 
throw his previous opinions, he intends choosing 
ns the futun textual groundwork of the hook of 
Swabian lair. No spemmen of the group to vrinch 
Pastor Soch's fragments bebng has hitherto been 
known out of Austria. 

Is a recent number of the Wim-hto Svng-pao 
(a magarine published at Shanghai in the Chinese 
language^, the writer of an article makes a stata- 
ment which, if troo, will have an important bear- 
ing on the intore of the Oelestiul Empire. He 



asking that foreign learning and the eciencea may 
be -^atxA on an equal footing with tha standard 
subjects in tbe HtMsry examinations of tbe Em- 

Tax follovring ace among the latest items of 
intelligenoe &om Japan : — A newspaper baa inst 
haea started at Yedo luder tbe title of Siri 
Shmibun (niuBtrated Newa). The proprietors, we 
are told, are actors. 

A UBHiAT, containing 30,000 volumes of foreign 
works, has haw estahlished at Yedo by toe 
Jafansse Educational Dq«rtmant. 

Thb Sbnghmg Daily Pre** uuderBtanda that 
the Chinese Government intends to introduce tha 
qninine, gntta-^ercha, and india-rubber plants for 
cultivation iii Formosa. 



Thb Fortnightly Mevitw contains a reprint of 
paper read by Mr. George Darwin before tbe 
Statistical Society, on the effects of marriagea be- 
tween first cousins on health nod popnlation. The 
greater part of it is taken up witli calculations to 
determine by a mixture of guess and average- 



taking what proportiot 
persona of the same nai 
tions. This is unfortunate, because though tbe 
conclnaiooa reached on this prriituinary pomt are 
as likely to be ri^ht aa not, no really certain con- 
clusions can be built upon a plausilJle guess, and 
the multiplication of fibres and averages may 
lead the unwaiy to bebeve that they have got 
something more. Such figures as there are, how- 
ever, decidedly fiul to support the popular view that 
insani^, physical d^eneracy, and sterility are the 
natural comequence of couain marrying. In &ct, 
the scale seems hardly to turn aa much agunst 
cousins as it should, on the purely rational around 
that persons of tbe same family me more likely in 
proportion than strangera to be subject to the same 
morbid predisposition, and are therefore lees likely 
to correct or neutraUse each other's inlinnitiea. 
The reason, of course, may be that familiea 
which hold together sufficiently to lavour cou^iit 
marriages are elightly above the average in 
forethought and other conditions of [Jiysiail' 
well-being. But it would be worth whila 
to institute a fbw optional columns in tha 
Registnr-Oeneral'B returns that might in tinu 
provide anquren with more ample dat» than 
cleanings inBurke. The " History of aPavement," 
\ij ProreasoT Sidney Colvin, is conilensad fhini. 
vary interesting lectures delivered at Cambridga 
on the drawings, at the Fitzwilfiau Musaum, of 
the pavnment at the great church of SienSr witlt 
its elaharate inlaid designs, partly in mosuc of 
coloured marbles, partly in a kind of intagliOf 
lines cut in the white marble being filled up with 
black cement. The work was begun in 1369, a 
few years after the abandonment of a still greatv 
scheme which was to have turned the whole of 
the existing cathedral into the mere transept of a 
colossal church almost covering the cathedral 
aqunm. Different artists, sculptors, painters, and 
wood iniayns added in turn to the deugns, of 
which the series stops in 14H8, Professor Beeslj 
explains d propM of the convicted cslwet makers. 
the ground on which Positivists gsner^y find 
their sympathies with workmwi rather than witk 
their employers in trade disputes. The test which 
he proposes in doubtful cases of temptation to 
disobey bad taws is so thoroughly in accordance 
with the ancient instincts or prejudices of tba 
popular conscience, that it may perh^« give 
pause to the dominant utilitarian superstitiou: 
" in proportion as our action is altroistic it 
hoe the better chance of being right." A 
good illustration ia given. The game laws an 
bad, but a poacher is not a martyr, because ha 
breaks tha law for his own private interest oz 
amusement ; but if the whole bench of biahopa 
pA themselves sent to gaol for poAching, by wav 
of making the law imposiiiblB, " W« might thine 
their conduct hasty and Quixotic, but we coalft 
not refuse to honour it as altruistic, and «■ 
should have to look on them in futum as man 
fonnidaUe. 



n dte 



tagowati," 
SuoE an article as Mr. Gladstone'i 
Church of Bnrfaod worth Piwiervina 
Qmtmimoran/ Remtm, might have had 
bis weight on the side of leasonableness and, 
peace if it had come at some other time and from 
a leea fiery theological partisan. The argument 
is aimply that the Reformers decided as manj 
points of doctrine and ritual as they could sgxea 
upon i we agree upon, if anything, rather fewes 
points than they did, and it is multiplying points 
of disagreement without need to insist as muoli 
on points of ritual, which may mean anything Ot 
notning ne people please, as upon disputed OOO- 
trinee, when even the Utter could scarcely ba 
decided without risk of schism. Mr- Greg prinbi 
the " Echo of the Antipodes " to Caasaudrab 
vaticinations io the shape of a letter Irom aa 
employer of labour in New Simih W^ee, who 
states the grievanced of his cliws '^ith a ^mplA 
good faith that makes hiui r^Liher u damagmg 
ally. Mr. Greg iii^ues with much force Ih^ 
I society is threatened with dangers against which 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 10, 1875. 



" thamnn obviouriy bat two mSegtuaia, the ipraad 
of edncktian and ofpropert; extenfflrel; amaw the 
kbomiiig rlnmnn ; ud ;et when his corrwpoiiaeiit 
teUi him (rfa Muntiy wlun " tha State ia certainlr 
doing ita ntmoct to place within the ranch of all 
the advaotagea of eancstioii,'' where " a Tei^ large 
propcfftion of tba laboariDg claaeee are theit own 
hnolradi, and manj, ))j the aid of Building 
■odetiea. have erected aeat and prettj cottagoa, 
snnounded by well-cnltiTated nrdena," where 
iiiiiiimiiiiiii an '^'^^i '''here an oidinaiy labonrer'a 
wases tn ddit aliilliiigB for a da^ of eight hours, 
WDd where pWt; doea not lesult in idlenms, " for 
mo>t men work on th^ own accoont after hours, 
and will occanonallj deign to do ho for their am- 
plojers, under the temptatioQ of extra pay" — 
strange to say, Oaseandra is not pleased, hut, for 
anything that appaan to the eouti&ry, agrees with 
hia Australian biend that it ia very wrong and 
foolish of the men not to work after houn for their 
employeiB mthtnU extra pa^, or at least Tote 
taxee to assist the immigration of labourera who 
wilL The curious and melancholy part of tha 
whole conboTersy ia the inability of a cultivated 
and benevolent writer like Mr, Qreg to see that 
"Sodetr" does not mean his own claas; in New 
South Walefl, as elsewhere, the interest of the few 
ia more or leas directly opposed to that of the 
many. The democracy controls tha elections and 
usee its power to protect ita interests, as it under- 
stands tnem, clumsily enough, hut still, thus far, 
with the success above described j and Mr. Or^ 
^ves ns no reason to hope that the dass which is 
now outvoted, if allowed to goTem, would make it 
the chief object of its care to preserve to the majo- 
rity of the community all those advantagee it 
amady poeaesses, with tha addition of political 
intelligence and moral refinement. Yet surely 
this anooldbe the first thought of the philosophic 
legialator, and the rate at which the material 
tesonrcea of the colony are developed should 
eurelT be determined by the rate at which its 
popmatdon can expand without wrecking the 
prosperity of the masses on any of the old 
rocks, competition^ apeculntion, overcrowding and 
pauperism, " Wind Myths," by 0. Keaiy, eon- 
t^ns one or two interestmg pointa, but the writer 
has not ffone &r into the auDject. The Duka of 
Argyll "On Animal Instinct in its Relation to 
the Mind of Man " describee the precocious clever- 
ness of young water-ousels and Mergauseis that 
he has watched, opines that the instinct of 
mimala is mechanical in the sense that it has a 
purpose intended by another conaciousnesa than 
theua, and accepts the analogy that the wirea of 
the human automata may also he pulled from 

^B CbmAtU gives some translations of " Vene- 
tian Popular fEgends" from Signor Bemoni'a 
dialect collections, in which the most original 
featuraa are the devotion to St. John the Baptist 
and the belief in n»edal judgmenlB on any ain 
against him, especially any love-making between 
god-parenta, or, as they are called, compare a comare 
di San Zuana. Mr. Symocds continues hia studies 
on the women of Greek literature. A paper on 
" Horace'a Two Pliilosophiea " deals with that of 
the Odes, a philosophy of trivial delight made 
iimocent and irresiatilQe by its ironical extrava- 
gance and the perfection of the verbal instrument. 

Froter has an article on " The Dnlesfolk of 
Oumberland and "Weatmorsland," which reminda 
ns that among other archaic customs that of 
kindling a aaered fire by the Motion of two p' 

of wowl was preserved there till the present 

tnry; and as late as 1841, when there was an 
epidemic among the cattle, the old remedy of 
makiiig them pass through the reek of the " need 
fira " was resorted to. A writer who, according 
to the editor, derives his information from apeeiu 
and trustworthy sonrcee, b^us to reUte the 
history of the " Intamatioiiar " witti a view to 
ol>tain justice for what was reasonable and'atates- 
manlike in ita original prognunme. 



Ibs fortunate purchaser of Ariatotle'a Politiet, 
with autoBtaph marginalia bv Lord Maeanlay, 
contributed the notes, of which the most 
intereatdnR feature is their commonplaceneas, 
to Maemuttm, where ' the Hector of Lincoln also 
begins " A Chapter of University Histcary,' the 
only one, as he complains, fbr whidi a tzuatworthy 
contemporary furnishes memoiials, the age of 
Anthony Wood. 

Ten^U Bar ia as usual miscellaneous aitd ^rly 

itartuning, A few pages on " Saying ' No 
contain a curious pajcbological observation which 
a moment's considwation will enable any one to 
verify — that a queBtion which may be answered 
rather way is instinctively answered with an 
affirmative turn ; and when the mattar demands a 
negative, some evamve instinct of courtesy still 
prompts the reepondents not to toy No. 

M, Oakclle BabrivRB writes to Sylvanue Urban 
to say that the late Oharles de R^musat was the 
chief original of Balzac's Eeury de Marsay, and 
to remind those who may have forgotten it that 
Thiers, old Rothschild, Lamartine, and Oeorge 
Sand were respectively identified with Rastignae, 
Baron de Neucingen, Canalis, and Claude Vignon. 

We have received Tea Yeari of Gentleman 
Farmitig at Blennerhatut, by W. Lawson, C. D. 
Hunter, and others, second edition (Longmans) ; 
The Engliskman'i lUtatrated Chude Book to the 
Ututed Stata and Canada, second edition (Long- 
mans) ; The Bankt of Iimu QueiUon, by Ernest 
Sneyd (Stanford) ; Catalogs of the qmcere and 
Student* of CWumiwi OMtgt, l'S74-G (5[ew York : 
Van Nostrand) ; The R-ovince of Piychology, an 
Liaugural Address, &.C., by Mr. Serjeant Cox 
(Longmans) ; A Seview of Mr. Todhtaiter't Ettay 
on Mianeniary Oeometry, by the Bev. Joshua 
Jones (Longmans) ; Spomorthip : Should it not he 
Optional rather than Compuiioryf by the Bev, 
H. Percy Smith (Longmana) ; Labour and Q^n- 
tal, by Fiat Justitla (EUiot Stock) ; A Com- 
pendioui Statement of the Nature <md Oott of 
certain Seviage JVocshm, by Major-Qeneral Scott 
(Nissen ft Arnold) ; J&sC Prtac^Ue in Church 
and State, by the Bev. Archer Oumey (Henry S. 
King & Co.) J 7X« Breat Game ; a Plea for a 
British Imperiai Policy, by a British Subject 
(Simpkin, Marshall ft Co.); The Temple of 
Memory, by Eanelm Henry THgbv, new edition 
(Longmans) J The Covent Oarden Magazine, con- 
ducted by W. H. 0. Nation, Noa. 1-7: The 
Dramatic Work* of WilUinn Shaie^are, vols. vii. 
and viii. (Bell) ; CSontributiont to Nattiral Sittory, 
ftc, by James Simson (Tloulston) ; Chrittendom 
and the Drink Cutm, by the Bev. Dawson Bums 
^Partridge) ; MademoueUe idori, new edition 
^lOngniane) ; The Worki of Alexander Pope 
(Dicks) ; Academy Xota, by Henry Blackburn 
(Ohatto ft Windua) ; Great Eattem Jiailviay 
Panoramic Gvide (Bemiose) ; Soiaid, third 
edition, and Six Leetvret on Light, second edition, 
by John TyndaU (Longmans); Xsssinis on JV«- 
tcripiioTU and the Art of Pretcribing, by W. 
JIandsel Oriffitha (Macmillan) ; The Sun/ecit'e 
Focket-Sook, by Surgeon-Major J. H. Porter 
(Griffin): The Work of Ood in Greta Britain 
under Mettre. Moody and Sankey, by H. W. Olsrk 
n^w & Co.) ; Commvn-^enee Management of tha 
Stomach, by G, 0. Drewry (King) j Breajcfatl, 
iMncheon, and Tea, by Mniion Harland (Low & 
Oo.) ; Iruh BMemen tn America, liy A. B. Leech 
(Stanford) ; The Uk and Abiue of Irrational 
AnimcUe (S. Tinsley) ; A Flea for Mercv to 
Animalt, \v James Macaulay^ (Religious Tract 
Society); Mandbook of the Et^liih Language, Jtiatii 
edition, by R. G. TAttinm (Longmans), 



KOIBt OT TRITKL, 

Oapiaix Buxtok left London on Monday 
evening to inspect the eruptions and the sulphur 
mines of Nortn-eaat Iceland. He heads a pafty 
of lavans, who have hired the steamer Fifahirt 



tor that porpOM. Hta. Buitounmuns in London 
till he retuma, 

FnoH a not« in Fetmnann's Mitthahngen we 
learn that M, Folyakof was deputed V ^* 
Imperial Russian Gsographieol Boetety in 1871 
and 1673 to explore the remon between the Arctic 
and Baltic aeos, and that tbe reault of his inveati- 
gatioDB, baaed on the similarity of the &una and 
of the chan^ and operations which must have 
taken jdace m the glBcial period, convinced bint 
that connexion of some sort must have formerly 
existed between the two seas. A third journey 
in 1874 convinced him that tha glacier syatem of 
Finland once extended far into the basm of tha 
Volga and beyond the limits of the WaUai 
plateau, and that the melting of these brought 
the two basins into connexion, the present inter- 
vening lokea being in all probability relics of thia 
great flood. M. Polyakof has also found the true 
source of the Volga, which has variously be«ai 
given as the Seliger and the Volgo lake, but both 
of these are erroneously supposed to be the source. 
Above the Volgd lake lie three large lakea, and 
again above these lie two othms called the Great 
and Little Werchita. These two are united in 
summer only, and the permanent source ia situated 
between the two near the village of Volgi- 
Verchowye, 

A KBOEHi number of the Berlin Neuteit con- 
tuns an interesting article bv Dr. Gerhard Bohlb 
on " Modem Oairo,'' in which he gives much 
curious information in regard to the origin and 
character of the nomea applied by the native 
populations to this and other semi-Europeenised 
citaes of the Best. To the FeUah and otha 
native-bom Egyptians the name "Cairo" ia um- 
fiuniliar; with tliem their capital is "Maari^or 
" Misr " — a word which^ according to the Qennan 
Orientalist Dr. Wetzstein, who has supplied Sr, 
Rohlb with numerous notes on ths subject, ia 
the generally accepted name of the whole countiT 
and is identical with the " Misraim '' of the Ou 
Testament. This transference of tha name of the 
country to its principal city is not uncommon in 
the geographical nomenclature of the Arabs and 
other ancient races, although, accoidiag to Dr. 
Rohl&, the reverse of this is not unfrequent in 
modem times among these and other peoples. 
Thus, for instance, several nations at the preaent 
day designate tiie Turkish Empire by the aame, 
in tha vernacular, of its capital, "Stamboul," 
while Russia is generally known in the East as 
Muscu, from the name of its ancient capital, in the 
same way as Europearu cell the States of the 
Berbers Tripoli, Tunis, and AUiers, from the 
names of their respective capitals. It would appear, 
from Dr. Wetistein'a researches, that the present 
Cairo occupies the site of an ancient city founded 
by the Ptolemies, and called by them " Hidsehra- 
Babylon." In the year 19 of the Hegin, 
this city was besiaged by Oaliph Omar's gene- 
ral, Amr ibn el 'Am, who struck his tent, "el 
FosUt," on the north side of tha town, which 
soon became the centre of a kr^ number of othex 
tents, huts, and barracks, and in process of time 
acquired such extent ana importance as to trans- 
fer its name to the whole city, which was th«i 
known as " el Fostit" Three hundred years 
later (in 839 of the Hegira), when I^t -nva 
occupied by Oauhal, chief captein of the armies 
of the Weet African invaders of Egypt, the name 
el FostAt was in tum superseded by another, " el 
Kihira," from which the modem desigriatioii 
'• Cairo " has been derived. It owed ita origin to 
the circumatancea attending the siege and occu- 
pation ot the city ; for when Gauhal, in accord- 
ance with a treaty which he had entered into 
with the people, encamped his troops in the 
suburbs, outside the bounds of the city, their 
encampment of tents and barradu gradually grew 
into an important military settl^ent, and was 
known as " el K4hira," the subduer or conqueror, 
a name which like its pradeceasor was gradually 
extended to the entire caidtal. To tha present 
day the different qnaiters of Cairo am distan- 



JptT 10, 187S.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



gaished u " el KUiin," " el FoaOi,' uid " H 
-or " iSrVSTf'^ ud in officul documonto ^^artianHiny 
accorBCf of dc^tioD, the citj i* deakittted u 
" Kahirit Hiar," Otita in Egypt, while, ai 
hftTB hefore otwerred, the lower native clsiaes re- 
mun eomtftnt to its primitiTo ftppdlatdon of " el 
Mier " — ^Egypt ptr tteeUenee. 

At the insngnntioD, on the 3rd nltimo, of the 
KhediTe'e GeognqiMcal Society at OsJio/tbe Presi- 
dent, Br, Schw^nfnrUi, lud down a progiamms of 
'what, in hia omnion, should be the future ■work of 
the Society. This we ooudenBe from the report in 
tile Momtmr-EgyptiertoftiiB ftble speech he m&de 
on this ocesMon. The configuration of the laby- 
rinth of raUevs and of mountain chains lying on 
dther side of Egypt must be nmpped out, the 
lakes at the mouth of the Nile more accurately 
deline«tad, the orthography of Arabic geographic&l 
nomenclature perfected, end the detailB of the 
railways and Kreat canals due to the initiative of 
tlie Khedive Ismael indicated on the map. Among 
the regions remaining to be poeaeesed in a scientific 
sense are the follovring: — The vast portion trf 
Nubia extending from the bend of the Nile to the 
Bed Sea, the land of EsbayS (partially explored 
by M. Iniiant) ; the desert of libva, which, though 
explored last year, ia thoroughly known but in 
put; Darfour; the countries bordering Abyssinia 
on the north-weet ; those lying athwart the middle 
coulee of the Hue Nile; the mountains of Southern 
AlysMnia ; the land of Takkeli, south of Kordofan ; 
and lastly, the fiunons sources of the Nile. Tho- 
roughly to invcetjgate these countriee, which are 
under the away of the Khedire, would be no light 
task, bnt the Qeogiaphical Society of Gairo desires, 
in the words of its President, to " deserve the 
name of an AAicaa sodety in every sense of the 
word," and will not ehrink from queetioning the 
Sphynx that stall gnftids the myetmes of Central 
A&ica. 

The first part of Lieutenant Stumm's Siutian 
Campaign to Ektva has appeared at Berlin, lie 
work, which has bean long announced, was pre- 
ceded by the publication, m 1873, of a series of 
papers, entitled by the author Aut Khiva, in 
which he gave a brief and comprehensive sum- 
mary of the results of hia own observations during 
the eamnsagn in which he had taken an active 
port. Tne chapters devoted to topographical and 
get^raphical descriptions will protahly in the 

S resent imperfect state of our knowledge of 
entml Asia be regarded as the most valuable and 
interesting part of the work, while the author's 
annonncement that he has carefully abstained 
from discussing political questions can scarcely 
Ml to attract readers, more anxious to enlarge 
their information in reference ia the physical cha- 
racter and social condition of an almost unexplored 
region tiian to speculate on its capabilities for re- 
sisting foiwgn aggression, or to jiass in review the 
irreeistible allurements which it may present to 
powerful ueighlxiiirs eager for its annexation. 

A pendant to Lieutenant Stumm's work is sup- 
plied Dj^ the recent ap^tnnce in Qermary of a 
translation, by Osptain Krahmer, of Oolonel 
Wenjukow's Suuo-Amattc Border Landt. These 
two works Bupplamenteach other most completely, 
and together constitute a very valuable addition 
to our knowledge of those interesting regions 
which form the connecting link between Ekratem 
and Western civilisation. 

SkSob Luis Babihb, in tiie Reniria de E^iaiia, 
speaks very strongly of the present evil condition 
of Spanish agriculture. There are, he says, im- 
meuse districts entirely desert, although, with the 
- plojtnent of a greater or. teas degree of labour, 
— ' 's perfectly capable of cultivation. 
SxSoB EBttBAH HsKirurnKZ r FnurAimBZ 
contribntes an article on Zoolt^ml Gardens to 
the some journal, in which he praises the Jardin 
des Plantee of Paris and the Zoological Gfardens 
of London, and at the same time advocates the 
eMsblishnient of a similar institution at Madrid, 
the presant Ouk de Fieraa being naed as a fonnda- 



the soil it 



tjon. InspeaUngoftheaoclimatisfttioDOf Qsefnl 
birds, be rocDtions the introduction of stulings 
into Germany by Lent. This turd will oonsnme 
about 120 worms and snails daily. In the coium 
of a je«r tbe ungle Inrd will have multiplied into 
a bwij of twdve members all equally inweti- 
vontna. In Gotha there are now stud to be 
ISO/KM) of these fanner's friends, whMS before 
the efiorta of Leni they wwe entirely nnknown. 

At the last meeting of the French Geogra- 
phical Society, M. G. Kennud read a paper on a 
newly-discovered gorge in Haute-Savoie, the 
valley of the Diosoz, which is said to excel in 
wild and picturesque scenery sny of the most re- 
nowned gorges hitherto known. 



student of art or literature. During the past 

SiBM this society has been explormg the oi 
erameicus in the Sagia Tnada between 



LBTTEB I^OU ATHXHS. 

The operations of the Archaeological Society of 
Athens ace not so universally known as their im- 
portance and interest certainly entitie them to be. 
The society itself consists of a few persons inflamed 
with enthusiastic love for Grecian antiquities, who 
employ their resources both of energy and moner 
in carrying on explorations and researches whicn 
constantly lead to discoveries interesting to every 

Piraeus road and that of Eleusis. Here the re- 
mains of ancient Athens are buried beneath an ac- 
cumulation of rubbish nearly twenty-five feet deep. 
To remove such a quantity of material ss this re- 
presents requires both labour and capital, and the 
society, with very slender resources, has shown 
how much can be achieved by patient persevei- 
ance. It has uncovered sevwal acres of the 
foundations of old houses (some floored with 
marble, others with mosaics), with several narrow 
stroets, together with considerable portions of tiie 
outer waU of the city containing two important 
landmarks, viz., two boundary stones having on 
either ude of them the words "'Opos Kiftoftft- 
" which settle conclusively the vexed questi 



the past year's exploration was the discovery of 
the old Dipylom gate, and their efforts have been 
so hx successful that an open gateway has certainly 
been found in a large rectangular space of the 
N.!E, portion of the ancient peribolus, which 
save ingress and egress to that part of tbe ,city 
known to have been most commercial and busy, 
while on the one side there is the basement of 
a large rectangular tower, built, like the city 
wall itself, of Piraic stone, and on the other 
an altar with the inscription Aide ipKtlov • 'Ep- 
fuiv amt^HUTDc, and evidentiy of tbe Mace- 
donian period. Both the tower and the altar 
are appropriately placed nt the entnnce of an im- 
portant ^teway. Passing inside, where the 
nound ia hardened and worn by the footsteps of 
Qiose who anciently thronged this pathway, we 
find the front of an important edifice entered by 
two large marble steps. It was built in an angle 
of the city wall, is twelve mitres square, and con- 
tsins a small inner chamber: the floor consists of 
large slabs of beautifully polished marble, snd on 
the front the bases of three columns are arranged at 
equal distances irom each other ; but in the pave- 
ment itself there is a very curious deep spiral 
canal connected with a long conduit which leads 
towards the north. Can this be one of those por- 
ticoes mentioned by Pausanias P All this ia 
doubtiess very interestinff, but the opinion of the 
best authorities is ver^ divided upon this question 
of the Dipylum, and further research is necessary 
to determine it. Close by this spot, on the other 
side of the before-mentioned tower, three frag- 
ments of sapnlcbral pillars were found in the 
boundary wall. They were of fine archaic work 
belonging to the beet period of Greek art, and 
seem to establish the uct that this wall was of 
the penod of Themutoclea. For Thucydides do- 



cloTM, whan ipeakinK of tlie city wall (l 98), 
that them were plaoed in the toaadaHom stooea 
of all kinds, and "many fone^ oolnmns" (woUal 
oT^Xiu ari mrfiontv). I wish to defer spealdng 
further of this important exploration until I can 
giT« the complete details of what haa been dis- 
covered up to the present momenta 

Bnt, beside this work in the Outer Gmamaeua, 
the Archaeological Society has eontinned ita 
labours in the etoa of Attilns, well known •« one 
of the most extensive mins in all Athena. Hiobo 
acquainted with this intereating site wiU recol- 
lect it as a long, narrow enclosure containing the 
foundation of several walls, and lying in the 
lowest neighbourhood of the city between 
the Agora snd the Theseum, and surrounded 
by miserable cottasee, towering above which 
is the nondescript kind of square tower, built 
out of the old slabs of marble and columns of 
this ancient academy. The Archaeological So- 
ciety has been compelled before excavating this 
place to purchase alt the cottages around at ex- 
orbitant prices, and they have only iust now 
succeeded in doing this completely, which will 
explain the tedious manner in which the excava- 
tion of this place has hitimto been carried <m. 
During the paat year the principal efforta have 
been directed towards the north end of the Stoa, 
where then is a kind of room looking south-east. 
These so-called rooms are simple receasse with 
stone seats annind them. Here it was hoped that 
interesting remains would be found, such as 
statues, &c. ; nothing of great importance, how- 
ever, was discovered, pronaWy because the aica- 
vation did not go deep enough, in order not to 
endanger a cottage not then purchased. Still, a 
few not unimportant ofaiecta were turned op with 
inscriptions, one of wnich was in honour of a 
certain augur, Oomelius Lentioe, probably Gnuus 
OomeliuB Lentlos Gnains, augur and eonaul 14 
A.C., according to the Fasti Capitolini, mvitioned 
also, though not very favourably, by Seneca in hia 
Dt Bntefieiu, ii. 28, also by Suetonius (TAtrimt, 
49), and Inr Dion Oassius{Uv, 24). A considerable 

Ssrtion of the old fortification wall (probaUy 
uilt by the Venetians of marble elabe ana Mlmnna 
of the old building) was next removad in order 
to liberate the Stoa itaelf from forngn attaohments. 
Some interesting objects were thus disclosed and 
arranged in the neighbouring court. After re- 
moving a considerable mass of rubbish, it 
became evident that this north end was built on 
precisely the same plan as the southern part, 
which has already been diunterred. Efforts were 
next made to trace the wall that surrounded the 
other portions of the Stoa, and to discover tiie 
larm and small doors similar to those at liie other 
end. These efiorta were only partially sucoeaafhl, 
because the lower part of the wall, eonnsting 
of fine HymettuB stones, was not oontinued 
so far as the spot where the door should 
have been. This diaapnointment, however, 
was in a measure counterbalanced by the dis- 
covery of the great door near ths north room, 
which exactly corresponded with the door on the 
south end, and is of the ssme width, vis. one and 
a half mitree. But on the outside of cam of the 
door-posts, and formed of the aam^ block, there ia 
a marole step (certainly one of a series) corionaly 
sculptured. This is not so in that of the aonth 
end, but when the excavation is eontinned, as we 
hope it soon will be, to the Stoa of Hadrian, the 
destination of these steps will be eleariy shown. 
If we look a little further to the north and a little 
lower, we find a wall of huge atones, which pro- 
bably was connected with them, and if so snow 
that they led to the upper part of the edifice. This 
remaining step is certainly well worthy of conaide- 
ratioQ as an example of variety and decoration in- 
troduced into tite otherwise pliun, though vast, 
Stoa structures, The srchitoct Adler, or Berlin, 
haa noticed on the outer sur&ce of tiie wall of 
porous stones which on the south end forma the 
iionndary of the Stoa, ten lines eleariy ""^"^ 
steps similar to thoae on tiie north, whuli aaema 



40- 



THE MJADEMT. 



[JniT 10, 1875. 



tw whk^ tb paople SMMided 1 

tbe Btniutun which owtunlj 

UKaVy-mm kkoh. We hope th» Bocietj will 

Boon iiwiiiiiB its axplomtioiiB in thia iotcnatiii^ 

The rauli of a sii^le daj^s dimiw aeftr the 
Iljwai, about 100 paow &oi*i tb» roidge leading 
to the modem Qneh camaterr, brtn^lit to light a 
dab contaiDing a, Ohongio laaaription &oin tha 
beat period of Greek art. It waa much mutilated, 
and must hare berai brought &om elsewhera. 

Laat week a Isige pedestal was discoTered juat 
under the sui&ce of the gniiuid at the Qorth-eaBt 
comer of the temple of Oljinpiaii Zeoa, with thia 
iiucnptioi] :>— ' 

ArrOKPATOPA 
KAI2APA TPAIANON 
AAPIANON ZEBABToN 

OAlfMniON 
TON SOTHPA KAI 

BYBPTETHN 
r KAATAIOZ SIAIANOZ 
Iba temple of Snniam haa abo 1mm Tinted hj 
thne aw ht e a logicjd . pmfteeen, wfao report th^ 
QiBj ha*a deand tim^ tfae nibbidt Bmointdbig 
it, T\w metopes ara aud to be in ozoeUait pie- 
eerraticB, and we nndMrtond tbftt the temple ia to 
btreetond. 

The iKtoeatang ezosTaliaBe onried on at TaiN>- 
ga ara to be ^uaoed under Bbieter Burveillanoa 
ta pumot the ayateauttie pillage of the chojeeet 
t ow aiBotta figmae fbund them, as waU aa-to oheok 



^lich lie imwai7 are deluded. 
tanuBg the Ob 



tlte period 
in the Fan 



The nenntlljng of Greee* same yean ainoB 
csnaed UM ataditun to be eleaied out, and soon after, 
a rich goDtlHBan named ZappBilcA a conudMuble 
eom of money to support an aihil^tion of athletic 
epDita every four yean, to Hmmwi ae cloeely ae 
conld he the co&teata which took place in the 
gknioiu daya of old Greece. The ttord of tbaaa 
nrmd Olymfnada wu oelebrated iMt Sur.day, 
and it waa a. atraage sight to see lowaida five 
o'clock in the ^emoon the whcde popidfttion — 
men, women and ohildisn, on foot uia in comagea 
— humii^ past the palacs, otot tha site of the 
old Altteauan gordeni, luid acrosa the Bywoa to- 
wsida tim atadiiun. Few more glorious sights 
Canldbawitneesed'tJiaB tiiatwhii^ this place — 
nMslly ea eoiitary and rilsBt-^Bnented when 
filled mtk eager ciowda laat Sbnday erening. 
Tba long hfiwiMboe ebeued hollow, partly natnmi, 
^nAy arliflcial, at tiie fiMt o^ BymMm, mth ita 
iiitwmiiiaMe. mwa of seats gwe^ing raund tbe 
vaet oitait, and OMable of aeoommodating all 
iked brilliaDt and gay indeed with 
/ liKmaand patient sitters, and at the flnt 
^ante at tha old place pooled with this 
nrt-oiowd there waa something Umt recalled its 
ancieat gbu^ It was simply i^endid. When, 
homvur, we hsra said this thiere ia not much to 
add. The- Greeks of to-day an not an athletic 
pao^ Th« young GMekTalnes his Flench Btliie 
and miimera, hu easy aamiter and quiet gonip, tar 
anything to be gained l^ seyeni hbdily 
ml the time haa gone by whem tbe laurel 
1 — »._ jjjj^ f^ jji^ ^^ 

t to exanise hu 
a sobool wlnn be aoqnim that adu- 
cadaond vaaish yrbith will enable him to eechew 
nauuial laboai^ or tbe mart wham he can de>Telope 
to the otmaat that flaeaee mi canning tdwt &e- 
qoantly lead tn fortune. 

The exMbJtton of lart Sunday ia proudly deaig- 
nated by tba Greek newspapers as the "Third 
Olympiad." According to all accounts the first 
Olympiad was azlrranely ridiculous, the aeaund 
aft« four jearawas butlittle better, and this third 
not anythug to boast of. To one accustomed to 
tlie athletio aporta of a good Rn gliah s^umI tha 



whole aSur a^maamd. ^-itiMith enough, but tram 
the exdtad applMaa at every feat ft was etidwt 
that tha apeotatMa regarded, the afiair aa a perfect 
Buoeeeft Xbont twratyathlataacmteBlad. Thai* 
were foot raoea, throwing the diaaus, jumping 
with Hie pole, hniUng tin jaTelia, oUmbmg, Slb., 
bub naithac- wnotling nor ooxing. None of die 



The, King and Queen ware not present, and the 
wreaths ware disbributed by a raaorabla old gen- 
tleman. To Bay that stoat old ladisB and gen- 
tlemen leisoialf promenaded the arena during all 
tha excitement ol the foot race, and compelled the 
racers to wind in and out to avoid knocking them 
over, that doge nere roaming about just as they 
pleased and getting in everybody's way, that the 
poles of the jumpers often stuck in tie ground, 
and rcoiured the dead weight of the owners to 
carry them over, that tbe javelins neverwent near 
the target unleaa the thrower ran almost close to 
it, and that the discus instead of being metal waa 
simply a wooden platter with which the dogs 
often ran off— would be but saying little, for the 
whole a£&ir was most ridiculously absurd as being 
supposed to resemble in the faintest degree the 
glonous contests of ancient Greece. Tbe only 
feat at all "worthy of speech" waa that of c!iml>- 
ing the pole, and two fellowB certainly achieved 
that in rather fine style. But notwithstanding all 
its sbortGomings we must hail with gratitude any- 
thing which every four years brings the whole 
popdation of Athens to people the long-deserted 
seats of ita magnificent Stadium. H. T. Soon. 



BBLBOim BOOKS. 

O t nara l lAtemhinmid jlrt. 

DtTiiiWSJ, O. D« la gmTim d* ponnlt ea Ruica. Pub : 

B^lllT. ttl. 
Hali., 1U»t S. BTiig. Tbs Bilc-lk-bno EddIo : w, CSupUn 

OQ Ctataunuils. CbattD li Wlndm. lOj. td. 
HuuTT, W. C. ahklmpMO** Ubnur: 

PlMi,Boir " — '- " 



Aiwr^Dumer. '£. Bd. 3, Abth. liumlacbu Bt>a' 
UDmiDHIl. 3. Bd.a.Abtfa. Leipzig : Hliwl. 

UcfDT, ads. ODcivvoadiuinlaMltadnraiatu 
FoulBtowikl et di Udma. OeaOilii. Puli : Plon. 

Puue, 1e Comts de. HUtoin ds l> gaem drlle e 

Phyikai Sdata. ^c. 
Eorr, H. BettrXfte mr 0«cMcfate der ChemliL 
FnuBT. A. L. To^isM k Ik cats niin 
Hbtoln D&timUs. Put* : Leroni. 
Fhilalogy. 



ToL I. Piirtla I 




Baigom, ara not Basque, and ara not dted as 
Buch a bit more than the namee Tardels, Taidedz, 
Taxdeta, Taiaed;^ Ib£di4,.ai8 given aa Baaqiie 
w«Bds by tha same writer,, who cites Atharatoe 
as the only name b^n^ng to this language. The 
word Baigoni alone is Basque, and. the ouier teoi 
can only be considered as corruptions due to the 
influence of t}ie language in which the cartularies 
are drawn up. Bajgorri ia explained perfectly 
well by iirtj gorri (" red river "), a term well enit«d. 
to that part of the stream of the Nive which passea 
close to B^otry, and which there appears mon 
or less reddish, as being affacted by the oxide of 
iron in the neighbourhood, especially that which 
comes irom the workB at Banca. The namee, 
therefore, of Basque localiries hb given in the 
ancient cartularies can only mislead the scholar 
who carelessly trusts to them. 

It may be obeerved on this head that the dialect 
" baa-naTarrais occidental," to which the sub- 
dialect and variety of Bugorry belong, has a ten- 
dency to suppress the initial consonant of many 
words when it forms a sylhkble by itselt Hiua 
we find in this dialect — mazte for emceste, 
" vfoman," JAvti for ikhtiti, " seen." Ihai gorri 
then appears to me the only trostworthy etymo- 
logy of the name BMgorry. As to the derivatioa 
ofthe name of Bayonne from ibed ana, " the good 
river," rather than from 601 oiia, " the good okj^ 
" the good port," it Beems to me ver 
not oertwn. L.-L. I 



COB&ESPOi^DSNCE. 

BlrHOUMT or THB NAKSS BAIGOKBT Ain> 



The ancient oartulariea ara by no mreana to be 
tmated in the matter of Baaq^ue etymology. Bignr, 
Bey^, Baigur, Baigueir, Qaigusr, BayguMT, Bey- 
gom, Vayguira, and Ba^riier, cited successively 
by M. Kayinone in hia Dwliortnitire Topogropkiqae 
dm Bamet-Pgrin(e»t and even the name Baigotry, 
writt«i thus after tiiB French fiwUon, inatMd of 



St. Iteil'i BiBd, N.W. : Jidr «, 1S73. 

A note 00 this tmusaal, perhapa unique, world 
(or foon) may be interesting to some of tha 
readers of the Aoasbmi, and m^ draw out 
further information about it from atuduits of Old 

English or Scottish literature. 

It oocuie in a passage of Enox's Sutory <^ 
the Reformatian in Scotumd, book i, (vol. i. ] "" 
Lang's edition). The Bjng, James V., pcE 
by ue importunities of Cardinal Beatoun and 
the prelates who were spurring him to action 
against the heretical nobles, took the advice of 
Kirkaldy of Orange, and gave them dlamiaaal with 
the hearty words-—" Pack, yoajeftBeilia I Get ya 
your charge and reform your own livea : hi 



lolnlity 



\K' 



not ioBtruments of discord betwixt my t, 
anA me," &c 

Mr. Laing statee in a note that in one maim- 
script of the work the form " josrelUa " occurs, 
in another "iefieUs," and in a third tiie woid 
"Jeauits." (How could this term get in P like 
Socie^ uf JesuB had only received confirmatiwi 
from Pope Paul HI, in 1540, one year before tha 
incident recorded took place. Ib the explanation 
to be sought in the questionable authorship and 
data of portjons of the history ? or in late altei 
tioos of the genuine teztP) "Joarellis" 
haps a clerical error; a confusion of "ft 
in the flrst syllable. The remaining two forms, 
"j^wellis" and "jefiella," are substantially the 
same. What, then, is the meaning, and wl»t the 
pedigree, of the word F 

Jamieson (SfcoMtaA I}ictionary) gives " JevU, 

iefw^, iavell, a contemptuous larm, meaning nn- 

Imown, This does not help us much. He gives 

also a noun "jeoM, j^e!, the dashing of water " (a 

Lanarkshire word) ; " tojevei, to joggle, or spiU a 

large quantity of a liquid at once (Angus dia- 

laot) ; " to jiraeJ, to move obliquely * (the Lo- 

tbians) ; "jeae, a shove witii the elbow ; " and 

"to jeee, to purfi hither and tiiith^" ^fife- 

ehire). Spwiser uses once at least the word 

"j avals," ptononnced so as to ibyme with "travela." 

In " Mother Hubberd'B Tale,'^ pubtished in IS91 

(Globe edition, p. 516, coL 2), oocur theae lines : — 

" tfow, whenaa Time fiyingwith wingae awift 

Expired had tha teme that th«ss l-wojavtit 

Should lendar up a reckouiag of (heir travals 

Unto Cbsir maater. . . ." 



Jttlt 10, IflTBj] 



HME AGAiasar. 



in 



-wldi the l&e Axplonstiaii, 'Srartiileai 
The paeaage in "Matiior Hubberd's Tale" is 
quoted ; snd also pfueagw 'from 'Waner'a little 
Known po«m, " Albion'B England " (1686), mod 
Eoljinson'B translation of Utopia (1661), Fmta 
the former (boot vrLL c, 89) the Hbw — 
" To prBach by iatfes is to be •vane 

Titan theaa b>^B»-hiillyj'a<«i^, 
That eitB good words but ebift off worki 

AEd discipline bj G&vella." 
Prom the latter,— "He called the feUcnr riboid, 
■vil]^n,jar«il, tnckbiter," Sec 

The senae of the term is thna prettv dearly de- 
tarmined, But whence comes it ? Fares (or hie 
lecent editoia) identiflea " javel " with the !French 
"jftvelle." If this is the trae accoimt, its history 
ia certMuly one of the curiositieB of phHolt^. 
littrt, »uo voce "javelfe," gives the following 
meaidngs : 1, a sheaf of corn, lyinB loosely od the 
ground; 2, a bundle of vine braachea; 8, b 
cluster of props or laths jand 4, the parts of a 
barrel fallen to ptecee. Be gives no derivative 
moral meaning. The word is traced back tfarongh 
TariouB forms (Burpindian Jaivtile, Ticard yo- 
velle, Portuguese and Italian ffavela) by the aid 
of Grimm's Law, and on the aothoritj of Diaz, to 
the Latin eaptUa, a handful, capulug, a, handle, 
and thence to their root, citpi, take, lay hold of. 
The steps of the metamorphoaia, flrim the root 
downwBjd, would thus be — capi, capella, gavelle, 
javelle, jefwelli, jeffel, javel. I hope that aome 
scholar may he able to throw fight on the 
I' Strange eventful history," confirming or correct- 
ing ; snd showing at what stage of ite progress 
the word took np its moral meaning. 

WiLLiAU L. It. Dates. 



THE BOY£I. imSH AOASKVY ABU SB. W af T Lm r 

BTOEXS. 
Trlnlt; ODli^Mhitdlii : Ton* IS, It 

The notic« vrhich sppesied in the last number 
of the ACAJtsKT Teepecting the jnroceedings in die 
Royal Irish Academy in reteranee to their litho- 
gnph of the MB. colled the XmAAot na ii- I7^iUn', 
■was incorrect in aevenU. respects, but it ia not my 
■wish to amend it, as I have no authority from the 
Council to do ho. As the notice, however, seemed 
to take OS the staple of its argument the assump- 
tion that the Academy committee were &llible, 
and Dr. Whitley Stokes infallible, in the matter 
of the tnuBcript of a MS., I shi^l be glad if you 
will permit me to direct attention to a striking 
instanoe of the fallibility of Stokes himself, who, 
I am quite Bore, will not be icoiy to fee hie oiver- 
n^t corrected. 

In the Ormnnin^ieii Cettiea (second edition), 
Ehal had givm, with a "fertame," the ftmn i>»-r»- 
rm, ae the one exsmjde of a rednplieated fnture, 
}st eg. To this example, Stokes, in Euhn's 
SefiriwBjVii.p, 16, adds another, from the ZaoSAnr 
na h^lNdlln (without quoting the page), viz. " ni 
ibiu," " I will not drink," explaining Mu as stand- 
ing ftw 'pMu. If, then, this be a reduplicated 
wore, the present ought not to have the redupli- 
cated syllable i thns fae.givse immediately «fW, 
ftOTj^iiK, "rogabo," from get, "rogo," ana bo we 
should have some form ^ffinnmg mth b for the 
present tense. But the present is A, Oram. (Mi.', 
p. 430. 

If, now, S> be the root, then ib~m, as 1st sg., 
would be one of the ja verbs, i.e. would belong to 
the (Atrdserie8(iii,) of the Gram. CWK. Bat it is 
not aja Torb: it ia an o ve*b, and beltHtgs to tte 
Jlrtt eories (i.). As such it will be foond in the 
list of that series, p. 430, ni it, " nan Ubit." 

That would seem a diffioull^. Now, on p. S8 
of the Beitra^e, voL vii.,<Stokes repeals the passage, 
this time quotijig so much nf it (though still with- 
out giving the page) that the focus is determined 
to be on p. 22, line SI. And there the MS. has 
MOT " tfttu." As the US. stands the passage runs 
thus : — " ni pnindigiubsa ocns wf i6 m conerbara 
fiim olse mo mithair oeae natliaii,'' ie. " I will not 






Mt, aid I «m aotdriHk 

says As " [not " says tAt,' 
gives}, "mjmothsraudm^&tlMi.'' IliiBnf ib 
''I;wiU not drink anf/tJmq/,'' is quite plain .m 
the MS. I do not know whether Stokes has noted 
any other instance of its occurring in the form in 
which he alW^ quotes this word, viz. ibiu : I 
hsve not seen Kny. 

At any rate, tne ibiu, ■in 'Qob pMaage, ia a mere 
figment; I only regret that It oas gcBoe into tin 
Oram. Oat.", lot Ebolhae pit it in the addenda, 

C. 1091, on Stokes' anthorin', which is v^uaUe, 
ut not inioIliUe. Kobebt Aieuboii. 



Not (I tmat) in a ^rit of agotasm, but with 
iba devra to bwr my teatintonv to what I believe 
is historic truth, do I reqneat Un &vour of refer- 
ring, throug'h yonr pages, to a notice of aty 
volume, I&loric and Monumental liomt, in a 
recent number of the Saticrdm/ Rmiew, June 10. 
Therein occutb this passage: " Sis way of speaking 
of early Boman history, which be apparently 
accepts entire as foand in Livy, ineln^nf; the 
reigns of the seven Ungs, does not inapiie coafi- 
denceinhia iudg*ie>t,'''&c. The lact ia that I 
have been led to eonBlurioos re^Moting t^t'his- 
tory, and the trustworthiness of Livy in his 
treatment of it, quite the opposite to those 
here imputed to me. In the chapter of mj work, 
" Sources of Early Boman Hiato^," I must indeed 
have ikiled to express myself clearly, if it prove 
poBsiblB to discover in what 1 have written the 
senaa here asmgned to my words. Hy aim, it is 
true, was rather to analyse the theories of others, 
from Nisbuhr to living bistoriana, Oeeare Oantu 
among thsm, than to dwell upon my own views 
as to the controverted points; but so £ir as per- 
sonal convictions nre dwelt upon, X have declared 
myself with Niebuhr, Arnold, Ampire, not 
certainly with their opponents in the his- 
toric arena. Beeeot diacovaries at Rome have 
not ahalmi those convictions. The immflnse 
disproportion between the ei^poeable wants and 
means of an infant state or city, and such 
works SB the Oloaca Uaxima, such buildings as 
the Momertine Prisons (espe<^alty in their extent , 
Bs recently made known through the energetic 
and successful efforts of Mr. J. h! Psi^er) always 
seemed to me an s^nment ^lunst tiie traditions 
oecapted so Imig From Livy and other aneient 
writes. My reviewer in ^e iSa(«(rdny has ntteriy 
miaundeistood me in thie rflferanae — the acoept- 
anc», namely, of the Latin historian's testimony. 
Not the less do I wish to take the opportunitiy of 
expressing genuine gratitude to him for praise 
that encouiBffBs, and for mildly dealt censure, 
which I shall remember, hoping to profit by it, 

: — : — ;_ :^ general justice. 

O.LHHaoM. 



SCIENCE. 

^obttion and the Origin of Life. Br H. 
Charlton BHstion, H.A., M.D., F.R.B., 
&c. (London : Haomillan & Co., 1874.) 
(^Second Noti^.') 
Since the pabUcation of theee obaervations 
the field of controversy may be said to have 
been tranaferred from tlus oonntry into 
Oenoan^. The " tonup-cheeee experunent " 
has been eubjeoted to oritioal eocwninatson 
nnder the direction of anob men a,B Pfluger 
of Bonn, and Hoppe-fieyler of Strassbnrg;, 
and nnder circumstances more fevonrable to 
ezactitn.de than those which exist in Kng- 
Ifind ; for in Germany a pnrcly physical 
quostion is regarded witbont the slighbest 
reference to its bearing on philosopbioai or 
theologioal «pecnlatiane, Tbo anbjeot was 



fimtii^wi TipqntheBiflftof A b iB fe w— iB ^(— 
Bsmnn biologiMB, foBowii^ 'Bnxlfl^,'hBve 
lately colled it), by 'ProfiMrar Hniisraga tff 
Onmingm, in Bolbnd. ^njaiaga, Iwing 
ri^eated tend coofinned ~tfae tamip-eheese 
ezpennont, -vrae, however, diswtisSiBd witii 
it as awroof of-montaneoaB ge ngra tiop on the 
gnnmd of the cnemaaaJ indefimtflneas dFiht 
u^^radienta iHOd in pr^nTing ihe tDmip- 
cheese bqmd. He tlrarefore atnight to 
Btraagthm tbe proof by eliminating ■tbis 
aooree of oneertMnty, Mid frith tiua vistr 
Bnb(ttitnt«id otnnponndB of knovm clMmioal 
oempeaition for Dr. Bwdnan's oheese and 
tarmp. Q3ie |daae «f the themo was 'tgJnn 

5' pe|>t<ne (tte wshiUe -botij mto wWA 
bomnwne 'solMtaBeee ore transfsTred friim 
they are anbjeotod to gastric digestion), and 
that of the saeofaarine constitaente of tmnip 
joiee by grape -sngKr — snch albahne anS 
eaFtbyaalte being added as are known by 
axparimeiit to be reqmred for the maintfr. 
nuice of basteritl life. Farther, the eorperi- 
mcnte w«re made in flaala wbieh wore 
etoMd imKediAtely on Hke eeantion tk 
vboDititni, not t^Malrag than hoimetioallf, 
bnt br eomonting to their months tfajn mt- 
glaaed d^s of porooa tilo. Eadi flaA 
aavtug bean prepared 'by BDMAmg tho 
gronnd edge of ite month with asphalt, the 
fiqnid was introdnoed, and -kept bollinf' 
f<7r ten minutes as befbre. As tite sbDlh- 
tion was going on, the tile diak was heated 
to Todnon so as oompletely to duitio^ stjy 
trace of organic matter wMch might be 
adherent to it, and applied while st31 hot to 
the aspfaidt sm-fitoe, to whitdi, tte miMiuut 
that eonlUtion eeaaad, it flraUy vSmtA. 
In this way a second objection to wbiMi 
' " Basttan's i 



, tiiat wfan 



Hnizinga thought Dr. 

anbjeot was got rid of, 

his raEparimsiirtal Teasels i 

nuftically, the aceeaa of «b 

When a septom of porona tile is used, dr 

can enter &eely, althoagh "gorms" fm 

Hniainga proTed by check ezperimoirta, in 

which he deoignedly expoaed flasks protoOtaet 

by the tile disks, -to contamiBaiticni) ue 

rabotnaUy CToloded. 

The experiment of Hniiinga was, ahneit 
immediately afi«r ite pnUicKtion, TopeataS 
by the writer of this aridole, with tile nan 
modifioatione that he had b^bre applied to 
that of Dr. Baatian, i.e., innroaac of t tiniuar fc- 
tnre and prolongation of the period of heat- 
ing, with the eame Teenlt ae befere. On the 
one band it was Found that the sohition oF 
peptone and ffispe sugar remained fettSe 
afwrten minutee'^ebullition, tdthoogh peih. 
fectty pellnoid ; and on the o4dier,'that it -mm 
deprived of ite fertiUty by prolenged heatiB)f 
at 212°, or by exposing it to a lugfaer'tei&> 
poratnra. Bimilar ooncluaions were aiiiiUS 
at at about the same time as the Temlt of » 
sscond, and, we need not swf , ffiatirely ind^ 
pendent experimental oritieism, nBdertalraK 
by B. Sunnelson, of Bonn, under the 
diroetion of Professor Pflii^. ^le BMthsfl 
employed was the same, with ^e e a ^ ap t i ett 
that in this research (which will be foond 
in Pfliigar's ArrJiiD, vol. Tii., 1878, pp. 
277-286) attention vras directed lathw to 
the inflnence of prolongation of time ttmt 
to that of increased temperature. 
. In a seoond paper published in tira tame 
joomol (Pfiuger's Arehiv, vol. Tiii., p. 180) 



THE AOADESry. 



[JCLT 10, 1876. 



Hsixiiiga rallied to both his oritios, object- 
ing thftt in npeatLog his ezperuneots they 
had both of them need hermetiDallj sealed 
flaska instead of flsake closed bj porous 
aept&. He, howerer, freelj admitted that 
when he subjected his tile-covered flasks to 
a temperatare of 2166° Fahr., no develop- 
ment of bacteria took place. I^otwithatand- 
ing this he was nnahle to rwardtheqneatiou 
as settled, for by modi^ng his expeiimeatal 
liqnid, i.e., by adding a third of a perceata^ 
of soluble starch to the mixture, he had in- 
creased its reeistanoe to heat to such a 
decree that it could be heated to 219-2° 
F^iT. without losing it» fertility ; but if the 
heat was increaeed fonr degrees more, he had 
again found that it wasrendered permanently 
sterile. 

Id the meantime two other observers were 
at work on the same subject. Dr. Gscheidlen, 
well known ss the author of vaHons im- 
portant physiological researches, had returned 
to the " tumip-cheese " experiment, which 
he had modified in a reiy ingenious manner. 
Having first ascertained that an hermetically 
sealed tube could be substjtated for the fiask 
without in the slightest degree modifying 
the result, and that after ten minutes' ebulli- 
tion, bacteria developed in such a tube with 
certamty, he constmcted bis tubes in such 
a way that the two constitaents, viz., the 
turnip and the cheese, could be subjected one 
after another to different temperatures and 
then minced without exposure to contamina- 
tion. This was effected by using tubes 
divided in two compartments, both of which 
oonid be hermeticaUy sealed. One compart- 
ment having been chained with turoip decoc- 
tion, the other with pounded cheese saapended 
in water, and both sealed hermeticaUy, the 
former was heated to 212° Fahr. the second 
to 230° Fahr. If tl^en they were mixed by 
breaking the glass septum between the com- 
partntenta, and the mixture was placed as 
nsnal in the warm chamber, no development 
of bacteria took place, showing that the 
temperature of ebullition was sufficient 
fcff tJie turnip infusion. If both compart- 
ments were heated to 212° Fahr. the result 
was of course the same as in the original 
experiment, showing that it is on the cheese 
alone that the property possessed by the 
mixture of retaining its power of germinat. 
ing, notwithstanding exposure to this tem- 
perature, is dependent. 

By experiments related in his second 
paper alroady quoted, Huizinga had found 
that even his modified liqnid (that which 
contained soluble starch in addition to grape 
■agar and peptone), though it resisted atem- 
peratnre of 222'8° Fahr., was rendered sterile 
when heated to 230° Fahr. This he ex> 
plained by supposing that the chemical con- 
stitnents, and particularly the peptone, had 
undergone change ; supporting his view by 
experiments showing that this was actually 
the case as regards the peptone. Gacheidlen, 
however, was able to renaer this raplanatiou 
untenable by ascertaining that Huizinga's 
liquid, even after it had been heated to 
230° Fahr., became rapidly turbid with bac- 
teria, when it was impregnated by the ad- 
dition of a drop of ordinary moisture, or a 
particle of dust ; so that there could be no 
doubt that even if it were chemically chuiged, 
ihe change was not of such a nature as to 



impair its adaptation as a soil for the growth 
of such oi^amsms. 

Dr. Huizinga has recently (February, 
1875) published what may probably he re- 
garded OS his final answer to his various 
adversaries. He puts the question as it 
now presents itself to him looking at it &om 
the side of spontaneous generation, as fol- 
lows: — ^In a solution (of peptone, certain 
carbonic hydrates and salts) which has been 
kept for a day or two at a temperature of 
86° Fahr., bacteria appear. Two explana- 
tions of the fact are possible. One is, that 
the bacteria have ^mng finm germs whioh 
were originally present in the liquid, or 
have been introduced ; the other, that they 
have conie into existence by abiogenesis, A 
final decision ("voligiiltige Entsdieidung ") 
between these alternatives Huizinga thinks 
is at present not possible. "I readily ad- 
mit," ne says, "that all experiments made 
on the assumption that high temperature is 
a guarantee of freedom from germs — my 
own among the rest — fail as proofe of abio- 
genesis." On the other hand, he is un- 
willing to admit that this want of evidence 
in favour of the doctrine con be used as an 
argument against it, for, as he proceeds to 
point out and illustrate by examples, it is 
conceivable that the very slightest alteration 
of ccmditions might be sufficient to interfere 
with the BynthcBie of a body so complicated 
as protoplasm. He then proceeds to draw 
attention to another mode of investigation, 
as affording a prospect of a solution of the 
main qnestiou, for information as to which 
the original must be consulted {FJluger'e 
Arehiv, vol. x. p. S2). 

No objection can, we thinic, be made to 
the doubts thus expressed ; for, bo fsiT as we 
know, no physioh^st has advanced the 
theory that spontaneous generation is im- 
possible. The mental attitude assumed 
throughout by scientific men with reference 
to the question, has been simply that of 
scepticism. As one form of experiment 
after anotber has been brought forward as 
affording a final demonstration of the truth 
of the ^eory, each has been tested by the 
acknowledged methods of verification. But 
notwithstanding that up to the present time 
the result of such testing has always been 
the same, no one supposes that the con- 
troversy is settled, or doubts that fresh 
" &ct8 " and arguments will be adduced to 
supply the place of those which have already 
served their turn. 

We ore now in a position to conclude this 
notice by bringing the results of German 
investigators into comparison and contrast 
with those of our author. In p. 65 Dr. 
Bastion says : — 

" There are only two possible modes of account- 
ing for the fact that ' cart&in of the mo»t minute 
livmg things ore known to appear in some fluids 
independently of pre-eiistiRg' visible germs.' If, 
theiefore, it can lie ehown that living, thoi^h in- 
visible, germs did not pre-exist in certain fluids 
in which auch minute hving things Bubsequeutly 
make their appearance as usual, we thereby jonve 
that in such instances they must have owed their 
appearance to the other process, namely, to arcbe- 
biosis. Nothing cau he plainer than this : if a 
given event must be occasioned by one or other of 
two causes, and if in certain instances we can show 
that the event followed, notwithstaoding the ab- 
sence of one of tbese causes, then the event must 



,'cradslii 



have been oecanoned 1? the other c 
experiment of ihit natuie is named a ' 

_. , __ gxpgfiifftgtaum cntcit. . , . 

WMh to make sure that livuig matter 
list in any given fluid, the only couiao 
open to us is to sulanit the fluid to Ihe mflueMe 
of agencies which we have previously ascertained 
to be cs^Ue of ' killing ' suet matter." 
Then on p. 67 the author proceeds : — 
" The resistance of protoplasm or living matter 
to h«t stands upon the same level as that of the 
degree of heat necessary to destroy or ' kill ' one of 
the simpler chemical compounds, or the degree of 
heat necessary to cause ehullition in a given fluid. 
These are all cases in which, as Mi. Mill said, we 
reckon with the moat n pfailing confidence upon 
uniformity,' so that 'when a chemist announces 
the existence of a newly-discovered euletance, if 
we confide in his accuracy, we feel Bssured that 
the conclusions he has arrived at will hold umver- 
sally, though the induction be founded but on a 
single instance.' Now here, far from being bes«l 
on a single instance, the fact that very many difiei^ 
ent kinds of living matter are killed by a tem- 
perature of 140° F., reels upon the "fe^tedly 



recorded olweryationB of severs! indepenaent i 
veatigators^upon the obeervationa of Pouchet, 
lAma, Oantoni, Hoppe^yler, Kiihne, Max 
SchuRze, myself, and others. 

"But as it is the feet that living matter is killed 
at 140° F., and as it is also true that certain fluids 
heated to much higher temperatures (to 212° F. 
and upwards), and subsequently exposed to cer- 
tain conditions free from all poBsibili^ of contami- 
nation with living matter, wiU shortly swarm with 
the living things whoee mode of origin wo deaire 
to leara, the man of science is compelled to win- 
elude that auch living organisms must have origi- 
nated independently of living germs, and therefore 
after the manner of crjstabi. HerCj then, is our 
' crucial instance.' " 

We thus see that Dr. Bastian rests his all 
on the " fact that living matter is killed at 
140° F." On this, ho sa^s, the testimony of 
experimental physiologists is unanimous. 
We will now hear what Huizinga — ^who, 
it is to be remembered, is also an advocate 
of heterogenesis — has to say on the same 

" In experimeuta in which all necesawy precau- 
tions are observed, i.e. when the expenmental 
liquid is neutral, and contains materials well- 
aipted to the nouriahment of bacteria (grape- 
sugar and peptone), and wlien the access of air 
during Hie period of cultivation ia provided for, I 
obtun the (ollowing result:— ro entvre the kiUittg 
of ail bacteria or bacterial gtrmt in any amttou* 
Squid, it must bi heated to U(f C. (230° F.)/or 
thirty minutea. Any htatiny to a iower temperature 
or fir a Aorter titn* ie imuffieient. The nume- 
rous earlier statements as to lower death-tempeis- 
turee— 80^(176° F.) for thirty mmutes (Oohn), and 
105° (221° F.) (Pasteur), &c— ore all dependent 
on the neglect of the precautions above prescribed. 
In like manner my own previous etatenient that a 
temperature of 1(H° (2168° F,) for ten minutes ia 
aufi^ent, is subject to the same objection." 

It may be well to note that the words in 
italics are printed by the author in leaded 
type, as tiho general conclusion of his re- 
searches — a conclusion founded, as he says 
himself, as much on the experiments of nis 
critics as on his own (see p. 71). We may 
therefore fairly put it side by side with 
Dr. Bastion's " crucial instanoe," in evi- 
dence that, however supernatural it moy 
appear to him, that bacteria or their germs 
should survive such high temperatures, 
other observers, whose competency he will 
probaldy not be disposed to qoeation, have 
been led to think otherwise. 



Jm.T 10, 1878.] 



THE ACADBMT. 



43 



As xegaxda the tnutworth^ chanuster of 
the expenments themselves, it irill probably 
be a Bofficient gnarantee to most readers that 
they hare been condnoted under the imme- 
diate snpervision of men like Pfiuffer and 
Hoppe-Seyler, who occupy the foremost 
raiUE as vital physiciats. Those who are 
more speoially interested in the snlgect will 
best satisfy themaelreB of the ezactitade uid 
completeness with which all the inveatiga- 
taoQB hare been carried ont by reading for 
themselvea the original papers. 

In conclusion we feel boond to congratn- 
la.ta Dr. Bastian on the importance and 
value of the direct and indirect resnltfi of 
bis researches. By means of his own ex- 
periments and those of his critics in Ger< 
many, we have attained a much more pre- 
cise knowledge than before existed of the 
chemical and physical conditions which are 
best adapted to the development aud main- 
tenance of bacterial life ; and in particular 
have learnt that the prodnct which resnlts 
irom. the action of the digestive ferments 
on the albnminoas componnda is specially 
fitted to serve as a eonrce of nitrogen. 
We have, farther, learnt a great deal 
ahont the action of heat. We have seen 
that the remarkable power of cheese to 
resist temperature wiUioat losing its fer- 
tility is not due, as was at first snrmiBed, to 
its being in the sohd form, bat to its chemi- 
cal constitution ; and that in this respect it 
is eqnalled, if not snrpassed, by peptone — a 
body which is both soluble and difihsible. 
With thMe leading facts many others of less 
direct importance are associated, so that, 
although the question may not have been 
solved, the time and labour devoted to it 
by so many persons have not been wasted. 

J. BUBDON SAtTDIBSON. 



Wemenls of South Indian Palaeography. 

By A. C. Bumell. (Mangalore, 1874.) 
This work was originally intended as the 
preface to the author's forthcoming cata- 
logue of Tanjore manuscripts, but no one 
will r^ret the change of plan 1^- which it 
has been published in a separate form, con- 
siderably in anticipation of the appearance 
of the catalogue. It opens with an intro- 
duction containing a protest, characteristic 
of the author, against the traditunuil as 
opposed to the real history of India. " From 
the beginning of this century," says Mr. 
Barnell, " up to the present time, a number 
of well-meaning persons have gone about 
with much siniplicity and faith collecting a 
mass of mhlHsh which they tenrra traditions 
and accept as history; " and he points out 
that the broad facts, or, to use his own ex- 
pression, the " chronological framework " of 
oonth Indian history can onlr be obtained 
by a careful study of the inscriptions. 

The first chapter is a brief but masterly 
review of the evidence regarding the origin 
of writing in India. Mr, Bumell, in com- 
mon with almost all who have written on 
the subject, believes the Indian alphabets to 
be modifications of a Semitic original ; hot 
lie advanoee, diffidently it is true, the theory 
that this original was a " coruTe Aramaic 
character," current in Persia some time pre- 
rions to the third centnry B.C., and the im- 
mediate Booroe of the FahJavi character. 



The next two chaptera contain the prin- 
cipal results of the author's prolonged 
researches in an almost wholly unexplored 
field of study, lliese results are mostly new, 
and ue arranged with clearness and method. 
If to a great extent we most accept them on 
Mr. Bumell's authority, it is the aut^ori^ 
of the greatest English scholar that India 
has produced since James Frinsep. Space 
forbids any detaUed reproduction of Mr. 
Bomell's conclusions, and I must content 
myself with mentioning a few of the more 
prominent. All the South Indian alphabets, 
except the Old Tamil, ore derivatives of the 
Soathem A^oka character, the modem Tnlu, 
Malaj&lam and Orantha having passed 
through the Chera, and Canaresc and Telegu 
through the Ch&lukya, while the Nandi- 
N&gan is derived through the Gupta and 
Devan&gMi. The old Tamil, or Yatialuttu, 
which was specially the alphabet of the 
'P&ndjAR kingdom, has a separate derivation, 
but the question of its origin is beset with 
difficulties. Mr. Bumell shows, first, that 
it cannot be derived from the A»oka charac- 
ter, becaase in the eighth centnry it existed 
side by aide with the Grantha; secondly, 
that it cannot be the parent of the Aioka 
character, because some of the forms which 
are primitive in the latter are wanting in the 
Vai(^attn; thirdly, that there are resem- 
blances between the two which point to a 
common Semitic origin, Mr. Bumell comes 
to the important conclusion that the Soathem 
Asoka and Y&(taiatta are modifications of two 
difierent forms of the Phoenician, imported 
respectively into Northern India and the 
Tamil country at much about the same 
period. He somewhat hesitatingly seeks 
the parentage of the VatiaZnttu in the " Saa- 
sanian of the inscriptions," which it more 
closely resembles than any other probable 
alphabet. 

A long and most interesting chapter is 
devoted to the South Indian numerals and 
mode of marking dates. Mr. Bnmell shows 
that the forms of all the numerals now in 
use in India are corruptions of the " Gave 
numerals," so called because they occur in 
cave inscriptions in Western India. The 
cave system, however, is a cypherless one, 
with smgle figures for 10, 20, 30, Ac, up to 
1,000 ; and the decimal system now in use 
in South India is proved to be an importa- 
tion from Northern India, where it first 
appeared between the sixth and tenth cen- 
turies. Mr. Bumell decidedly rejecte the 
theory that the Devan&gari numerals are the 
first letters of the Sanskrit words denoting 
the corresponding numb^. Like all the 
modern Indian numerals they are corrap- 
tions of the cave numerals, which had not 
an alphabetical origin ; the first three, for in- 
stance, being expressed by one, two, and 
three strokes. On the important question 
of the source of the cava numerals Mr. 
Bumell comes to no definite conclusion, but 
he is inclined to trace them to Egypt on the 
ground of their similarity to the Hieratic 
and Demotic numerals. 

Chapter IT. deals vrith accent and punctua- 
tion, and the fifth and last chapter gives a 
detailed account of the various kinds of 
South Indian inscriptions. Then follow two 
appendices, the first giving an historical re- 
view of Diavidian plwnetios, and the second 



tiansoripta of inscriptions. The Tolume is 
completed by a series of thirty beautifiil 
plates, of whiob the first nineteen are speoi- 
meoB of old Indian alphabets, and the r^ 
mainder facainules of inscriptions and of 
palm-leaf manuscripts. I had nearly for- 
gotten to mention that a pretty, and of 
conrse entirely new, map of the distribution 
of the old South Indian alphabets £aces the 
title- page. 

If this work cannot be said to mark an 
epoch in South Indian palaef^n^hy, it is 
only because until its appearance that science 
could hardly be said to exist. It is almost 
entirely the creation of Mr. Bumell, who has 
done his work so thoronghly that it will be 
long before the student of the Dekhan in- 
Bcnptione wiU require any further help than 
this splendid manual. 

The typography of the volnme, which 
issues &om tiie Basel Mission Press at Man- 
galore, 1b beyond all praise. No English 
press in India can produce anything ap- 
proaching to it,' and it is truly melancholy 
to find ourselves beaten in this field, on our 
own ground, by one of the smallest States 
in Europe. 

One word more. If ever there was a case 
for the " endowment of research " It is 
surely this. For years Mr. Buroell baa 
been publishing volume after Tolume of ori. 
ginal research, printed at his own expense, 
and composed during the scanty and preca- 
rious leisure of an Indian ^ndge. Can no 
scheme be devised for utilising his special 
acquirements, and enabling him to devote 
all ois time and all his energies to science ? 
S,. C. Childbbs. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 

PSTSIOLOOT. 
In the Mhj number of the Journal of Anatomy 
and PhvnoUfff/, ProtssBOT Flower fumuhsa aoote 
useful hints on the construction and amuigement 
of anatomical museums. He diuppniveB of the 
great halls, lighted &om above, m which the 
splendid coUaction over which he presidea is 
housad ; pTefemng ordioaiy rooms with windows 
at the aide, iu which a division of specimens into 
wet and dr^ need not be made the fundamental 
principle of classification. Dr. HolUs points out 
that, lo the atniggle for eiistance, amhidezteri^ 
must survive lopsidedneBs, aud recommeDdB a sys- 
tem of education in which every cubic line of 
brain-mattar will be utilised to the utmost 1^ 
enforcing an equal prominence on both sides of 
the biam in all intellectual operations. He ad- 
visee us to ohange Home Tooke'i definition of the 
Uft-hand as " Uiat which we are taught to Umt 
out at uBB when one hand only is employed,'' into 
" that which is left for us to use when the right 
hand is wearied hy continued work." Professor 
Turner contributes two papers on the anatomy 
of the Spiny and Porbeagle Shark. 

It is with some regret that we find the chief 
pbyuological paper borrowed from a German 
source. Ihe JbunUil ia abuost the only repre- 
sentative in the United Kingdom of the multitude 
of periodical publications devoted to anatomy and 
physiology with which Germany is flooded ; and 
It is disheartening to find our own investi^ton 
unable or unwilling to provide it with original 
matter. The paper itself, on " The Characlanstio 
Sign of Cardiac Muecular Movement," hy Eronecker 
ai^ Sttrling, is of some inteieeti it appeared 



* I may instance the Beports of the Arebaeidogieal 
Sorver at ludia, priaUd at tbs Qovemmeat PltH at 
Calcutta : the coatzast is mj great. 



m 



TBM ACADEMT. 



IJoiT 10. 1875. 



origiBillf in t.he Bplandid collectkm of nunogia^ 
deoicated to the veteiati Ludwig by his pupils. 
It IB a pity that tte tranalfttor anoiid not have 
aeeo fit to make Bome conceMions to our -weakness 
in the mattar of style ; the tortuous obecurity of 
ihe origiiitil being but too &lthfiiliT raprasantad 
in the fioglidi -rereion. A aboTt -paper by lii. 
-Iiowtia (m " The MoohanicAl Woric of Bc^ira- 
.tjon," And one bj Mr. Ssoch on " Ths Decompoei- 
ti<m of Urati," conraleto the phjuologieal part of 
the number, which terminates wit£ the usual 
excellent reports on the progress of anatomy and 
physiology. 

On Mfi Sdation of Ptptontt to the Ifutriliue 
Troctu. — The flMt diacovary that albuminoid 
motten migbt undergo eoDfersion into peptones 
in the alimentary canal -was apeedily followed by 
the inference that the latt«r&1ane -were capable of 
bainf!' absoibed into the blood, and of supplying 
aaotiMd pabulum to the tiasuea, A final cause 
for their existence was thus obtained, and the 
theory seemsd to derire support from the high 
osmotic equivalent of peptones as compared with 
that of undigested albomen. But a reaction set 
in; Britcke, Diskonow, and others, pointed out 
IJiat albuminous mattere might be absorbed v^tlt- 
out nndermiig previous chemical innsfbrniatton ; 
and broug-nt forward reasonB for f-Jiinirinp a^ die 
(Mptonee did not serve to nourish the nitrogenous 
tissues, but were speedily oxidised and decomposed 
in the blood. Plosz and Oyeigyai (Pilager't 
■Archiv X, 10 and 11) en-t«r into a detiuled 
criticism of the different views which have been 
put forth by -Ficif, Bauer and Eidihoret, and 
others, on this subject, showing that Uie methods 
empltned by these various investigators are in- 
aqtame of ramiihing ahealntely conclusive evi- 
denoe concerning the nutritive volui^ of peptones. 
Bv foUowing another road, they believe thani- 
auves to have established the fact that peptones 
alone are able to provide the tjssues wi& all the 
nitrogen they need. A Ml-grown dog vros kept 
for twelve days on a non-uitroeenous diet^ a pep- 
tone solution of known strength vras injected mto 
the stomach daily; and & total amount of 
nitrogen in the excrata was carefolly determined. 
The doer was found to have gained 250 grammes 
in weignt at the concluuon of the experiment ; 
■nd the nitrogen introdnced was in eieeee of that 
eliminated. Hence the authors conclude, Brvt, 
that an animsl can actually gain -weight on a diet 
in which the albuminoids are entirely replaced by 
peptones; secondly, that the ^in in weight is due, 
at least in part, to a growth of azotieed tissue. 
This disposes of any necaantv for the absorption 
of uneoirvertsd albuminoids, though of coone the 
probability- of their being absorbed remains an open 

Sestion. Fnrllier expermtoita were made to tracse 
4 destiny of the peptonee after their entrance into 
theUood. It was found that irom two to Jbur 
hours after the introduction of a solution eoB- 
ttuning pentones into the stomsch of a dog, the 
blood of toe mesenteric veins and liver contained 
'tfaem in abundance, -niiile that of the heoitie v^in 
■and cMOtid arterf barely gwre any indication of 
-their prsnanee. We may conclude, accordinglv, 
-that peptones are either arrested or chemica% 
changed in the liver. When injected into the 
systemic veins, the pejrtnnce wwb found to die- 
■appear from the blood in a few bouts ; and iiws- 
much as only a trace of them could be detected in 
the urine, tiiey must have bean used up or decom- 
posed in the organs and tissitea. Attempts to 
ascertain, by direct experiment, whether they 



'by tbe tissne-elementB, yielded nntruatwordiy re- 
sults, owing to the tecbmcAl dlffieultiM of dw 
enquiry. 

On tit Strtditary Trmumimion ofAjoqwred Dit- 
eaie. — Brown-S^uard's well-known discovsry that 
epilepsy may be artificially induced in oruinQa-pigB 
by section of one or both sciatic nerves has been re- 
.peatadly confirmed ;and the assertion subsequently 
made by the American physioli^^t that IhisliabiHty 
to epileptic fits was tranamitted to the ollsining of 



the opewted animals has aLw been found correct. 
Obereteiner (SCricker't Mediseniiche Jahrhaeher, 
1876, No. 2) recommends the adoption of this 
me^iod fbr the study of the laws of heredity in 
rektioDto diseases of the nervous system. He 
divided-his'animals into tbee groups : inthefirst, 
a hsaltfay male -was paired wilL epileptic femaLss ; 
in the second, an epileptic mole with healthy fe- 
males ; while in the thud, both males and fetuses 
were diseased. The young of these animalB were 
reared and kept under observation for several 
months ; the results obtained pointing to tite con- 
clusion that the influence of uie female predomi- 
nates over that of t^e male psnnt in the tmne- 
miesicm of acquired epilepsy, and that the law of 
"traasformatioQ of uourosee," so iamiliar to -the 
student of human pathology, holds good in the 
case of epilepticguinea-pigs. Obersteiner's experi- 
ments ^vere too few in number -to serve as a safe 
basis for generalisation; but his suggestion is a 
valuable one, and if carried out on a large scale, 
would firmish a body of Acts of more importance 
for the determination of the nature and dmree of 
heredita^ influence in the causation of diseoBe, 
tlMn any wUeh we pOMsas at pMaent. 

A Tluory ct n t trvim g 8Utp. — Our-existiiig kiunr- 
ladge about tbe physiolc^ of sleep does net 
^o much beyond Uie &ct that the phenomenon 
in question is invariably associated -with a com- 
paratively bloodless conation of the bndn. I*fliiger 
attempts to take us a step farther 1^ constmct^ 
inr an elaborate hypothesis of ft physico-chemical 
order {Pfliiga't AnMv x. B, 9). Starting bem 
the view that the fonotionol activily of any 
orgau, and more espeeiftflv of -a nerre-caBtre, 
depends upon a dissociation o'f living matter, which 
is itself only a modified form of albumin, the 
author goes on to spoculate that the chemical 
potential energy which is used up in the forma- 
tion of every molecule of carbonic acid is trans- 
formed into neat. In otlier words, the atoms of 
which this molsonle consiMs are tbrawn into a state 
of varyaetivevibiKtioii. These iotniaolecular ex- 
plosions are propagated in all diiectiwis along the 
nervee to the moseularandgland-alarsystauis, which 
are in structund continuity with the nerve-centres. 
Frogi, deprived of oxygen, ore thrown ipto a 
state of apparent death, pradsely similar to sleep ; 
from this tney moy be roused by a fresh supply of 
oi^^mrted blood. A certain prc^rti on of intra- 
molecular oxvgen in the nerve-eennes is -thus 
esMntial to the waking state, since it enableB a 
grvan number of exploaiona te oecur in a unit of 
time at a given tenrpeiature. But, during the 
waldiig state, the energy of chemical affinity is 
uaad up much faster than the intramolecular 
oxygen of the grey matter of the bmin can be re- 
pmced ; conBeouently the formation of carbonic 
acid steadily dimfnishes ; and when the number 
of explosions per unit of time eake below a cer- 
tain minimum, slssp ensiiSB. He mtire euatgy of 
the bmin is never really used up ; but iteiius to 
a point at which, in the absence of all external 
stimuli, it is incapable of maintuning functional 
activity. This theory may be so developed as to 
explain most of the phenomena of ordinary sleep, 
such as its periodicity, See. The author Iikerwise 
attempts to Bring the winter sleep of hybemating 
mammals, and uie summer sleep of tropical am- 
phibia, into harmony with it 

MTCBOMOFIOAI, KOTBe. 

The nnrabsr of Ompfst StmAu for Jine 21 con- 
tains vorieos reports of the conHniisions am»ointed 
to examine popen sent in 1^ oandidataB for prizes 
at the disposal of the Academy, and some of tliese 
relate to microscopical subjecte. One paper (the 
author's name still unmentioned) contains an ac- 
count of phenomena of copulation observed in 
Hypomt/ca ost^rop^Aonu, and IMAitiia Xobtrtioru, 
the latter pamsitic on Oeranium Rabtrtimmm 
(Herb Bobert). The generative proceas (om- 
■p<mds widi what had been previM^ observed 
by MM. de Bary, Woronin, and Tulasne, in 
other tbaoa^res. The r^ort observes that 



"these interesting facta generalise the phentmBiitt 
already obsored in « -veiy difiemnt group, «nd 
help to confirm the opisMn diat the feaanasliap 
oftbeoaapeBe'fiBi^ w-Mbotad in tite mywUm* 
and thos precedes the foraHUdoo of the organs 
that fonn'tae ^aras." Spaakiiig of ^ennatia, the 
report contiDoss : " It is known that M. Tulasna 
h^ giventhis noBteto bodies of very great teimity 
devdoping regularly on the auruce Of lOBrj 
ThecasporesandUredinee,orinspeaialconeeptada9, 
and which have been 'cansidflrod as coneamaiia 
the work of fecundslieti.'' Hie discovery of tte 
-^undation of thOM iEongi by mgans apriiif;iaR 
from the mycelium— -a £seovery to which Ul 
Tulasne contributed — rendered very problemalical 
the fecundating action attributed to uie spermatis. 
The author of the memoir before us diows that 
the spermatia con germinate when placed imder 
suitable conditions, which, for hypoxylous meam, 
conrist in adding to'watera'litUe tannin ancTBOgir 
and leaving th<ni in ooaMct witli tii. The f p 
matia of Ihadinee gsminate in puse watar,.hrt 
their danlopm«it appeon to be v«y i 
firom that of liie Itypoxylans «orti. 
U. de Seyne receives a prize fin 

SpedsB of Tistulino, chiefly relating tt ,, 

He concludes that the soperficiol conidia con-bibaBe 
more efficaciously than the spores to the repro- 
duction of the smeies, becanse, -appearing on tlis 
yoong pedicel ^Hiiah attacbea tliis fiuq^ to tlw 
wood, they fait batwaeu tiie ■wnoij layer and Hm 
bark, sad find the conditloDS most fovonrable to 
their development. The Airlher ramaricB of .the 
report ore too loi^ for extract, and cannot be 
advantageously abridged. They relate to the for- 
mation of the recaptecla, properties of the pn)t»- 

A woBX by M. Angnste Fonl, L*» Fomrvtit da 
la Suimt, obtains tho Thgre Prize, and i«. de- 
scribed as containing, among other matters, an 
anatomical and plqiaiological study of the argma 
of the ants, observstions on 'tbeir instincti, ftc 
Some ants ore HaUe to be Msaad with a desMBite 
fighting mania, and thsir oomiadH, aecoidn^ to 
the writer, endeavonr to nstMin their BotoeaBive 
ardour. M. Foral gpeoielly examined the work- 
ing ante, which possess reproductive powen 
laptet d la rtprodaetum,) snd found theu con- 
lORuation intarmediAe betwewi that of fecund 
females oadnautma; tiiur ovt 



^%ese latter, we . suppose, were 
propagation. 

A MoHTHTOH prize is ■aawgned to M 

for resesTches on blood. He has contrived 
instrument, said to be euperivrto t^ose p r wkmdy 
used for aacertaiaing the number of red corpnioleB 
in a given sooce. lit eonnets of a oapiUai^ tub*, . 
iotowhichUoodandartifioialaatumaraintiodaeed, 
and which is graduated ao tliat the contents of a 
given length are known. The mean number of 
red coipusoles in human blood is 4,000,000 in 
each cubic millimMre. A greater immber is found 
in small arteries than in urge, and in veins than 
in arteries, and most in veiin tktA have lost pait 
oftheirsenm byexeaauiee. They «ie fewer in 
oases of ewneer and tuberaataae, Lotd poiwwiag- 
afao lasieaa their number. 

Sat ApMand (No. S6 tat -Hub year) quotas a 
paper by Enwt Haanlcel,wfai!iing to the dia w i Bry 
of E. -von Beneden, Jan., thstscxnal distiaotaca* 
originate in the piimllive .genunal fatyen (J 
animals; male spaim-cells apiinging from the 
ectoderm, and female e^-calls from the vegetft- 
tife layer, or endoderm. The author states that 
while at Ajaccio in March and April, he made 
daily studies of eea creatures, and found polTpa 
of several speciea exhibiting tbe aame fitcts. He 
concludes that the aame mode of devriopmaDt 
takes plaoe in tbe hi^er ammale, tbontdi thu haa 
not yet been distuietly proved. 

Seeking fbr the eatue of the swellings whieb 
often in the roots of the cabbage tribe 



and injure their growih. Hen Woi 



1 found n 



JcLr 10, 1875.] 



THE ACADBMT. 



45 



fungus in the paKtMlmw mUb. Ete d««ni1)ea it, 
when young, m a- pUsmie body -witli a lively 
motion. AAar a time it aettlw down and grows; 
" the grmiulBB of the plauna collect into amsll 
bodiefl lying dose tDgetltw, koA fbim a round 
mass covered with a mMnbrane." Tfaiwe an spore 
cells, and as tbe plant rote, "zoospores or amall 
fuuoehae escape aom the lungUB, and, peaettating 
young sound rootletB, cansa trash plaaniic bodiee 
to be formed in their pareodiynie cells." When 
^aed from healthy plants was sown in soil 
containing the defying malttac of «ck plants, 
lud wetted with water oontainii^ the fungus 
iporee, the fresh plants wen attacked, and their 
roots exhibited tb* oharacteristia sw^linge. M. 
Woronin supposes this fonsTiB to bdong' to the 
Mucedinee or the "Chytrideneen." {Der Natut- 
foncker. No. 24, 1878, cited from BotanitiAc 
ZeUung, 1876, No. 20.) 



Der Sattafonoher, No. 

Hchte der Natwf. GeteiiacA. 



(qnoting the Se- 



:>lMeires that, wMle the . fumes of oidde of 

moDj proceeding ftoniA fibula melted, on char- 
x>al produce elegant nee^fr-shapad errstalB with 
Lhe polarising properties of Valentinjte, a fine 
lustAike deposit at the base of theee litUe pyra- 
Bids osiiibita the octohedpd form of Senarmatile 
when examined with the microscope. Difierence 
af temperature causes the vaiiation in the form of 
the crystals. 

Mb. W, a, Lkrsoii has- called our attention 
to llie remaibkble maotnim afforded by glass 
rul^tinted with golo. In a slide preparod br 
^'■~ ---'-'— --'5-' ■ findl&l^iin, 



- — glass 
violet portiODB of the spectnon remain clear. At 
light, with the miurospeefcroeaape and a paisfim 
amp, the cloudy band nas apecnliarred tint, well 
«wi if Uie lamp is screened so that little light 
tba eye except what passes thniigj) the 



The July number of the Monthly Mioroteopical 
Taitmal contains some noto) on that very cm ' 
>ntozoon the BvcephtUvt peiytnorp/mt, by 
jharles Stewart. This creature, oriainaUy de- 
tcribed by Yon Baer, waa lilsened by him to an 
>x-head with spreading boms. It has a body like 
I distoma worm, to the mouth end of which two 
globular bodies are attached, and from them 
priog two long elastic arms. He specimens ez- 
mined by Mr. Stewart were found by Mi. 
tadcock in an aquarium containing the fresh- 
rater mussel. He first observed them last year, 
ad they appeared again as the warm weather of 
his season came on. He arms, or appendages, 
vere found to be filled with minute gianulea, 
oixed in the interior with ttaoBparent sphemlos, 
lie contractions and elongations of the arms are 
ccampanied by synchronous movements of the 
lobular bodies. The body of the creature is 
inaed of three Jayera, the outer one studded with 
nail stnictuielesa elevations ; beneath this are 
gnnules of uniform size, and symmetrical ar- 
mgement in rows, correspondinp with, and tmns- 
nae to, the lon^ptudiiul axis of the body." 
bis gires a etnatsd appearance, sometimes 
ke striped muscle, and at others lihe the 
eedin^ of Flsurotigma angviatum. There is 
inch ID the life hietoiy of these creatuiM still to 
a found out. So &t as we Imow, no one 
IS trsced the formation of the slender branching 
ireada, or sporocysta, figured by Von Baer, and 
fund by him in the Htbt and other organs of 
le freshwater museeL An account of the prin- 
pal papere on tha Renus Bucephalus was given 
T Mr. Slack to the Royal Microecopical Society 
. March, and will be found in the April numbM 
' the Mottthly MicroKx^ncal Journal. 

TsK -Tuly number of the Journal also oontaina Mr. 
tephenson's scale for readily msasorinR the anslee 
' object-glasses, to which w& hare ba&re alltided. 



TsoBK-wfao are fond of puziling ovm the maik- 
ii^ of diatoms may get hints for a new mode of 
reeserah from Mr^ Hickie'B papei in the above 
magasiBe on " Dr. Schumann's Formulae for 
Diatom Lmea," Whether it is likely to be a* 
useful as it is troublceome may be open to doubt. 
It consisti in on elaborate geometrical enquiry 
conc«ming the poutions and dlstanoes of the dota, 
longitudinal, tranaverse, and oWque. 

Tbx beautiful rotifer StephanoeerOB, common in 
many parts of these islands, has been lately ex- 
hibited to the Academy of Sciences at Philadel- 
phia, and Dr. Leidy stated that he had not befoie 
Been any specimens. According to the report in 
the Monthly MicrotcffiealJournM, Mr. C. Newlin 
Pierce noticed the great length of the bristles 
projecting from the tentacles, which he found 
to exceed what was described by Mr. Cubitt in 
the paper he contributed to the Microscopical 
Society in 1870. The early drawings published 
of S. ^Eichhomii did not represent theee liriattes a 
quarter of their* real size, probablj^ because the 
ob}ecl3Tea and mo d e o of illnnunation employed 
were both defective, Mr. Pieics speaks of those 
belonging to his specimens as " overlapping each 
other, and fomuDg a networic in which panunecia 
were entrapped, as many as forty beinff observed 
at one time. Is this a peculiarity of the Amcri- 
can species, or variety ? The following statsoMnt 
of Mr. Pisroe is very curiooa : — 

" For two weeks the amm^ undar obserTB^on fed 
voracioDBly. Tbs last few days of thi» time gisnulai 
layers- van rapidly deposited on each side of [b> body 
jost wkhtn tb» case, mitil the nppat [art at tha 
cara])ac8 was diitradsd with tbii aecnmnlation. . . . 
On tha Biztmnth daf of obsenation it vaa un- 
avoidiUf left for ^ few boms ; on returning to it, th* 
tantscles, with the above deaeribed accBmuiated dark 
aoa vwe found to have left the original core and were 
.tached to a portion of the plant beneath. It qov 
presented the appearanca of an animal figured and 
described "by Fritchard as s young St«phiinocoroa, a 
dark gloliular mas« with five sptwding or divergent 
tentacles, and at the distal extremity a very alight 
prolongation, by which it was attached to the plant 
stem t^ on almost invisible thrrad." 
It soon proceeded to form a cell. The retracted 
body is said to hare remained ibr weeks 
apparently perfect condition — " the growth force 
bem^ seemingly confined to the detached head 
— J .». ! — n Verification and 



uuaaed, and ingrekt part derived from inseriptiong, 
to- bear i^B the nistory of tbia late6t'U>rmea 
Attie tribes. He article deseryes the seriooa 
attentioD of all otodents of Greek history. Tor- 
strik.discuases the diffisnlt passage in Aristotle's 

PAjMUS (ii. 4~6) on riijpt and ri avroiuxrov, 

bringing some new light to bear upon it partly 
from conjecture, but in much greater measure 
from the Greek oonunentatoiB, Valentin Bosa 
(" Damigerom de I^judibus "} attempts to tracA 
the sources of Maibod's poem on precious stones. 
H. JoidMi, on Horace's "Ate Poetica," 32 foil., d»< 
fsods the reading faber imut a)j;aiiiBt Bentiey's 
/oW* tUMW, azplauiing tuna as givmg the position 
of the shop. 

Tee two last numbers (vol. vi. pts. 2 and 3) of 
the Zeitx^r^ fur Dentmhe FftUologia at« fnU of 
interesting matter. In the first, a careful article 
by Snpban on Herder's earliest theological wo^ 
and two letters by P. A. Wolf to Falbe upon 
some translations of the latter from :Veivil end 
Horace into German Inxameters, published for 
the first time by Lothhols, are of gtowral literary 
interast. Liebrecbt eontribntee a curious articis 
on " The Humour in Qerman Law." Here are 
some important papers on critical and grammatical 
matters, among which may be mentioned especially 
Schadri's communication on some fr^tnents of a 
fourteenth centutr MB. of Titurel, preeerved in 
the Archducai Librair at Darmetadt, and Woete'a 
"Beitrageaua dem Niedeidentschen." The sup- 
plementary matter at the end of the volune con- 
tains an interesting Uc^^sfiliical sketch of the late 
G. Hcnneyer, by Boretius ; an account by Htibar 
of the proceedings of the German and Bomance 
section of lost year's congress of philglogians at 
Innsbrucfc; and some reviews, among v^ueh one 
Iw Delbriick on Begemann's works on the Weak 



German, and one b^ Bembafdt 
-'- " ■* —■1" der gotischen ^Haob , 

uparative philologists. 



jd-reihe der gotischen ^Haohe," 

'on of comparative philologists, 
ihar Boxbeiger and Zaoher have 



Ix Qmmtm Bmitu, June 38, will be found a 
pa^iar by M, Paul Bert on the influuice of air 
pressure on fermeotatione. A piaaa of meat placed 
lu oxygen, with a fitttmaa of twenty-three atmo- 
spheiM, remained from July 29 to August 3 
without putreeeance or evil odour. It cooaumAd 
in that tjme 380 cubic oeutimdtree of the kss. A 
similar piece suqwnded in a beU-gkse full of air 
at the ordinary presaure, aoquiied a bad smell, 
conaumad all the oxygen, amounting to 1,136 cen- 
timtee^ and was covered with moidds. Anothsi 
trial was made with oxygen at a pMSsareof forty- 
four atmcaphecea; no oxroeu was absorbed be- 
tween December 10 end Jannarr 8, and no bad 
odour was exhaled. M. Bert coula eat cutlets pre- 
served in this w«^ for a month, sod found them 
only a little stale in flavonx. After being exposed 
to air at this preeaure, allowing an eaeape so 
that only oormal pressure remained, the meat 
sufiered no damage, piovided tbe bottie waa well 
corked, so that no external genns could enter. 
Thus it appears that the micro-ferments which 
cause pntreuction can be killed, when they are 
moist, by a sufficient tension of oxygen. Fer- 
mentatioDB of milk and urine are arreeUii by high 
pressure, and fruits keep sound. Diastase con- 
tinues to act as a fermuit, and bodies of this de- 
scription preserve their properties indefinitely if 
retained undra pressure. 



daserve the attention of oc 

Intben 
an interestiDg paper on liessin^'s " Nathan." The 
writers endeavoui to saowtam more fiilly than 
has hitherto been done the materials which 
Leesing chiefly used in tbe construction of his 
play. Ijovers of the Eisack valley will read with 
pleasure a short article by Zingerle on the fables 
of the Jodigrimm. The most inqtortaut critical 
articles are those by Schdnbaeb on tbe criticism 
of Benerius' Fal^ea, by Risger on the Runic Al- 
phabet (a review of a work by Wimntw), and by 
Beuenbarger on tbe Maneburg glosses. In the 
miscellaniee at the end of the volume Beuenberger 
reviews Jolly's translation of Whitney's Lectures 
on Oomparative Philology. Halbertsina's Frisian 
Laxicon is noticed by Lubben, and Herhet's Life 
of J. H. Voss by Jtedlich. The same author 
contributes a valuafile and instructive review of 
Strodtmann's edition of Burger's correspondence, 
and Wackem^el's minor writings and lectures 
are criticised with care and appredation by 
ToUer. 



Iir the last number of the Hermtt, Dittenberger, 
an artiole entitled " Die Attischen Phylen," 
brings a connderable amount of evidence hi^erto [ interval, the original deflection of the^ranoiuetei 



MBBTINOS OF SOCISTISS. 

Petsioal SodETT (Saturday, Jims 20), 

PsojrawoR G. 0. Foamt, Vice-Preaident, in tha 

Obair. Mr. W. J. Wilson read a paper on "A 

Method of Ueaauiing the Bleotrical Reaistsooe of 
Liquids." The apparatus employed in its moat 
aimnia form oonsists of a long nairow (nju^ filled 
with the liquid to be measured, say dilute acid. 
A parous pot containing a zinc plate in sulphate 
of dno being [^aced in the acid at one end of the 
trough, and a similar pot vrith a oopper plMo in 
eulphaie of copper in the acid at the other end, 
the whole arrangement forma a sort of elongated 
Daniell'a cell, the chief resistance of wbich is in 
the long column of acid. When by duintiog the 
galvanometer included in the circuit a soitaUe 
defiectiou has been obtained, the porous veoeels 
moved towards each other through a certain 



46 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpLTlO, 1875. 



needk bung rasbned hj the introdoetion of Imown 
iMiaUnoe. Thus » measDre of the liquid ranat- 
anee ia obtuuad. The chief obetacte to exact 
meaHUTemeiits lies in the tact that the iMiatance 
of liquids is greatly atlected hy changes of tem- 
perature. Tnietworthj results are, hovevar, ob- 
tained bj working at the temperatuK of the 

In the discntuoD which followed, Profbtson 
Fo«t«r, McLeod, and Outhria took part. 

I^. Stone made a cammunicatiou on " The Sub- 
jectiye Phenomena of Taste." He stated that 
some experiments he had recentlf made led him 
to consider whether then might be "comple- 
mentarj taste," just as there is " compiemestaiy 
Mght" He deecribed the following experiments 
as examples of the kind of phenomena. If 
water be placed in the month after the 
back of the tongue has been moistened with 
modentelj dilute nitric acid, the water will hare 
a distvictly saccharine taate. Or if the wires 
from a t«n-cell Gtotb's battery be covered with 
moist sponge and be placed one on the forehead 
and the other at the btLck of the neck, an impres- 
Non ia produced which ia exactly similar to that 
resulting from the iosertdon of the tongue between 
a nlver and copper coin, the edges of which are in 
contact. Sr. Stone showed that the induced 
current usually employed for medical purposes has 
oot this effect, and he considered tiie result 
ourioua, se, no f^ as we know, they can hardly be 
the result of chemical action. 

Four other communications were made, of 
which abstracts will be given in a future number. 



8n H. RAWLnnoir in the Chair. The first 
paper of the evening was read by Mr. John 
Forrest, in which he gave an account of hia 
recent journey across ^e western half of Aus- 
tralia horn Ohampion Bay to Adelaide. This 
journey, aa far as the overland telegraph line, was 
about a,000 miles in length. The vratersbed of 
the Hurchison river was well aait«d for pastoral 
settlement, but after it was passed and as &r as 
128° £. longitude, the countiy was one undulating 
desert of apinifex, the prevailiDg rock bung the 
tertiary desert sandstone. The spinifei causes the 
horses legs to bleed, and is nseless as food, being 
utterly devoid of nourishment The party was 
attacked by natives on three occasions. These na- 
tivea manage with very little water, using it only 
for drinking purpoaea. When they come acroes a 
hoUow fiU^ witn water, they cover it up to pre- 
vent evaporation ; when this &ils they pound the 
stalks 01 a Bpecies of Eucalyptus and drun the 
moisture int<i a wooden dish. From 128° £. loiw. 
the countryimproves, and much of it is already 
occupied, Through the expeditiona of Mr. Forrest 
and Colonel Warburton, the geography of Aus- 
tTOlia had now been finallv laid open, and with 
tiie exception of a portion of the north- west there 
remained little of interest to inyestisate. 

A diacnsrion followed in which Sir Qeorge 
Bowen and Mr. Leake took part. 

The Seyjid then entered the Hall, and Sir H. 
Rawlinson welcomed him, referring to the asaist- 
ance given by the 8eyyid as a Corresponding 
Honorary Uember of the Society to the Living- 
stone Belief and Search Expeditions. He also 
traced the connexion between the Seyyid's family 
and this country, and made mention of the en- 
couragement given to commerce by the present 
Sultan, as well as the meAsurea taken by him' for 
the suppreaaion of the slave trade. 

General Rigby then described the phvsical re- 
Bourcea of the ponaaaaions of the Sayyid of Zan- 
cibar, by whom, as well as by the Seyrid'a bther, 
they had been so largely developed. They mainly 
consisted of ivory, gum copal, and cloves, while 
a trade in spicM, sugar, cotton, and coeoanut fibre 
had alao sprung up. 

Tho Seyyid'a reply was interprated by Dr. 



himself pleased with his 



Badger. He enresaed himaelf pleasi 
welcome, and referred to the work of 
exploreiswhom the Society had sen,t outtoCentnl 
and Eastern Afrioa, and stated that he always 
endeavoured to heln tiiem to the best of lus ainlity. 
He Ailly reeognisea the material advantages whidi 
would reeult from the work of the Sooaty, and 
the advantages of travel, which several AraUan 
poets had dilated on. 

Dr. Eirk briefly referred to the explorations of 
Mr. Stanley ana lieutenant Cameron, both of 
whom liad now advanced into unknown country. 
No news tespecting them was, however, contwned 
in the mail which nad just come from Zanzibar. 

The Seyyid then took his leave after signing 
his name in the visitors* book, and the reet of the 
evening was occupied with a summaiy of a paper 



and their bearing on the theorf of a general 
oceanic circulation sustained by difierence of tem- 
perature. 



FINE ART. 

ABJ DEWS. 

Pull : Jn» IS, 181S. 

A sojourn of several weeks in Loudon fur the 
purpose of visiting the difierent ezhibitioDS now 
open, is a reason if not an excuse for my corre- 
spondence having been temporarily diacontinned. 
'Hie chief diaadvonta^ arinng thence is that in 
the meantime the Fans Salon has been closed, anil 
therefore any further remarks upon it would be 
absurd. But it is an apparent rather than a real 
disadvantage. The Salons require either a con- 
nected sertes of critical notices . containing the 
mention of the larsest number of names and 

Ctures posffible, or the statement of a few general 
ts intereating to every one, no matter what his 
nationality may be, who follows the atepa of 
human activity in all its paths. I ought strictly 
to have confined myself from the b^i;inning to this 
latter mode of proceeding, but engaged as I am 
every day in combating the odious academical 
principles which stand m the way of every new 
creation, I am impelled to bring forward arguments 
in support of what is either consoling or dis- 
couraging. In future I shall enumerate all the 
most striking pictures in my first letter, and re- 
serve all personal reflectiona for the aecond. At 
moat three will be sufficient. 

This cannot be sud to be a time of decadence. 
It is one of stagnation. It is apparent that our 
school is receivingeven from bad mostersasounder 
technical education than yours. Our historical 
painters are more learned draughtsmen than yours, 
their style of composition is fuUer and larger, their 
palette more decontivs r^^rded from the point of 
view of the Roman school, which has been the 
adopted type since the time of Ruhael. But 
unfortunately they do not make use of this foun- 
dation of a classical education in such a manner 
aa to interest the thinker. 

Ingres, who is the type of modem professors, 
bad out a very impertect understandmg of the 
teaching of David. David wished that the know- 
ledge acquired by copying the antique and nature 
should be made use of m repieaenting the great 
modem subjects. This at least he tried to do in 
Le Satnani du Jtu de Paumt, in his Marat auat- 
MtrU, in his Couromiement de Nt^toUon ler, in Xd 
Dittrdrutioti dei Aiglet. 

Ingres, on the contrary, has bnt brought liia 
knoMedge to bear on the study of isolated por- 
tions of a figure, of isolated personasee ' 
picture. Even in his portraits, which are 
best things he ever did, we feel the want of a 
genera) idea, of a pervading sentiment to give 
unity to these fragments and impart emotion to 
these dumb actors who are so indifferent to the 
part they are playing. It is quite as inadmissible 
in an artist as in a writer that be should detach 
himself from the things of his own time. Lite- 
raiy independence of this land expirad with 



tragedy, which ia beautiful as a form adapted to 
a certun period of histoiy, but unendurable as a 
vehicle for modem feelings. In painting it entwla 
a purely artificial life on tnose students i»ia, having' 
taken part in competitions in Paris which prove 
their absolute want of originality, are sent to 
Rome — still only to Rome — to gain increased 
&iulity in the sci^ice of copies or unprofitable 
osaimQations. And it is the strangest mistaka 
that the Salon prize, founded last year by M. de 
Ohennevi^rea as a rival of the old prize of the 
Ecole dee Beaux Arts, should also obhge the euc- 
ceesful competitor to apend the four years of hia pen- 
sion in Rome, the solemn funereal city, which every 
one must pass through, even inhamt for a while, 
to become mmiliar with its stately powerful genius, 
but must then quit in order to tiaverse the whole 
world Hud breatKe the worm breath of a new life. 
M. Oormon, who guned the Salon prize tiiia year 
by a rather animated composition. La Mart du Rot 
dt Lcmkn, the aubject of which is drawn from the 
Bimayana, has token Eugene Delacroix for his 
model. Would it not have been better for this 

Siung artiat'a future had he been left free to atudy 
ubena and Paolo Cagliari in Antwerp or Venice P 
or, better atill, givsn complete liber^ to follow 
hia own bent F 

Bnt these are regulationa which a change of 
miniatiT may modify. The interest does not lie 
in the degree of imperfection which exists in the 
wheels of the worn-out machine, it lies in tha 
signs of a reaction visible in the public — of a re- 
action against all mediocre punting, of no matter 
what sdiool, and in favour of good punting' 
judged on its ovm merits entirely. Thus there 
nas been a very strong reaction against ptmr*' 
puntera, who nevertheleM take great pains to 
appear clever and to entertain the pubhc. The 
pamter who has earned the most honeat sncc«« 
IS a H. de Nittia, inst now in London, and hia 
success ia due simply to the &ct that his picture. 
La Place d» la Concorde, is a spirited and life-like 
compoaition, full of air and light, and true ta 
nature both as regarda movement and colour. 
liien, too, people were indignant at the exaggerated 
blueness of M. Manet's Seine in Leg Caitotiera 
fArgerUeuil, but at the same time interested in 
the picture as a piece of powerful painting, which 
brings out by its very exaggerations the feebleness 
of the surrounding pictures. Finally', the notice 
which the expreesive faces and admirably drawn 
hands in M. Alphonse L^;ros' LEglite have 
attracted, will be a useful encouragement to atudy, 
I am seeking at present not merely to express 
aentimentB, but to gather from the criti- 



cisms which have appeared u 



irbeet 



p^Te,a 

what the average opinion regarding tL. __. — 
really ia. It baa been geueroliy admitted that, 
taken as a whole, it is gayer and more lively in 
colour than former Salons, but that neither is tlie 
drawing so careful nor are the wish and endeavour 
to touch the heart, so perceptible. The land- 
scape punters more especially ore wonderfully 
daring. Karl Daubigny is very nearly as good » 
punter aa his &tber. But evidentiy landscape 
painters now ore satisfied with rapidly sketching 
a small bit of nature — the typical masses of sky, 
of earth, of verdure^ of fore and bockgrounde, 
more or less approximating in tone. In this 
manner they produce in a few moments a pleasing 
sketch, but without defining either the charac- 
ter of the country, or the impressioa, whether 
cheerful or melancholy, which they intend the 

Eicture to convey to the spectator. Corot at 
nirscore was the voungest painter in the whole 
Salon, because he snowed the greatest power of 
mind, the graat«st love for his art, and the greateat 
respect for the grand and eternal effects of nature. 
And now we may leave the Salon ; though no 
present aatiaCaetion can be derived from it, etill it 
;es the belief in a more masculine future, 
iuctive of more pleasures for the mind. 

^a and salute the dead whoore taking their 

final leave of na ; lor the final di^oaal of an artist's 



wurages 
i produc 



JlILT 10. 18?t.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



47 



dn,wiiig por^lioa. eolonr^tudiee uid nmgh 
■ketchea, u -nrtoaln » dMth, bot a deAth, like ui 
apotiiaoeui, attendea with lig'ht and tong. 

WMe gnedj bein were engaged in Bweeplug 
ont tbe comen of OaraVi studio, aad pricing even 
his Addnas-boolcs, loving friends were buBj 
collecting from all tbe great amateius the finest 
specimens of his woric. Tbia exbibitton, to which 
your attention was dulj drawn, sufiered rather at 
tlie h^inning in consequence of the rival attrac- 
tioDB S tbe nie, wbicb lasted a fortmght and in- 
cluded some yerjr powerful Btudies, those done in 
Italy mote particalarlj. 

It enabled Oorot's bumble admirers, who love 
hie work for tbe poetrj, tbe leaminft, the reepect 
for natnie, and the freedom from pedantry which 
diBtinguiab it, b> enrich their walls with some 
hiunbb specimen. I fimcy even that some have 
found their way to England. The exhibition was 
closed yesterday. It realised a considerable sum, 
half of wbicb is to be devoted to raising a monu- 
ment to Corot's memory. As yet nothing bos 
been decided. But the following Bug)^tion has 
been made, and there is something touching in the 
idea. Oorot had a great affection for tbe village 
of ViUe d'Avray, situated outaide the gatea of 
Paris. Itfi picturesque position, sweet and das- 
aical at the eame time, recalls the exquisite t«nder- 
nesB and eloquence of some of the pages of 
TeUmaque. And the painter Franks, who is the 
chairman of the committ«B, suggests that a fonn- 
tain and a circular seat, surmounted by a bust or 
B, medallion of Oorot, should be constructed on 
tbe skirts of tbe wood on a spot Oorot was par- 
ticularly fond of, which overlooks a green vuley 
dotted with white-walled bouses and red roofs. 
Tbe poet would come thither attracted by the 
quiet and seclusion of tbe place, and tbe birds 
would flutter down to drink at tbe mur- 
muring fountain. This is tbe spirit of all 
Oorot's work, and as regards tbe wealth of his 
imu^nntion and tbe endleBS means of execution 
he bad at bis command, this exhibition, incom- 
plete as it was, has fully proved tbem. 

J. F. Millet, of whom I have also formerly 
spoken, was similarly honoured by a double sale: 
tnat of his own studio first, which contained some 
splendid sketcbee and some drawings remarkable 
for great depth of feeling j and secondly, that of 
ninety-fii-e pwtels, of a very lajK^ si^^i which 
belonged to an ardiitect named Oavet. I think 
the ligliHhgBlleriee should have been represented 
at this sale. J. F. Millet is undeniably one of 
the greatest masters of this generation. The 
originality of his drawing is such that it cannot 
be disputed, and establishes a resemblance between 
him and the Italians antecedent to Raphael. Thus 
the galleries of all countries might have obtained 
studies which would have been of the greateet 
value to their students. But J. F. Millet was, 
besides, a thinker. It was not enough for him to 
draw a peasant or a peasant-woman, a type that 
-was more or less picturesque according to tbe 
costume or function selected ; he applied himself 
to drawing the peasant or the peasant-woman with 
all the charaoteriBtics of their race, in the per- 
formance of their typical functionB, in their own 
individual costumes, which long use has rendered 
as characteristic oftbem as tbe hair is of the animal 
on whose back it grows. These are characters of an 
art that is qmte international. Bembrandt did the 
same when he interrogated tbe Bible as he so often 
did for the purpose 01 dramatising it vritb tvpes 
he had earnestly studied. Your public, which is 
very aristocratic as regards modem questions, 
would not, I think, willingly accept theee peasants, 
whom inclement seasons, struggles with misery, 
and the want of intellectual culture have rendered 
almost terrible in their uglineea. But they are 
figures which vrill soon become historical. Books, 
machinery, and cheap clothing, and the share 
taken by all in the discusmon of public aflairs, 
have already sensiblv altered this roughness of a 
hundred years old, have smoothed tbe too great 
eharpneas of tbe angles, and produced a more 



supple geiMtatiDn, Soon their coarse linen gar- 
menta, their wooden shoes, tlieir heavy clumsy 
tools will he as antiquated, and consequently as 
picturesque, as are the wigs, the red heels and the 
rapiers of tjie marqueasee. Then you will reoret 
not having secured some of these precious his- 
torical records while they were yet to be had. 
You will have all the more reason to regret it 
because then, there can be no doubt, criticism will 
require that an artist ahould be a man, and should 
present bis fellow-men, not with vulgar dolls any 
more, but with human beings engaged in accom- 
plishing some moral action. This is especially 
the case vrith J. F. Millet Without playing the 
part of a moralist out of season, without changing 
the plastic conditions of his art, he has known 
bow to express in the noblest and purest language 
tbe pasffions of the country, the lova of home, 
and tbe charm distinctive of children who have 
ex^nded in the open air. His work is formed, 
as it were, of the leaves of a Biblia Fauperum, if 
we attach to the word paujitira the touching 
meaning, "poor people." 

I was present yeeterda^ at the inau^^iratit 
a monument raised to Tn&)phile Oautier, in 
cemeterr of Montmartre, l^ bis Mends. A grey 
mist of rain, which fortunately dispersed just 
when M, Th^dore de Banville began to speak and 
recall the literary merits of Th&iphile Gautier, 
imparted an additional dreariness to the Bad cere- 
mony. M. de Banville — who la himself, as you 
know, a distinguished poet — very happily charac- 
terised bis Mend's genius as an art critic in the 
followii^ words : " Oautier eut la quality su- 
preme, la plus haute, la plus rare de toutes, la 
acuity d'admirer." This is a very profound re- 
mark. Victor Hugo had already expressed the 
same thought in another form and in a more 
general sense, " Aimar c'est comprendre." May 
we not regard it as the basis of a new system of 
aesthetics F 

Gautier's tomb is of black marble. It was 
designed by M. Ovprien Qodebski, a sculptor who 
is a Belgian by descent, but was brougnt up in 
Poland, where the poet, on bis way to Russia, 
became acquainted' with him. A young muse 
of a daringly modem tfpe, with the golden star 
on her brow, is seated m an arm-cbair of antique 
shape which stands on a cenotaph. She is look- 
ip to heaven with a saddened countenance, 
holds a lyre and a palm. Her right arm 
rests on a medallion representing Oautier m tbree- 
uarten in low relief. The resemblance is very 
light, and he looks extremely like a Kalmuck. 
?be medallion is supported by books, one bearing 
the title Emaux et Cianiet, which is one of his 
choicest collections of poetry. 

The figure of the Muse, witiiout being exactly 
reiT high art, is graceful, the' sentiment is proper, 
ind the silhouette happy. Some lines about 
death are engraved on the sides of the cenotaph, 
r suitabiUty in this place is even rather douW 
M, for in his lifetime Thfophile Oautier-— Tb^o 
as his Mends used to call him — was a notorious 
pagan. But afterwards , . . 

A monument rused by national subscription to 
the memory of Dorian, at the cemetery of P*re 
Lachaise, is to be inaugurated to-morrow. Dorian 
I Minister of Public Works during the ^e^ of 
Paris, and one of those men of honour who believed 
in the possibility of making a defence against the 
Qerman forces, and who loyally did his utmost to 
iruanise the elements of that defence. The statue 
e by M. Aimd Millet, the monument by M. Dupr^. 



PH.BnBTi. 



LA XAISOK LBIB. 



celebrated painter, Baron Leys, at Antwerp, may 
' \ <st interest to some readers of the ACADIMT. 

A party of four, whereof I was oike, called tiiere 
.1 the morning of June 29 ^ on sending up our 
cards, and enquiring whether we_might be allowed 



to see tbe Leys frescoes at once, or to return at A 
later hour, immediate access was accorded to n^ 
and directly afterwards the Baronne descended, 
and accompanied us over tbe rooms with simpla 
and cordial courtesy. 

The bouse is a very handsome one, standing in 
a row among others, and covering a cousideTabla 
space of ground; the street in which it stands, 
heretofore Rue de la Station, has been re-named 
Rue Leys. He painter bought the ground 
several years ago, ana erected the bouse upon it ; 
tbe details of construction and decoration, there* 
fore, represent his own likings, although the 
fafade of the house has nothing to distinguish it 
from other residences of opulent citiiens. 

On the ground floor is a reception room, which 
opens into tbe dining room ; hence we pass into a 
glass-roofed conservatory used as a breakfast-room, 
witba tank of gold and silver fish; we next ascend 
to another room, of amall dimensions, tbe library, 
and out of that to the studio. The fivscow in the 
dining room are tbe works which we bad come pr^ 
pared to see ; but we bad the pleasant surprise of 
finding that these are only a portion of the artistic 
treasures in the house testifying to the grMt 
master's lifework. The mominghappened to he 
a singularly dark one, pardalW cleared during 
our stay by a violent shower and slight thunder- 
storm : the frescoes, in consequence, were ati first 
barely discernible. They run around the upper 
wall of tbe apartment, and represent Antwerp 
burgbei^life in the sixteenth century : the compo- 
sitions ^itb one exception, I think) have aU been 
seen in London, in the form of small oil-pictures. 
Tbe chief subject, occupying the whole of the 
wall facing tbe fireplace (wuch is filled by an 
elaborately designed brass stove) is the promenade 
of the lutizens on tbe ramparts, now destroyed, on 
a snowy winter day. This is followed by other 

Cupe showing a family party arriving at the 
Lse of a Mend, and welcomed by him, and 
finally the preparations for an abunoant dinner. 
The scene of welcome is painted over the fire- 
place, and containa a proup of family porttuts 
(Leys himself included) m costume differing hardly 
or not at all from that of our own day, yet so w^ 
harmonised, in artistic respects, with the other 
personages, that the general mediaeval eff^ is 
not seriously interrupted. These admirable works 
are punted in the broad full-tinted colour so dis- 
tinctive of Leys, with a depth seldom seen in 
fresco ; solid local colour with next to no shadow. 
The afternoon sunlight, as the Baronne said, is 
needed for bringing forth the compositions in their 
complete strength : then " lea groupea s'animent," 
and erervthing tells out with the most vigorous 
efibct These works occupied Leys for several 
years, in the intervals from his more strictly pro- 
fessional painting. 

The studio has a gabled wooden roof, with loop- 
bole windows in the gable, opening inwuu. 
Here is the oil picture, exhiUted in "London in 
1868, of Battista Fallavicini, of Genoa, admitted 
to the citixensbip of Antwerp in 1641 : this work 
was brought back by the Baronne after hec 
husband's death. It is the same composition as 
one of the great frescoes painted in the Hotel da 
'Ville. Another oil picture, being also one of tho 
fresco subjects, is Margaret of Parma delivering 
the teys of Antwerp to the Burgomaster during 
Iha troubles of 1666 : this fine work, peculiarly 
complete in effect, has never been out of the 
fiunily's poesoesiou. There is likewise a small pic- 
ture, Iraught b^ck, representing a minstrel and his 
^I harping and diauntiug before some mediaeval 
citiiena, in the open air — very rich in tone and 
colour, dated about 1867. 

Mountiiu; hence towards the drawing rooms, w« 
found on the stairs excellent coloured duplicates 
of several of the single figures of historical per- 
sonages painted in fresco in the Hotel de Ville. 
The daplieatee are cartoons, fine and full, yet 
light in cobur. Two or three of the figures, left 
uncoloured, have not been pta*d ahnw/'ivillt tto 



TPHE AOADHKT. 



IJIILT 10, 1878. 



in tiw dTftviiij^ TooiDB EUQ ft l^ffo zmtibor of 
■liBys'e paintingH, sketches. Ac. Hie vbtjs' fiwt 
pictore is here, named Xe P^heur, a little Ttemigfa 
town-Troy flahmg. It wm done at the age of ihs 
teeii, or perhaps fifteen, and is a creditable, iiiongh 
not a Bpeciallf noteworthy, perfbrmanee for that 
yoathliil ago. For different from this sre'three 
or more rather small oil paiotinge of media^ral 
battles, street "fights, or the like, painted ahont the 
age of Bevetite^ii, with numerous figures, and hi a 
Biyle that might be termed partly spiritsd and 
portly vapid ; these show a marked inflnenee from 
Braekeller, and especially from that large and 
wiahT-wa^y pictin« by the laat-tiamed artist 
which represents the "Spanish Fanr" in Ant- 
werp, and which has for many Tears hung in the 
local Mttsenm of Fine Arts. 'I'hia institution, to 
its discredit be it spokei 
of eo powerfill a muster as Leys, 

r.tivelT medieere,' belongigg to his eaiiier period 
the llembnDdt««qae variety of his -atyk. 
Braekeller, still living at the admtced age of 
eighty-lnro, wae the profeerienal iostraetor «nd 
the rawther-in-Jftw of Leys, whose wster he msr- 
lied : this lady died very recently. The Miliest 
exhibited pictnia of Leys, the Uassaere of the 
]BeheTiiis of Lonrain, is also in the house ; it has 
a lomantic but conunonpkee chaiaetar, witii eone 
inereaaii^ force of Afleet. 

Hero is a fine portisit of Leys, painted by him- 
eelf not more than two or tbme years befoiehis 
dsath ; with stUf grey hair, large well-set ob- 
■errant dark eyee, and very solid FeatuTea : it was 
executed in aeven days at a time of cholera whan 
thepainterWBB difsnaded from bringing mcrdela into 
the house, and, feeling the nmui of days without 
painting-'Wark, was induced by his wtfe'to mider- 
take this portrait. The non-attendance of models, 
under other circumstances, wAa a sort of trihula- 
tioa which befel him ofteii, and perCiirbed him 
much. He was constantly looking out for models 
for his numerous and divendfied personages, nnd 
tried, it nught be, even ten or a dozen before 
he could be eatisSed. He used to work out his 
compositions in sketches— doing all from nature — 
and then to aet-to at the pictnies with exbaordi- 
naiy celerily and certainty, impeded only by micb 
tronbles as these with the modela. Olber fiimily 



portraits pwnted by Leys are two of his wife- 

--- at, the other during her youth (they 

arly) ; an interesting &C6, but not, said the 



} recent, the 
■nwried 

, T very much like her ; one of his son, 

now " dans la diplomatie i, Bmxelles ; " and a AiU- 
let^h of his eldest daughter, in a pale green dress. 
Ibeto are also nortinita of the father and mother 
of Leys, by JIathieu of Louvain, a celebrity of 
the days of Wappers and Be Eeyser : the mother 
8 Tory portly and rather ordinary-looking dame ; 
the &ther a mild, reflective, refined face, witii an 
eipreesion not maeh unlike that of Wordsworth, 
The elder Loye whs a "gravenr en taille douce," 
nnying on the bonBese more eapecioHy of a 
aupMintMident or publisher of engravings: he 
had a brother who, with moderate means, UitmtA 
a decided taste for collecting vrorks of ATt. A 
miiBber of miscellaneoaB productions by Leys 
mig^t still be mentioned : an effective littfe land- 
Bcapo of a mill, and an oil stody of a Mack>and- 
white cow in a pasture, both done for his children ; 
avraa deeigne — one for tbe Pallavicini enbjeet, 
differing in detail item tfce oil picture and 'fresco ; 
two or three etchings —that of Luther at Wittenbeiv 
witli some oUier Kefofmera is psrticuialij' rieh 
and fine. He executed twenty etchii^ m all. 
Of pictures by otiier masters dmtbelot^^ to him, 
the principal one is an excellent Breugbel, by 
whiui he set much store, illustrating the proverb, 
" If the blind lead the hUnd, both shall Ml into 
Hie ditch." I have seen a duplicate of this pie- 
tore somewhere, but ^ould conjecture the one in 
the Muson Leys to be the more iodi^utaUe 
original. 

Leys was bom in Antwerp in or about 1814, 
and lived there almost all bis Ufe. He never 
went to Italy ; nor undertook any other distant 



journey, 

JewiA ^nsovgne''^ place, as tiie Baronne m- 
fbrmed os, of monumental equalor, combined with 
richness. He thought it not Aewrabte feryoung 
artists to see a great number of things, of the 
Torious sdiools of art — they would titts be kept 
bock from formii^ a style of their own. How- 
ever, the project of vifliting Italy was often entei^ 
tained by himself ; but divers things — tiie cares 
of a femily, the necessity of executinp commis- 
sioned paintings, and ao on — interfered, and be 
failed after all to carry It out. He was in I 
don in 1688. In his Uiter years his health 
precarious, and he suffered much : his reeouree 
was to paint away with indomitable zeal and per- 
severance ; and, while thus occupied, he fo^ot 
all about his physical dittreeses. 

W. ii. Soaara. 



Thb chief art-sale of last week, aftarthe memor- 
able one of the Marlborourfi ^ema, took jJace on 
Saturday, when Mesors. Christie, Manson, and 
Woods dispersed under the hammer the collectiou 
of pictures belonging to the lato Mr. Jesse Watts 
Russell, of Bom Uoll, Staffordshire. The im- 
portant works were all of the English school. By 
this sole the National Gallery hoa acquired anotber 
great Gainsborough, The picture, rightly de- 
scribed a£ A Wood Scent, vitth Figwet ; a View 
near tie VtUage of Comard, in ^oHc, was ex- 
hibited at the Msncheeter AJt Treasures Exhibi- 
tion in 1867. It is about six fbet long by four 
and a half wide, and is an example, unique in 
scale and importance, of Gainsborough's early man- 
ner in landscape painting. When Gainsborough 
was almost a boy in S^olk, Alderman Boydell 
found him out, and published slight engrav- 
ings after some landscapes done by lum at I^nd- 
guard Fort and elsewhere in that district. This 
huge picture of " Comard Wood " was painted by 
him, for the same patron, and lemams as fresh and 
silvery as on the day it was dona. It was en- 
oraved and publiahed under the title of Qaint- 
bormigh'i Forett by Boydells in 1790, two years 
after the artiat's death, and a copv of the prist is 
at the British Muaeum, This is an indifferent 
aquatint, by Uary Catharine Prestel, showing 
the Dompomtion reversed, and praearving little of 
the trae chancter of the picture. Those who are 
only accustomed to Gainsborough's later manner 
in landacape painting would hardiv recognise him 
at first Bight in this work, which must have 
been piunted not much later than 1750, The 
concentration of light and shade, the glow and 
richness of colour, the broad TnaMing of parts, 
the swift and almost smearing treatment of 
foliage and detule, which he acquired later, are 
none of them to be found here. On the con- 
tiary, the light and diade ai« roach broken and 
scattered, and the shadowed ports of an ex- 
quisite ddicacy and transparency: the foliage 
and details are mode out with the pains 
and precision of a most eoreful student. 
Tho« '^ - 



this cu% and piiecision of handling, there 
ore several email londocapee and fbregronnd 
studies in Qua aame manner. And though he baa 
not massed and composed the constituent ports of 
the BCeoe in the way he used later, yet the 
parte themselves are me same as he loved and 
painted always — a wood, a lane winding down 
through an opening in the wood to an open 
count^ with village and steeple in the distance. 
The wood is of scattered eeJc trees, beautifully 
drawn and painted, and is ftill of incident. To 
the ri^t of the lane are two grey pools with 
tiieir docks and se<^, and a pui of wild- 
ducks on the wing ; a strong silvery tree- 
trunk, and a pair of donkeys on the bonk beside it ; 
beyond tiie other beak to the left the light strikes 
upon another trunk with a white cow by ite nde -, 



in the lane there is one movntad tmdler HI 
towards tfae opeii,aBd aaothar wtiUng with iA 
dog ; a man digs end in tfce btob, & vramoa ad 
do^ are seated nekr hio.hisnQ jaeMiisUtiewii 
on and oatchos the liriit; in the SEtMnie fina- 
gromnd a woodontter binds faggots, oad Us dog 
Qes oaleap nsKr by. Onrbead, and through I^b 
opening m the wood, grey eloeds roll upon ■ 
peari^ and InminoDB liej. In all ways the pi^ 
tore IS of peeuliai interest, ubA for peifeot p(es■i^- 
votion almost UBmotefaed, It was bought at Has 
sale far. 1,160 ga., out of the oecumulatian of 
interest in hand on the Lewis find. Between H 
and tiie famous WKterinff-Piaee, preaeated to the 
QoUery by Lord Bamborough, uie wh<^ laoge 
of this great maatar in Unda»pe will be well e»- 
pieaentiM. Tke pisture will, we believe, be in its 
^sbce by the time this is in tiie hands of our 
lenders. Anothor goed pBrahoae for the oation 
wOB laode at t^e save sale, in the 4^ of a 
laadnape W the elder Otosm, lowing a wmdmill 
an a Tounded knoil of heath, whli the boricon 
hi^ agnaat the ohy. 

Bjefaard Wilaon'a Pmk> «i tike Amo followed 
tlie QtinAuK^b at tko sale, aod reolieed no )am 
a sum than I,6ftU. (Agnew)-— perhaps the higher 
^ice ever paid for a Wikeo. Tke FMemtm'* 
Return, by William OoUlas, brought the extRt- 
ordinary sum of 2,368^ lOt. The prices througb- 
oot the day wme remariabla; a large woric at 
Bir AugnatuB Oaleott'a, BvUA FiMitff-boaU rwt- 
ttmp fmii, having ietehed 1,6301, Among tb» 
most noticed woras in Ute odlection woaaOid 
laadiag a little Child metom a Broek, by B. 
Tfaenipsai, a Ko^ AMdemsGian of hk d»y. The 
figune were Hl^-vae, and tlMt of the great giri 
admirable in ottituAe and Dneahmtoniiw. Tlaaa 
work taaliaed no lees than 66U Op^s finest 
work, 7%e SiAotimulrMt—Ati old kdy Bcho<d- 
mistnss and her pupils, done, iJiey oseert, in 
emulation of Bamfanndt, and. as eome eoB- 
tend, even net y*rj far behina that mastnr 
sold fbr 767;, IQt. Amall |aetnee of Constable'B, 
Harwich Iagktiai*e,-Kid for37U. A 1k^ draw- 
ing by "Samuel Preut, Market Day at Jfo^es, 
fetched mu. lOi. A portrait of Congreve, the 
dranatist, by Sir Peter Lely, sold fbr 901. 6i. 

Of the puturee by Qainsborough, Beynoldo, 
and Bomney, the greater port were in a dete- 
riorated state. Gainsborough's portrait of John 
BebostJan Bach (?) is intereetiag both by its subject 
and its treatmeat, thoogh, as often hwpens with 
the work of this mastw, time end unkind treat- 
ment )iave injured the charm of the panting and 
exaggerated Uia greenish tones of ite half ^adowB. 
It was bought for 030;. by Ur. OravaB. The same 
Udder paid 2,620;. for &r Joshua's full-length 
portnit of the Oountees of Bellomont — not a par- I 
tieolaily fine or well-praaerved example. Of the 
three conspicuous Homneys, one, the Tetania (oi i 
the saa-ahore, originally a picture of immeaae ' 
eharm, bad been almost entir^ ruined by flaying; 
a second, the figure of lAdy Waniiitun ^g s Bac- 
chante, woa cniel^ CEaeked and daikeoed ; a third, 
the vrell-Jaiown fiffme of I^dy Hamilton, in white, 
at the spinnin^wheal, eBgraved as The Spiruter, in 
i^to of bod bitumen sradts in the curtain, lacl»> 
ground, and hair, and of a general dimness, w&a 
iMS decayed, and will be capable of recovery. It 
was bcHi^t by Laid Normantou for 808;. lOi. 
CMdrwn feedmg Pigt, by Oeoige Morhuid, 
realised 78/. Ibt. ; «n upright landaeape by Weeuix, 
signed and dated in the year 1700, 607;. ; Mare- 



ot Say.hj David Cox, 461t lOi, : 
«/, by Be Wint, 472t 10«, 



uid £olt(m 



FiUsif week tixtv^^se watet^^oloun by 
Engtee Lomy 'ware -eold at the H6tal Dnniot. 
They realiaad a totel of 18,090 francs. 

NOTSS Aim NEWS. 

The Greek Archaeolcgiool Society is at Wt 

*^ '~" '0 takedown the great Venetian tower, 

tower of Accioiulo," whicdi obetiuete 
a gleet part of the Propyltea tm the Acropolis 



JJLT 10. 18f&]- 



THE ACADEMY. 



49- 



■iT-ptooed-ai 



f« doB I— TWM im. Jnln- 1H7^ (Sea. AouMMKv 
r7, IKL) 



n sMind' pDrtTut- of- Mh frving- 
_ .. _^ 1« pofclittsd' Wr »B-. Moe«d». 

)fc Parey l%om» ift tfan- attut Mig»g«d for dm 



. ASD. Ca., the fine ait pub- 

lahen of Peicy Strtet, B&thbone Place, hara pio- 
dncsd a series of uniunallf good photogiaphs of 
Fjgljuh landsciqie'. Br. a OaOMrtng Storm over 
I^KgdaU ISkaa, thair photogisptier, Bb. Pa^e. 
JfDimigBt bas cau^t) a* t&»- title- of the piece 
iis^ii*, not on^ma {Mnnanant featurea ot the 
landMapa, but its changiiig expr«esiaD. Loufib- 
rigg, Grtamere, aiid DanBeniwater : Bommg, are 
oiia excellent Tfrnplf olaomenhatntie artistic 

We Iwre raaMnd: ftoK. Mr. WiDlaa TsKg an 
"■ingT^^" of J>qgvi(||. OMd imfMidcnwk It 'mil 
be mlBDio uLtb«muwr7: 

Ttenave of Ibe Utile TiDage ctmrchof ITptoD, 
imr QMnsbomigli, mneolssMie, havinr beconie 
nmunn, has beea for- tin most part taJEen down 
uMtiebiiflt. OBtlWKmtitHide'wa8a]daiiitwelfth- 
ctDtoiT doartnj, wHb a fiM- top under a circular 
udi. 'TUamscaKAilty lenttivndiBtoDe b^Btone, 
faTtb«|HirpoM of t«-Meetieii. In takiiif^it down 
it -KM jnaoaTeMd titst tl» Ifrwer pMir of the etone~ 
wcnk -i^^di fitted in tite andi wee made out of a 
Btmte coffin. Ibe bottom of die coffin waa placed 
eztcmD^, md tlie bidtow- part waa Uoctod wilii 
little 8toDe» taitt in lHming<-boiie fseldoD. The 
EtooB stainaM of tbe rood-Ion was also found on 
the north aide of- tbe dkancel arch, but tloB, it is 
mneb to be Mfiattad, baa not been retained in the 
new bviMing, The cbraeel haa yatto undergo the 
praceee known u reetemtion, Morethan h^the 
sootb wall ia hercu^bone worii, probeU; of the 
Nonnon time. We anderMondtbat it is proposed 
t» deetKtT tfaia iatweeting relic. Snidi a proceed- 
of would b» a eadact of Tsodaliam, which we hope 
chae IB Mithtnitj will do tbeir beet to hinder. 
"Dm wall ie in good oondltion, though eUghtlT out^ 
of the peipendioatar. A stout bottreee is bU that 
» aeedod. In raaorinffliie <dd pewe witih iriiicb 
the nave -waa oimnliered} ft ledge of oak wes 
Snod, -wMcb iBCj nmfcaiblf ' harre been the top bar 
ofabmd; on it la acred, in- cleeriy cut letters, 
the foUowing not -very iiHriligiUe inacriptioii : — 



I . aUKTrSKTM'. ISOSi 



tHBib centurj alta^tAmb to tbe ntmoiy.of aSir 
Jt^ ^^7 "'t^ bia wila AJiaa,.and beoekth it. 
an two effigi«B whiidi ■» daecribed in Black's 
iUwMfM Ott^ ^ tie SagUA Lakf, lS74,pu 
103, ■• " tiBoreeiuabnit figwee in.pkotBr of Pnm, 
which hare baoD. pboed. tkm^ m mBoary of aome 
mentbon of tbe iWvantwatei family of a former 
period." The flguree bMr no inaoriptiowii but an 
d an tttrliar eharactw than the tomb by which 
they axe now auiopi«d. Omamental wodc in 
platter, though not entir^ unkoown in Snglaud 
m the niddle egn, mastbaTe been va^ unooDunoiL 
We doubt TOTf mnflb whether t, dagio reeombent 
effigy in that ""^*^-"*i axiata< Iboea at Orae- 
ihwait« aie a«and^ not eKam^ek thereof, but of 
1 mucii commanM and maw beaDtifol Tuaterial, 
namely, ^^^'■fc aitibutK. 

Tick littie etaodt of LaintliaU Stai^, Heie- 
fMahire, is alloa* Ixr nndaigo » oarefol and 
jodkaDoa reatowtwn, Ae s^le is ddeflT Noiv- 
nao, of Tery vn^le damtter,- and 'dieie le good 
Raeon to enppoee that tlie existing bell gnUe 
tnrret fornMd pact, ot tb* odginal d im igB. The 
iuteriw baa aomo good: fiwtnreai -wlaeb. will be 

IDOf of 



pewrreo 



_ mniM. of ^. chancel soreeHh 

TiMee of painting MB to beseennot only iqnnthe 
(liatBi, but alio, upon tha. ibuw. ^u nwit h . Uib 



pariah gave its uasui to the family of Lenthall, 
two members of which attaiiied Bome eminence ; 
Sir Rowland iMoMiaU,. one- of' tlB most dietin- 
guiahed wamore at jif^acourt, who brought iuto 
the field a retinue of Hi^ht.lancerBund thirtp-threa 
aicbers; and William LenthaJE, Speeker of tha 
Long PMliemeDt, and.one ofOromwelTS pears. 

i^. imfOitetrt discovaiy i» rafftitai from losa. 
ao-baTing. taken, place in coDseqiienee of th»-qnar> 
rise of fiseetow at OaisMg, B«U:of UuU, h»Tinfi( 
been r»«[wiKd for the purpose of. lepaiitng tha 
loDA ruins. While working in theee qaacriee, 
from, which the baautiiul ooraicee uid arches- of 
the ruined buildinge wei» otigiBaUy extracted, 
some of ^a workman disooTwed in HaUi>iiAa- 
Calleaob, or Niin's CarO) drawingg of many of the 
twcimt island oroeeee, wiUl their. date& Tlie- 
cave is- about' eighty feet long, and well adapted 
for aeaommodating a lat^aoiobMof artisans- in 
tliose save^ times. It. is su}»OBed that this 
worlwbop of nature- formed th» office in, which all 
order* we«e taken, and on tbe -malls-of vhieh tbey 
were Bketcfaed. It bee always, adds- tha ^iorth 
Britit^ JUbU, which announces this- disDovery, 
been a matter of oonjeoture- from wheooe these 
onoient. mouumeots- Aod tombsbmee ceme; thaie 
ia now, of course, no longer auy doubt on the 
point, and it is said that in a. vary short time 
materiaj oould be had here to tvJjprTi Iiwlmkiil a& 
in. the dt^ of old. 

Tbb lestontion of Jedburgh Abbey, a teek 
ondertckwi by tba Marquees or Lotliian, will be a 
subject of great intereat to coimoisaeurs in chureb 
arefaiteetare. The proeeea ia- now about to be 
carried on in good eameet, the weetion of a new 
pariah church having Teodeced the ooeupation of 
the naye for public wondnp uaneoeBsaiy, 'white the 
cooH^ation of a new maose will ehortJ* eutatie tbe 
MsoiqMese to clenr away tha house whf oh at present 
oocupiee the abbey cloister. An oKHet teproduo- 
tion of' the unioue- doorwiy, a- highly-Jecorated 
piece of late Norman woi4, leading from the 
cloister to tbe south aisle of the nave, is already 
completed, and will, no doubt, find a- fitting place 
in this part of the restored buildii^. Meantunea 
complataecbwne for the immediate pre oo r va tion of 
tbe asdent walla from damp has heea devised, and 

it is 

the 

tfae-nave lukd been partitioned off to m^ie a porisH 
chwah, ae else the roof '^uch, built on a level 
with the aHl of tha olereetory, covered in this 
Boriy specimen of an arehitectur^ makeshift. 

Ar the meeting, held on June 27 at Bonn, 
of the Archaeologjcal Association of the Lower 
Rhine District, Professor aus'm Weaith gave a 
report of the resulta of the excavations which have 
been osrrisd on during the present year 'with a view 
of solving the queedan propounded by the Society 
SB to tbe direction of the Roman roads in the 
Bbinelands. The work of exploration 'wae begun 
on the line of the Roman road which led irom. 
Alsace to Oologne; and the undertaldng has 
already been so far ancocesful that, at a apot 
known as Enakirchen, the foundations of an 
entire town, laid out with perfect regularity, 
have been brought to lif^t. Tha main road, 
more than forty feet in -width, which traversed 
tiie town through its -whole length, hee been 
clearly traced, toffether with the lines of houses 
and buildings ol various idnds which appear to 
have bordered it on either side, as m^ be seen 
at Pompeii ; and here, as in the (jamponian 
city, narrower streets intersected the principal 
thorongh&ie and divided tbe dif into distinct 
quBrtere. 

Thb BvUdmrai last Satuda^ (;Jnly.3).oonbnns 
a very interseting bird's-eve view, ot London, 
drs'wn.in accordance w^th Sir Oiuntnpher Wren's 
Bchema for. the rehailding of the- oity' afiar the 
flw^- W^a-are-all ^^iliar with *-h** original nj^^h 
but.this Bicbiteatiual pcojeotiDn ginee us- a. better 
notion of what London would have been had the 
gie«t.BnBhitect.beMLBllowedbiaowDinr. Wixb 



proceed 
buildin, 



propewd to builA. main thareugUaiea nostb and. 
south, and east and. went.; to, insulate all the 
churches in ooaejucuoua-poMiituwf to, fom the 
most, public places- into Isr^ piufiaas to unite tits- 
haUs-oftbe twolve chief i eoutpaiii»giiinto on»wgutar 
aqusK' amwxed lo Guildhall; and,.to mafcekfiiie- 

Sy. OS the hank of. the river from BlacbtriarSito; 
Tower. Hia streeta warn to b» of litree ma^ 
nitudesf-90 feet^ 60 fset, and 30 feet -mdeiMpao? 
tiveiy. Tha whole ama of the city vms- to h» 
levelled, and .blind aUcrfii inferior TmiHingW; grare- 
yards ixiA noxious tmdea were to be excluded. 
■' The Exchange 'was to stand free in the middle of 
a piaxza^and to be e*4t were tha centre of the-town, 
the 60.feet streets as so many rays should. 
wu to all the principal parts of the lalcj, the 
lings to be contraved ^ter tbe form, of the 
BoQMn Pomm-with douUs portiaofc" St^ Paul's 
the narrow end of a- vndgn 
if kt streets ftsoa Ludgato 
and'inaw 
idge. Tbe 
cuiei aavaoiases oi' me- pian weis me opening np 
of theee noble avnniee, th» pnrifiostioir of the 
Fleet river, and tbe embankment of the Thames. 
It is generally supposed that nothing 'was done in, 
furtherance of this plan, but from passagee in 
Pepys' Diary it appears that some progrees 'was 
macb wMt it, until in tbe end tha nhola stdiama 
wns-upaetby-tiiepenenMHHof'thecitiieM. Ok 
one ocoeMon P^ys waa tokl< fay Mr, Maiy that tbr 
deaieu of binl^ng the ctt^ wenton apBea,and'" byi 
his oesemAionitwillbeini^ty fine)" and sometime- 
oaaowanu- he wrote. "The ^nat stoeet* in tha- 
atj aw- marked' out 'with' pilea drove into the.- 
grrand^ aad if ever'it'be builb in that fonn wttb- 
so fuc' streets it will be a>. aoMe aahk" l%a- 
antbor of tbe AtranteiM writee: "The joastk- 
aUUty of this scheme wtthoat lose to any maoi 



was, u) Bmua use un oarnnv ena oi i 
fonned by tb» two sttaigbt atreete ftsoa 
to Aldgsta and Ibwer Hill rsepeeti»dk-, as 
streets- were to radiate A«m London B9id% 



fully weiglKd and answend." Jt is usual to 
damn tike citizeoa and to regret the iKUMulopHtno 
ot Wren^B plan ; but sonwthinft may be uig«d on- 
the other aide. In the first {daoe, although in- 
Oharlea tha Second's reign London had laigaly 
ovemm its ancient limits, and showed soma signs. 
of ita present vastnaaB, yet the old tvaUs wets re- 
tained by Wren, and the rebuilding 'waa only ooi»- 
udered mth remeet- to the- Oity itse^. No pre-- 
putfion waa made for mom bsidge*, and th* quays 
nem BIsokfliara'to tte Tower 'vmnld h«T« affiotded' 
bnt IHtla &oility, f«r tJK> growth of that eommeroe 
which has mads IkmdMi the port of the worUL 
It is tharsfere open to qnestuin whether a tat^ 
laid out on this unifom plea, iiith little ptovi-- 
sion fosany but the rioi^ would have grown, with- 
out seme modifiBStionf into itha London of to-day, 
It-ie ajremadmbk ft«t thatwithin a few d&ya of 
the OreafrKre three ssnral plans weiB pMeuited> 
to tbe King Uit die rcbuiUing of the Oit^— one 
by Wtmi, another by- Bralyn, and a third by 
BobertHooba. Brelyn ia a- letter to Shr Samuel 
Tuke writes: "DnWioo got tJieatert of ma," 
bat " botli of us did ctuncide so Ire^iently that 
hia Majesty waa not displeased." His plan in* 
inolodad aeveial piaseaa-or various slBpee, oneo^ 
which formed an oval with St, Paul's in liie 
centre. It diSered &om Wren's chiefly in pso- 
posing a street from the church of St. Dunstan's 
in the EJsst to the Cathedral, and in having no 
quay or teizace along theriver. He wished, how> 
ever, to employ the rubbish he obtained by levd? 
ling tha streeta for filling up tha shore of the 
Tluniss-to low watermark ao as to keep the bswn 
alweye fuU. He wished also to piaca thft Dew) 
for the Sxchanga at tjjMenhithe, instead 



jnopcsed by Wren. Althouc 
were eaaied out, Wrsuand.HooHa wm> ouiia^u* 
pitted in aoangijog for- the- rebuilding of the Oi^ 
on thSf old lines. 

TUK SociSt* de I'HjstoiTB de I'Art Frsn^ has 
published in its last volume of ifoaedia Atv^het 
an important i 



60 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jolt 10, 1875. 



Among other letters ia one from the redoubtable 
&^Tuii Hirtehal of the JUonntein, denurading ao- 
tilfltotion for having had the inimiaiu epithet of 
" kriatocnt " applied to him bj David. The latter 
ia m> duncteriatic that we give it in &11. It waa 
fbnnd in David'a honw hy tbe coDunisBion chaifred 
iritfa matiiy inTentoriea of the papers of Bobee- 
j^raie and his partdtatis, and must therefore have 
Men writleii befi»e the 9Ui Thermidor : — 

"A BaTid, cy dBr&nt peiatrs du Boi, Bi^omd'hai 
Eeprfgontant dn Penplt^— Jo CMjais qn'il nV awt 
poiDt de calomnlateur inr la Moatagna. Hier 20 
sttU 4 neuf henree du sair, tn m'as injuria pub- 
liqusmsnt so pleine OoDTeotion. Tu mu appeU 
ksiBTOcaiT. On fa mal intbrmi. 8ais-ta cs que 
tfert qn'nn ariatocrat ? Ceet par aiemple un artiste 
(alt-il pcHDt lea Horaeea, Bntna, Socrata) qui ■ mia 
jadia Boa talent anx gagea d'nc mi. Oomma toi je 
n'ai jamaia ilk d'nae acadimie prot^g^ par no roi ; 
«omme moi tu n'as jamaui ^t^ honoi^ da la haCne dea 
roia, dea nuaiitret, doa putsmeni et Aea prStrea. 
TitaiB patriote nvaat toi. Plua qua toi jo auis ri- 

Kblicain, car je la aaiB avec coDnaiasance de cause. 
. me doia tine T^paratioD ; jo te la demaade ; jo 
I'attenda Si^i : Sylvuh UaB^CEiL, da la Biblio- 
thiqao Haaanne." 

Tm Mar-June nnmber of the Tidtkrift for 
BUdatide Kotvt och Kmutindiatri — the Scandina- 
viaa Qaxttte det Btaux-Artt — a verj good fine- 
art periodical edited bj five profeeson from the 
five vniveiaitiea of Upsala, Lund, Ohriatiania, 
HeMngfon, and CopenQageD, cout^ia two etch- 
VDga b;' Leopold Lowenatam ftom piotnrea of 
Hobbema and Ruyadael, the aecond exceedingly 
clever in its characteriaaldon of sndden lighte on 
a landscape under a windy, cloudy skv. The other 
illuBtration is irom a drawing by Oount Q. von 
Boaen, the young Swedish pointer who has aud- 
denly taken a ibremoat rank among the artasta of 
the North. Tbia design, full of a sad poetic 
momenloDBiMes, representa a young painter who 
blls asleep befine hia eaael, worn out in the vain 
endeavour to repruent his ideaL Behind him 
Death itanda gnmly satisfied, watching the last 
landa honr down the houivglase. The character 
• of the deaign racalla Holbein and Rethel, but the 
figure of the young man has a realiatic originality 
that ia at the same time beautiful and startling. 
We lum that a portrait of the Eii^ of Sweden 
by Oount von Boaen ia by fhr the beat work in 
t£is year's Ezliibition at Stockholm, and there 
Kems reason to hope tliat Sweden has at last 
found in him a puntar of a reallv high class. To 
i«tuni to the Tidtkrifi, Dr. Scholander ibetches 
the conditdoQ of art throughout Europe in 1674, 
and ia rather scornful of us English for raving 
about Miss Thompson. Harr L. B. Stanesaen 
discusses the queation about the origin and 
destination of uie Venus of Uilo with acumen 
and learning ; and there is an obituary jiapar on 
Ludvig Rubni, President of the Swedish Aca- 
demy of Arts, and a prominent engraver, who 
died on March 31 last at the age of fifty-seven. 
Xhis magazine ia conducted with great taste and 
spirit, and we heartily wish its five editors all 

The An nxial Exhibition of the Roval Danish 
Academy is now open at Charlottenberg. The 
Danish ptunter Oarl Bloch haa made a ^rreat sensa- 
tion by a striking picture repiesenting Christ 
driving the money-changers out of the Temple. 

A ooLOsSAi^ piece of sculpture representing the 
Cmciflxion i a to be set up this autumn in the 
village of Oberammergau. The acnlptnre haa 
been executed hy Profeesor Haling, of Munich, aa 
a commission mim bis Majesty the King of 
Bavaria, and is said to be a grand and impreeaive 



to grsst (it weighs 26,000 kilogrammes) that ordi- 
nary meaoi are insufficient for its nfa conveyance. 



THB 8TAOS. 



lEVtBO Dt 

It was suitable that on the oceamon of his benefits 
at the Lyceum, on fYiday and Satnrdsy in last 
week^ Mr. Irving should return to that character 
of Bichelleu in which alone before the recent two 
hundred appearancea in Srnnkt he had challenged 
comparison vrith brother sctors of repute, and 
caused the older plajrgoers among us U> test their 
present impresmona of hie power by the light of 
their earlier memories. For Mr. Irving was pro- 
bably lees satisfied — at all events the public was — 
with his previous performancee in JbcAtjMu than 
with any of bis performances in parts which he 
has himself creatsd. In Bichelien, of old, he had 
been most unequal, and if his representation of 
the Oaidinal waa the first to absolutely prove the 
actor's mental grasp of character, it was also con- 
apicuoufi in proving either the lack or the mistaken 
use of physical means. Mr. Irving'a Bichelien in 
1878 was, to begin with, admirably conceived, 
and it waa fiill of fine moments and aubtle touches. 
But it was marred not only by mannerism peculiar 
to Mr. Irving, but by two or three exhibitions 
which, (ailing to be sublime, toudied the ridicu- 
lous. There were instants when the great Cardi- 
nal raved like an angry washer-wife. He may, in 
literal truth, in life, have done so ; but on the 
stage we have not to do with literal truth 
so much aa with artistic likelihood. In all art 
there is one thing more important than literal 
truth — harmony. 

WsU, then, in 1875, Mr. Irving'a Eiehelieu 
ia changed and bettered. We will not say that 
he never lavea excessively, but he raves less. 
He brings the repressntation into accordance 
with his physical means, and it guns in dignity. 
In the earlier performances people justly admii«d 
the splendid exdtemeut which sbned the aged 
figure sending Fran9ois forth from the Cabinet; 
the unbridled eagemeea : the appeal to the young 
man — half a threat, and half a wiaer and more 
genial aneontagement. And these we may ad- 
mire still, and add to them a new interest in 
scenes in which the actor was of old deficient, 
through very excess of efibrt — the scene for in- 
stance in which the Cardinal throws round Julie 
the protecting circle of the Church. 

But I thii^ it is in the first act of Bichelieu 
that Mr. Irving is most likely to satisfy even 
those few who for the moat part are strangely 
blind to hia power. The act, though quite a 
marvel of dramatic construction — going far to 
make the piece what its strongest admirers say it 
is, " the Mat acting play of the generation — 
does not afibrd the actor a single opportunity for 
very sudden and effective change : bursts of power 
for which a performance is remnnbered. But it 
doea afford opportunity for aubtle change — and 
that conatautiy : n^, it does not " afibrd oppor- 
tunity : " it demands thia change as a condition of 
success. And it is because Mr. Irving is equal to 
the full to the claims of the demand, uiat we 
reckon hia performance in this act one of the finest 
efforts and achievements on the contemporair 
stage — English or French. It is entirely austained. 
An actor of less varied power, an actor of more 
limited range, must somewhere have broken down: 
somewhere or other been inadequate : somewhere 
or other have at least so far &iled that your 
imagination went beyond the thing done, and 
that you aaw possilnlities in the text beyond his 
accompliahment But with Mr. Irving, in thia 
act, it ia not so. His own performance, in ex- 
pression, gesture, tone, bv-play, is shvays well 
abreastwidiyour imagination, even when dramatist 
and actor cause thia to be most vivid. 

I said, this act is a marvel of dramatie con- 
atruction. Follow it a little, and yon vrill aee 
that, together with the varied power of the actor, 
who can adequately represent it. It deals with 
Bichelieu chiefiy in intimate life, touching only so 
far upon affairs of State as may serve to prepare 
the way tot that central dramatic action wnicn is 



tofoUow; the story of De Manpiat'a schemes bwag 
admirablj voven mto that of his love fbr the Oai 



dinal'iward. And so before 



i:jL ./nl. 



nsets which 



are to follow, the outward lifo of Richelieu aa hia 
actions afiect Faaoe, too are to see here somo- 
thing of his inner Ufe, sad are to know what 
secret aprii^ move the greater machinery. And 
of all this complex inner life Hr. Irving hss made 
himself the master; the strange minghng of aims 
and desires: the care for his ward, diluted into 
merejgood nature towards her lover; the stronger 
care for France ; the strongest, perhaps, for him- 
self: the unessy life, now with an enemy who 
may threaten death at a moment — always though 
widi an armed soldier, during such interview, 
behind the sorean^ow with a girl who is the 
enemy's lover; now pardoning, now conunanding. 
now looking at moments cymcal, at moments h^ 
envious, upon young bves with which he has for 
ever done ; now turning to that tiuest life of bis, 
the whim of hia age — the verses which his con- 
fidant deems execrable, but which are sweet to 
biro because they alone are not the necessary 
task-work to keep what ambition has already 
won, but the first steps in a new ambition 
safe perhaps &om the chances of material things. 
And so it IS a picture of many aides of Richelieu's 
liie, in his old age, which I^id Lytton outUb'ea 
and Ur. Irving fills up ; and it is Uie actor's ad- 
mirable work upon the lines laid down by the 
dramatist that interests you entirely in the cha- 
racter, makes you sympathise with his fortunes, 
good or bad— prepares you in fact to follow, 
with mind attuned, the central action of the piece. 
If the artists acting with Mr. Irving could get 
a little of the naturalness and sewning intense 
reality of his plav, the representation — should it 
be repeated — would undoubtedly gain. Confining 
onesuf to those who play in the first act, one 
might remind the representative of Marion de 
Lorme that in life when a woman hears words she 
is not meant to hear, she avoids such exaggerated 
gsaturea of listening as would make it very evident 
that she had heard and waa still hearing. She 
listsns naturally: not theatrically, in fine; and if 
anything reflects the importance of the disclosure, 
it ia her fsce, and not her arms. One might 
remind the representative of De Mauprat that, 
though that hero is reported in the drama to have 
gone to what he thought was death with some 
manliness, he probablv cud not go with much of 
jaunty alacrity. And even the graceful and in- 
telligent representative of Julie might be besought 
to avoid certain attitudes of imploring which are 
more novel than natural Misa Bateman losu 
herself in strong scenes when those scenee have to 
be passionate as well as pathetic. At the end of 
Chia-ltf the Firii, she found accente and an in- 
tonation that moved the audience leeitimatelv. 
She is at her best, because least strained, throiurh- 
out the whole of FAiitp. But in BicAelituher 
emotional psssa^ are wanting in truth: her 
passion not passion itself artfully simulated, but a 
mere st^ symbol of it, to be accepted by you as 
the symbol and not the thing, 

A word of postscript may touch briefly on « 
morning performance given last Monday in a 
studio in Sloane Street, excellentiy arranged for 
the purpose, and filled, as one had occasion to 
notice, with judges more caiefiilly appreciative 
than those whose critical remarks one is privileged 
to hear in the stalls of some of our theatres. Aa 
a guinea was the price marked on one's ticket, 
ss the little house neld no pit — the right place 
generally for the fiiesh air of criticism — one went 
expectiiu: perhaps not very much. A quickly 
organised com pany of foreign artists had assembled 
to give us of their best. One of them uaade 
shundant moaic : — 

" Over this sample would CorelU croon, 
Grieving, by minors, like the ensha^ovc^ 
Most duloet Oiga, dzsamieat Saraband." 
Others aang and excellently, hut it was the ■ 
dramatic portion of the programme that had par- 
baps the greatest interest, and this because it in- 



JlItT 10, 18?5.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



61 



e of those cbarniiiig' sceses for two per- 
ommon on tha French stage, so nm on 
— wenee which tax to tha utmost an 
actor's art. The little comedj is called Au Pied 
da Mvr — it is bj M. de Najfto — and relates how 
a wise young man comii^ to one rendezvous, wss 
minded to stay for another, and that not with the 
penon sought in the fint pl^ce. A. story alight 
but ingenious— easy to spoil in the telling : easy 
too to spoil in the actiiu;' ; but on this occasion 
charmingly playod. M. ffilhaut — whom some 
leadetB will lemember on the French stage, in 
public, here, and others will remember m an 
efficient wsietuit of Mdlle. DaUporte — was ez~ 
cellently fitted, by ease and quiet humour, 
for the inconstant Tristan of the comedy; 
-while as Gabrieile, the school girl, Mdlle. Camiile 
made the most of her opportuoities of showing 
some admirable gifts for the theatre. Long unce, 
as Facfan Benoiton, in the famous comedy, a child 
found herself famous, at seven years old. That is 
not generally a benefit ; but taking anew to the 
stage, Mdlle. Oamille has the advantage of a very 
rare union of &eahnesa and freedom. She grasps 
the whole meaning- of her part with tborou^ 
comprehension. She delivers cconmon talk with 



Ta£ speeches at the dinner of the Theatrical Fund 
on ThuiBday in last week were all of them to the 
purpose, andif none were actually brilliact, all were 
mteresting. Mr. Bnckatone vouctuafed much in- 
formation, and Mr. Irving, pleading for the cause 
which had brought them ti^ether, uttered a good- 
humoured apology for the frequent impecunio^ty 
of the actor, -whose ideal life with dukes and 
MttgB and Hpirita of the air was not conducive to 
the practical virtues of " the third class under- 
gronnd " — nay, indeed, led him sometimes to think 
little about money. Of course anyone verv 
seriously disposed might have joined issue -witd 
Mr. Irrmg, and elect«l to show the economy qt 
actors and the entire regularity of life induced in 
part by the absorbing nature of the work, and in 
part by the mere mechanical influence of engage- 
ments to be filled duly at certain hours without 
fail. But no one did so, and Mr. Irving was 
doubtless q-uite right in showing for once— and in 
the cause of charity — the other side of the shield, 
and in claiming for acton i^ieciaJ temptations, 
instead of transcendent virtues. 

Satitbjiat was the Dramatic Fete at the 
Alexandra Palace. For some years the fSte has 
been discontinued, but ita reanmption at the new 
meeting place in the northern suburb, whether 
wise or not, was pwular; and on Saturday the 
profession l^t ita ua, from Signer Salvini -with a 
recitation, to the young women with nothing in 



from modem ,can^edies and comic pieces, and these 
■were well attended ; while outmde, a larger 
amount of social freedom was obsOTved to reign, 

Mb. iRvmo -was to read, for charity, on Thur»- 
day, at Groevenor House, and yesterday at Dover. 
Be will read at the Orystal Palace one day next 

AsFiRiSQ tragedians of both sexes are not 
deterred by miosummer Aom laborious efforts. 
Indeed they appear to be encouraged. A young 
tragic actor, at the Alexandra Theatre, Pai£ 
Street, Regent's Padc, is endeavouriuff to arouse 
Oamdeu Town to a sense of the beauties of 
OtAeiio ; while Miss Lottie Wihnot, at the Olobe, 
in Newcastle Street, is seeking to make cent^ 
ILiOtidoners yet more &miliar with the sorrows of 
Lord Lytton's Pauline. In neither case is the 
effort of eoffident importance to call iot detailed 



Thx Oonrt Theatn closes ita doors at the end 
of tho month, Mr. Hare's company going into the 



provinces and taUiw with tbem the laoeefffiil 
play, A Sine Dai/f Wonder. They will first 
appear at Manchester and Liverpool, and on their 
return to town, when autumn is weU set in, they 
win reappear in A Nina Day^ Wonder on the 
boaids where it was produced a month ago. 

SieKOB SALTiKi'e benefit was amused to take 
place last night, at Druiy I«ne. 



was arranpd to take place at the Lyceum Theatre 
on Thursday afternoon, too late for notice in our 
present impression. The programme included the 
comedietta, L' Autre Mottf, in which Mdlle. Dela- 
porte was to play the principal character — that 



Mdme. Trebelliwere to sing; the second act 
Madame Angol, and a recitation of veisea, -Rim. 
7'ouf oofs, just written for a like occasion at the 
Th^tre Franks by M. Henri de Bomier, the 
author of La FUli A Sotand. 

M. Mabio Widheb has arrived in England, 
and now gives every night at the Oriterion Theatre 
the additional attraction of his presence in La 
Fiiie de Madame Angot. 

M. ArExuTDBX BmcAB is at work on a new 
comedy for the Th£itre FEan9ais, which having 
had BO deeded a success with his Demi-Monde, 
is now about to introduce into its repertory La 
Dame aux OamiUtu. Of the comedy on which 
the author of the Demi-Montle is now engaged, 
a well-informed correspondent writes in Le 

" C'est QDO esp^ da coDtrepartie da ca mime 
Demi-Afonde, dont Aleiaodre Dumas roule le projet 
dfpuis trois OQ quatre ans dann sa t^ta. D veut 
peindra le travail BQatarrain des fsmmes de cctt« soite 
dana notm soeiAti modsms, lee montrer taaant las flla 
de la politique, de la Bourse, se rjpaadant par sdlle 
infiltratioDB secretes dam In vie bourgeoisa coatam- 
poraiae. VoilA qui est curieux, et la type ds femme 
que DuEoas a c6vi de mettre i In Kkne est fort eonna ; 
il a'eat pu on Pariaien qai ne puisae lui donnar on 

MM. HiPFOLiTB Batuonii akv Julbs OtnXLB- 
irorhave juat read to the company at the Oymnase 
a three-act comedy to be called Le Mwion de 
Motuieur Poniard. The cast does not promise to 
be a strong one, 

MsMR. JuBic is going to recite to-morrow, at 
the Paris Vaudeville, a scene in verse written for 
her by M. Albert Delpit, the author of Jeon-nu- 
pied* — a drama long m preparation at the same 
theatre, but whose production is delayed by the 
unexpected success of the funny trifle called Le 
Procit Veauradieux. 

Oabtier le Monde is the title of a bouflbnnerie 
produced very recently at the Th^tre des Folies 
Dramatiques. It is an old-fashioned triiSe, of the 
manufacture of which the Folies Dramatiques is 
asserted to have possessed . the secret from time 



Thb Palais Eoyal's lost piece — Id, Midor.'—ie 
not likely to rival Meilhac and Hal^vy's Bouie in 
popular success, nor does it appear to deserve to 
do so, The subject is not new, and the treat- 
ment not very bright 

M. Sabcet is this week prodigal of counsels to 
Mdlle. Bernhardt as to certain cnanges which are 
desirable in that performance of Fhlidre, which, on 
the whole, M. Sarcey reckons as the actress's 
greatest achievement, but in which she is too 
constantiy pursued by the deaire to outdo Bschel 
in effects which were Rachel's own. For the 
expression of terrible enei^ and passion, Bachel, 
albeit &ail in appearance, had jihysicel means 
lacking to Mdlle. Bernhardt and if at such and 
such a scehe she could excite the audience beyond 
bounds, it does not at all follow that, to be buo- 
oessful in the character, the younger artist must 
do the same, 'f It is more than probable," wiitea 



H. Saroey, " that Badiel never said the "hwiniiig 
" ' Tons lea jours as levaient clairs et menus pour 



itii that incomparable grace of poetic taelao- 
choly given to it by Mcfile. Bernhardt Why 



rible power of intonation that ward had when 
it was Rachel who said it F " And M. Sucey 
persistB in these suggestions because old amateurs 
declare that the younger actress is able in the 
earlier acts to efiace the memory of Rachel ; and 
he will not believe she will eondnue to spoil the 
efiect of her work by a m'ftakftn treftUueut of the 
later ads. 



At the risk of appearing alwaya to dwell upon 
the same subject, it is really uo more »■>■«" a 
simrie act of justice to return week by week to 
the French opemtio performaiMeB at the Gaiety of 
which we have already repeatedly ipdmn; because 
no such highly finished rendennn of the beat 
works of the tWch school have bseB baud for 
many years in London. Takii^ them one by one, 
DO doubt many finer sinmra have bean beard than 
the la^er number of the troupe ; then are not 
more than four or five at moat whom one would 
consider vocalists of the first ranli^, but, on the 
other hand, there is not one who cannot "ng his 
or her part at least correctly, jf with no great 
voice, and without a single esceptian they act 
channinoily, while the auembie is simply perfec- 
tion. The result is that these opens are a br 
greater musical treat than those too frequently 
seen in which one or two bright particular stars 
^ipear, and all the reet of the oompany are thrown 
into the bac^round. Of all the vrorks as yet 
produced at the Gaiety there has been none in 
which the comwiny has appeared to greatw advan- 
tage than in Fra IHaoolo, performed for the firat 
time on Thursday vreek, and repeated on various 
occasions sinoe. Both mosic and plot of thil 
maatarpiece of wwiic opera are too well known to 
need comment here ; it only remains to speak of 
its interyreUtion. The psit of Fra Biavolo was 
susbuited by M. ToumiS, who both in «nginjr ^nd 
acting left nothing to desire except a little 
less of the nbrato which seems inseparable 
from the French style of singing. TboK is 
hardly a member of this company who is not 
afflicted with it to a greater or lew extent ; and 
the only thing to do is to accept the ineviUble. 
With this reeervation we have notiiing but praise 
for M. ToumiS, who in his chief soloa (the Bar- 
carolle in the second act, and the great air which 
opmis the third act) sang very finely, while his 
acting throughout was masterly. As Lorenio M. 
Barbet proved himsetf a meet useful second tenor, 
his only important solo " Pour todoura, disdt 
elle " being extwmely well given. St. Bor&, a 
most admirable comedian, made great fun out of 
the part of the English nobleman Lord Kock- 
bourg (a most un-^glish looking name, by the 
way), while his wife was capitally played by 
Mdlle. de Vaure, who, thongh no great ainger, u 
an excellent actress. H. Joinnisse, one of the 
moat finished actors of the company, -was the inn- 
keeper Matheo, and the two brigands, Qiacomo 
and Beppo, were represented by MM. Sujol and 
PreyB. It would be eaay to write a column on 
the impersonation of these two gentlemen, who 
showed how genuine artists can make much out 
of small parts. Their make-i^ was most admir- 
able; two more irreclaimable-looking scoundrel* 
have probably never been seen on the stage. The 
contrast, too, of their acting, the one as a bully 
and the other as a sneak, was well sustained: 
while in the third act, m which Hun get drunk 
and betray themselves, their caricature of Zerlina's 
gestures before the looking-glass in the second 



6S 



THJJ AGAniEIIfr. 



[JosT W, 1873. 



ant WM BO xDeMtdU^ drall thtt oo' Um aish^ fn 
wen there the aodieuce insisted on an oncoMi 
In the last finale too, the acting of M. Preys 
WBS inimitable -, the ludicrouB mixture of the 
IF with mperatition, when Beppo 

■ "rpatra ' 

___ _.. «tiav« 

tin lut (1h arifaiftof HdUeJtfM7MbMt,a8 bomg 
one of tho most important fwUiiM in the po- 
* *" -" — " '"'^ — — -•— ~-™ung lady has per- 

1 advantage in any 



» ha*dl7lM«n s 



. .... .. I and mdloTT qu^Hy of 

ISmei Htddi'i, bting nithei-nieMIlc and incisive ; 
and bwMlting ftom first to last wn perfeet, If 
(MM part- oatt be ntentioned as espectaUy good 
where all was bo ezcsllont, it must be the bed- 
room scene in the aecond act, where she admires 
herself before the glaw and unge — 
'^Ooi, ToilA poor nne snranU 
[Umltaille qui n'stt pas tool ''^— 



*. Kin* were moM aatiB&ctory, and 
tae otMnnuiK- o w Jta etral aaeompaa d menta were 
[dOT«d' witii OB atmuat finiab. 

On Tneaday laat- Victor Ussae'a. &aiaafe waa 
gnen. Thi* opet» i* fonnded on tbe well-known 
«iMiieal' ator; ot Pygmalion and Gfdatsa. As a 
gHwral mle n^dMi^oal sabjeota do not tkppe^ 
nmch to tfae h«Mar; aitd tboggfa tte libretto of 
M; Manai'fi lamk^ i^eh is t^ flBtC Barbier annl 
CIib4, is itKttaat being a had one, the choice cair 
aeaiceW bftoalbd happy. A« a whole tjie mnsic 
ia hardly einial to tm same oonrposer'fl iVbot* d» 
J mmnt tU ; luU aome of the nomtnn, eepecially 
tli» tno sndi quartette in 'Uie aeeond act, an 
dazming; tiw performance' was ma^ed by 
tint genaiBl fimsh which seems- b1w»b to 
danctansa Uis French contpaay. Mdme. 
Naddi waa ecoallent sb Qalath^, eepeeially in 
tlte SMOM lAere Hie statne on oomiiig to lifb first 
makaa Tiokat kre to her- owner's handsome 
jtsBig man mrrapt, sad t&en t^cea decidedly 
lacve wine Hun is good for her, and misbehaTee 
bOMlf gaaeiatty, tm Pygmalion eameetdy pmys 
Tanis to teiton bw to her fbimar state. The 
petta of ^igmalioD, GanymUe, and Mydaa tveis 
yvry ^cisotly •ostatned by B liwi s. Martin, 
Banet, and Boris, and Ute work-was ammmced' 
for repatitaan Uat nigbt. This enniiqf' Adam's 
PattiUiM d» ZtH^'taMow ia amioimced, the prm- 
<npal part io whidi is to be taken by U. TauimS, 
and we undanaad that next week will be the 
laat of tlw prsaeot series of perfbrmancea. All 
loma of good nmsic who have not yet done so 
elnmld tsike tbeof^ortnnity of seeing tiiis com- 
pany before it lewree L(»don ; to diose yrho bsve 
already dona se no resommendatioB on oar port 
will be naedfisL 

1 Pbodt, 



T^eighth andlaatconeerbof UtfrPUlhacmonia 
Sodetv KIT the pieauit aeaaon took jriMeatiSt. 
JamGe's H&U laat Monday eTaning^ Tbe moat 
impOTtant Jeattue was the lesfipeantDaa in LoBdoit 
of HeiT "WiemawBld, who nnnmn to hwe retunwd 
to OS playing aa finely as dniing hia fivnMr Tint 
With the exception of a abort "IdyU," composed 
f<» the Society by Prafenof Mjaeteen in mfmory 
of the iMe Sir Stantdala-Beonett, and which, ^ a 
jHkt (TocoMMN, calla for no spei^ notjoa, t^ 
loogrammfi consisted of wdl-uiown works, tii» 
OTmphoniea being Htfdu in E flat. (No. 10 of tina 
''Salomon eef^ and Bastiwrea in nuDor, and 
tike concert concludisfb aaomdiw to tba oootom 
of the Sociel^, — ifh Wthiir'n " TJihikn" orart ur e. 
s Don coiDfd«ted haa been o 
the Philhaimonic npntaciai 



noticed at the tima in. thinn at 



t, htm- too ireqiwnUy suffered from 
ondue length. 

Thb third seriee of tbe National Music Meet- 
ings, which dorinff the past week has taken place 
at the Orystal Palace, requires no detailed men- 
tion, simply heCBUBB its artistdc results seem to be 



solo singers there haa been but little brisk oom- 
pedtion, and some of the more important classes 
were not representsd at alL MoteoTer, although 
tbe avera^ solo-sioging of the Taiious candidates 
was certamly superior to that of previous years, 
the experience of past meetings is not such as to 
justify any very aano^uine anticipations as to the 
present one. On looMn^ through the list of priise- 
winners in 1872 and 1873, we find some who have 
taken a creditaUe position in the profesBion, hut 
none who have achieved really hign distinction, 
while others have not been heeid of since. The 

Chable esplanstion cf this seems to be that tbe 
t claas of yonttg artists would decline to com- 
pete at alL It is at least certain that a singer of 
sufficient ability will sooner or later make a 
position without such adventitious aid; while 
it has been clearly shown that the mwe hct of 
gaining a prize at tiieee meetinge is not by itself 
enough to establish the repatation of a yonng 
artist. As the meetings an still in progress at 
the time of our going to press, we shall poetpona 
to next iroek tbe list of prize-winners. The iew 
remarks we have made will anfficientiy explain 
ooi reason tea not entwing into fnllar detaila 

As fumiahing a pActical maslzation of tbe 
opinions expressed in tbe above para^ph, we 
have to record thsiUbuiof a very pro mismg young 
lUDger, Mr. Barton McOuckin, at the Urjst^ 
Puace onMonday last This event took.place, not 
at the National Muaic MeetiDga, but at a Ballad 
Ooncert given on the i " 

Eete." Mr. McGucldn 
bw of tbe choir of St. Fail's Cathedral^ Dublin, 
and is the possessor of a t«iov voice of very 
plaauig quoli^ sod conaideraUe power. In- the 
soBga " In native worth " (CrmtMn), and " ThMv 
is a fiower that hloometh " (Mariianii), he showed 
good training and cunstdeinUe taste and feeling. 
He can hai^v, nsveithelsee, be at present con- 
sidered a finished artist, his pnuiuneiation being 
not al^rays &altlees; but he has such good natui^ 
powers that if he would [tut himself for a short 
time under fiist-tate truning ha would probably 
take a good podtion among our tenor singers. 

Tbk competition for the Prix de Rome at tie 
Paris Oonservat^iite took place on tbe 2nd and 3rd 
inst. There were six candidates, and the first 
prtM was awarded to M. Wormser, a pupil of 
M. Bazin. No second prize was given, but M. 
Dntaoq, a pupil of M. Raber, obtai^d hononraUe 
mention. 

A UBOB niimhei of peribrmanoes, both thea- 
trical and musical, have Dean given in Paris for 
tbe benefit of the sufferers from the recent inunr 
dations. This afternoon the French Company at 
the Qaiety Theatre will give a grand performance 
. for the same object. 

Tbe JZnma et Gaattte Muticah contradicts the 
news which recentiy appeared in seveml papeta to 
the efiect that the SomSM dee Oonoerts du Oan~ 
servatoire has obtained certain nunoscripts and 
unknown works by Auber, and intends to psrform 
them. The itanus says that the statement is an- 
tiiely without foundation. 

Spoirujii's most &mons and beet opera. La 
Vetialt, baa been lately revived with aaccees at 
Brunswick. 

Hbbb Iauit^, tiie tiieatrical direetcff at Vienna, 
.contamplateapsrfbnaing 8opho<dee' Antifaiu and 
. OMdi p im at Ooiano; -with Mendelssohn's moaic. 
''- ' ■ moAj aa posnUe to 

the choras wUl be 



A nomA^OT of the author of tbe Dam 
Btancka by I£ H. de I^annberg is pnbliihtd 
by Eknlaid nnder tbe titie of Le Cnlaun 
da BaitUitm. H. de- Tltannberp is an ardent 
eulog^ of this oomposerj "iriioni, oy the way, !» 
salutee by tbe nov^ title of Qlualaait, and gin 
much intereeting inibrmation regarding Mtw . 1^ 
following Koecdote is worth quoting : Boiddies 
had dunng his sojouni in Buseia compond 
f^Dntses for Atkalit. " These chonues," says Ids 
biograplm, " produced such an ^eet and cim> 
tained such great beauties tbat a celehnted 
Prench tragic actrees, Mdlle. Georges, theo ■per- 
forming in Russia, ceased to play the princiial 
part, and would never take it up again ^nxtam 



then: 






until after the death of Boteldien, in 
188B, that at an eztraonUnuy repressntatioB of 
Racine's msaterpiece, given at tiie Th^tre fian- 

S's, theae ohornses became known to the 
risian pnldio." 



TOSTSCmPT. 

Ai the meeting of tba Royal HorticuJlnil 
Sooety on Wednesday laat Atr. Wortbiagtn 
Smith umounced the discovery of the reitiif 
spore and antheridium of tbe potato fungie-i 
diaoovny ^rtnch will, it is hoped, prove ofik 
first importance with reference to the histrar d 
this peat. 

BToB Gaographieal 3Iagam» for July gim iti 
raadeiB an abstract of Oaptain Na^iiar'ssccaiuiiiJ 
his recent travels. iaNorthemPemia. A''Tuddiii 
Account of Yemen " deserves notice for th« &a 
stated therein that the Porte has calmly isdndd 
Aden in an official list of tbe Tuxkbh posseana 
iu Western Arabia I Two maps of a poftion -' 
lUon^lia and of the EastOoast of Africa, includii 
Zanzibar, noticeable for their careful compiluiit 
and tasteful colouring, aeKva to lend attractinnw 
to a number which we are glad to see appNB IB 
be still pervaded by the ^ixit of its eaiW,tl^ 
sent though he be in leaa. genial latitudes. 



WMOT HM Jrt OBaoinoLa o> BsoLUro ncima nn 
BBBM OWTOm Tddobb, bj Uh B»t. M. Pooock. . 

Binnia-OouLtfB Lost uid Bobths GMspelb, i? Um 
ItM. w. aunuT 

Fanataui^i'Ciuur AM>a( uAFamiaim^ Buun. 
ftvn 0* m Oatamaar, bj ei B. Oj 

"" ■" " .Ifl-J 

ff.Aa. 

EAiaroH . . J 

BiHTLKY'B Tuagrt Nit, bj the Rot. C. J. Bobosos . i 
Biuors Hmrnir or IMiiu, TDL TI., b; Colmti 

Sir J. 7. OouxBOD 

Ntar ScyrwM, bf O. Bimttimj 

OiTBaroT HiRcauub lankXruSB . . > 
Nooi Aio iton I 

liKma nuai Aiaass, Irr Hn Bar. IT. T. Boon. '• 

Ettpm/icn of Me JVaiiMi JBn^orrr o"^ Satam. to 
PrlnCB L.-L. BooiIpHto ; " Jiflidlit." b^ W. I. H. 
OMoi; IMMom trUh AaAmg wj Dr. wmt 



8cnro>Honi<Pmiwa««i,l&iB«apaFT,FmuiBisi) ' 

Am N«wB FROM Puns, br Ph. Bcbtt . ■ ' 

La Uaison JXn, b; W. K. Rokdb . . ■ • ' 

MOTB AKV Km *.'.'.! i ..■ * 

iHTiHO in " BicaaLmn," by PBiDnncx WmKOBS . ' 

EUHOa Opibas ATTHX OAunT, by. Bam I W IW^ 
HDsu Rona, nd Tabu qv Ooniam. . • ' ^ 



JPI.T 17, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY, 



53 



SATVBDAT, JULT 17, 1876. 
No. X67, Jfflw Seria. 



The Editos caimot vmdertdke io rebtwn, or 
to e&rreepond with the writers of, rejected 
man-ascri^t. 

B is partictdarly requeiled that aU hu»infs» 
letterw regarding the rajiply of the paper, 
t^., may he addreesed to the Publishbr, 
and not io the Editor. 



LITERATURE. 

Lc^-Book of a Fisherman and Zoologist. Bj 
Fnuk Backland, M.A., Ac, &c. Illns- 
trated. (London : Chapman & Hal], 
1875.) 
FsiSK BncKLAND has certainly the knaclc of 
realising the ideal of " entertaining know- 
ledge." It is impossible to scan his collec- 
tions of papei^, written mostly in the railway 
carriage, withont admiring the observation 
and reteDtiTeness of a bom and snrtnred 
naturalist. Heir to the quaint hnnioor of 
lus popular sire, still remembered as Oxford's 
Professor of Geology and for faia Bridgwater 
Treatise, 2Ir. Bnckland inherits too his 
other's orthodoxy as conoemB science, and 
lends no help in his Log-book to Darwin- 
ism, onless it be in the insidions and 
damaging partisanship of one of his pet 
monkf^^ which, he tells as, with mock 
pride, has appeared in pnblio as an aathorees 
in Laitd and Water, claiming, among other 
proofs of " the hnity and proEably a.rboreal " 
qoadmped's superiority to its descendants, 
the discovery of locomotion. Samples of the 
Dean's faamonr would occur to any Oxonian 
who in the old days frequented his lecture- 
room — few, however, better than his retort, 
of wbich his son reminds ns in p. 38, npon 
a visitor who intermpted one of nis lectures 
at Edinburgh npon " Fossil Footsteps in the 
Old Bed- Sandstone," by a qaeij why the 
Cheirothecinm went persistently in one and 
the same direction. "Sir," replied the- 
witt^ Doctor, " Cheirothecium was a Scotch- 
man : fae was ganging south, and na came 
back again." In a like vein tlie son is con- 
stantW betrayed into a quiet langb at theories 
and theorists on the opposition side, as where 
in his "monkey chapter " he says of those 
ia the " Zoo " that " they are very intereat- 
ing animals, but not, so to speak, civilised ; 
they have only their own relatives as 
associates, and they have not learned the 
elegances and refinements of polite society, 
to wbich monkeys accustomed to the con- 
tiooal society of our noble selves will attain " 
(p. 324). We seem also to see the " indoles 
nntrita fanstis sub penetrslibus " and tlie 
true so3ship to one wuo was numbered with 
the "seven chiefs" who writ treatisee to 
show " the power, wisdom, and goodness of 
God as mamfestefl, in the Creation," in our 
author's averment at the close of his paper 
on the Aquarium at Brighton that these 
aqnaria " are great educational schools which 
will do much to teach kindness to animals, 
to humanise those but little brought into 
contact with the living works of the Creator, 
and above all to break down the ideas of 
scepticism and infidelity wbich are now 



temporary candidates for public approval." 
It should be added that the Lt^-book before 
DB is calculated to subeerve the same ends, 
and that it renders its task highly palatable 
by an enthusiasm and cariosity character- 
istio of the versatile author. 

Perhaps there is no lacalty which, if culti- 
vated in the young, repays the pains SO 
lastingly and pleasurably as tliat of " ob- 
servatioD," and if to the use of eyes and 
Bubseqnent reflection is added the habit of 
making a note of aught that is noteworthy, 
the profit stored np to the individnal and 
his fellow-creatures is certain, sooner or 
later, to be considerable, Mr. Buckland's 
Log-book is at once an incentive to and a 
lesson in such observation. It would be 
difficult to get a better example of a copious 
induction than his survey (pp. 13-lti) of 
almost all Sir Edwin Landscer's pictures 
with a view to proving that the bit of red^ 
the red spot — in them was the result of set 
purpose and not a mere accident ; but this 
induction could only be made by a mind 
practised in the process of observing. One 
charm in Frank Backland is the candour 
with which he unveils his processes. A pro- 
vos of the hlppophagic banquet at the Lang- 
ham Hotel in 18(i8, he felt himself, no 
donbt, called upon to pronounce an opinion ; 
and this being adverse, let ua see on what 
grounds he decides that, though horseflesh 
might be a fair stop-gap for hunters, 
trappers, or troopers cat off from their 
comtaissariat, it can never compete with 
beef or mutton in point of nutritions and 
&tteiuug qualities. The instinct of the 
poor women who wonld " as soon think of 
cooking a cat for their husband's dinner as 
a bit of cat's meat " ought to weigh some- 
thing; but the experience of Mr. Bartlett at 
tlie Zoological Gardens is convincing. His 
account to Mr. Bnckland is that at one 
time the lions there were fed on joints of 
the best beef, because the keepers said the 
lions would not eat horseflesh. " It was 
observed at the same time that the lions 
looked very thin and the men very iat. Mr. 
Bartlett resolved to try whether the lions 
wonld eat horseflesh, and he found they 
liked it aa well as beef. He acted upon 
this discovery. The consequence was tnat 
the tables were turned ; the men got very 
lean, and the lions began to get plump aud 
fat; the reader will guess the meaning of 
this remarkable phenomenon." It is, of 
course, to be wished that the keepers could 
have been subjected to a coarse of hip- 

ephagy as a panishment, bat the inference 
im the experience of Mr, Bartlett is 
scarcely less valuable than had this been 
so. Of other flesh not commonly regarded 
as dainty, or even edible, among English 
folk, Mr. Buckland incidentally cites the 
appreciation by other nations. In his article 
on the Scotch Wild Cat, he tells ns that at 
Pampelana cat's flesh is an exquisite deli- 
cacy — -white like rabbit's flesh, but more 
delicate and of finer flavour. It is not 
good roasted, so the cooks serve it "tres 
friands " (p. 254). As to goat's flesh he 
gives a guarded opinion. The harvest-men 
in Scotland seem to like it. Tbe guests of 
the stingy old lady who, having invited a 
party to eat a haunch of venison, set be- 
fore them that member of "Old Billy," 



" the well-known oldest inhabitant of tbs 
stables," were somewhat more qualified in 
their verdict (p. 272). Readers curious in 
cooking wrinkles and gossip will find a 
great deal to amase and enlighten them 
up and down our naturalist's Log-book, 
For instance, in the acconnt of the kan- 
garoos at Blenheim Palace occurs an as- 
surance, which wo can corroborate &om 
experience, that kangaroo-tail soup is as 
(food as ox-lail ; and a note of the origin 
of the latter popular soup, which refers it 
to the date of tbe close of the Peninsular 
War Rod the cheap feeding of our French 
prisoners. The Commissariat used to 
supply them, for cheapness, " with ox tails, 
then considered as ofial, and left on the hides." 
" Tbe Frenchmen, with their usual clever- 
ness in cooking, made these tails into Bonp." 
In a cookery book which appeared a year or 
two ago, a Buggcttion for a cheap soup was 
the application of calves' tails to the same 
purpose ; but there is sach a thing as im- 
proving on oar culinary continental neigh- 
boors to ao un remunerative excess. Mr. 
Frank Buckland's story of the derivation of 
the name " kangaroo "(a sort of Australian 
" Dym Sassenach ") is very funny ; and per- 
haps it is reasonable to donbt whether the 
derivation of the Bore at Gloucester and on 
the Severn (the interest in which wonderful 
phenomenon has been quickened aud spread 
wider by Mr. Buckland's paper, though to 
Severn bank and its population it is au ex- 
cuse for making up parties of pleasure and 
sightseeing of very old date) has mnch more 
to support it than the witticism of his friend 
who surmised, in reference to the increased 
size of the wave, if wind and tide conspired, 
" that in order to have a good bore it must 
be accompanied by a good sow-wester." 

In tbe ranges of fishing and zoology this 
Log-book deals " cum omnibus rebus et qui- 
busdam aliis." Is the Serpentine to be 
madded ? Mr. Bnckland is there and de- 
tails its finds and its non-finds, tbe most 
noticeable of tbe latter being the eels which 
should have thriven in its mud. Is he visit- 
ing the great authority on snakes, Mr. Hig- 
ford Burr, at Aldermaston : what amusement 
is so congenial as "out a-snaking with the 
squire"? Statistics and economics meet 
together and get a valuable tribute in those 
pages of the Log-book, which detail our 
author's visit to Great Grimsby ; and it ia 
high time that action should be taken in 
town, as it is, we believe, in some cases in 
the provinces, as r^;ards tbe statement of 
the Grimsby fishermen that they " never see 
a quarter the price for the fish which yon 
pay in London, We have all the job of 
catching of 'em, and the least profits on 
them" (p. 89). Taking the market prices and 
tbe tons of fish sent away last year, Mr. 
Buckland finds the total sum of 54A,!i00l. 
worth of fish. It wonld be interesting to 
learn how our great fishmongers would meet 
the proposal to halve this, in the interest of 
tbe fiabers. One of the curiosities of the 
subject is the device of cod-bozes floating in 
the docks, like gigantice dice, each tilled 
with one solid mass of living cod. The live 
cod, by the way, is not, Mr. Buckland and 
the aquarium tell us, the flabby big-headed 
creature whose head and sbonlders we see 
on the fishmonger's slab : even as the 



51 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JPLT 17, 1875. 



" herring " alive in the water, and glittering 
with gold, silver, and ra^, ia a very mnch 
brighter being than onr " Yarmonth bloater " 
ideal. 

Had we apace, we might extract for the 
zootogioally-minded one or two of the an- 
thor's experiences of monae-valonr. He waa 
eyewitness of a atand-up fight between a 
monBe and a scorpion, aa exciting as the 
combat between Heenan and Sayers, or their 
claseical paralleh Follaz and Amycua. The 
odds were strongly againat the monse, yet 
he killed the venomons beaat and — ate him. 
As a set-off, ta another 3}age we read of a 
monse canght and trapped (head and 
■honlders) by a Whitatable oyater. It ia to 
be seen in Mr. Backland'a mnsenm.. Onr 
anthor deservea a strong word of praise and 
aympathy for bia uniform advocacy of kind.- 
neas and conserration of animals. In this 
point of view, aa in othera, thia book will 
be an admirable present to yonpg people. 
It may ^eo hare the effect of teaching them 
to see in tbeir Virgile something more than 
hexameters devised only for repetition or for 
nrae-models. Mr. Bnckland has the Man- 
tnan poet at his fingers' ends for illustration 
of natural history. Ho is a little abroad, how- 
ever, we think, as regards the meaning of 
the Greek inscription on the nulic temple 
at Blenheim. APTEMIil AFPIAT lAil 
OPESTIAil can never mean " Dedicated by 
the rustic mountain- nympha to the Ionian 
Diana." It most probably means, " Dedi- 
cated to the wild and mountain-ranging 
Ionian Diana ; " APPIAl being the same aa 
Ayplf with the "i" not anbscript, bnt ap- 
pnided, as in tho caae of capitals. If the 
inscription had ended with OPESTIAAES 
Mr. Buckland's inteipretation would have 
been tenable. It ia with relnctance we obae 
BO enteriiaining a book. Juies DinB§. 



Three Northern Love 8torim, and other Tai»». 
Translated from the Icelandic by Eirikr 
MagnliBsan and William Morris. (Lon. 
don: Elba A White, ld?&.) 
Iv anything would induce ua to forgive the 
anthor of the Earthly ParadUe for bia long 
poetic silence and thme scholarly divei^encea 
into, this path and that of which ramour 
accuses him, it wonld be the inherent pre- 
ciouaneas of the things he seeks, and tho 
beauty of whatever he burdens himself with 
in returning. Nor can any muse, eren 
thongh she be aa untiring aa Mr. Morria'a, 
remain for ever in mid-air, and it ia well 
when the creative brain satisfies itself, in its 
moments of repose, with the contemplation 
of the great worka of past times, instead of 
frittering away its powers on the barren 
and unfamiliar pursuits of metaphysics or 
politics. Besidea writing his epic poem of 
The "Lovers of Oudnm, a work for forcible 
aimplicity, breadth of purpose, and even 
serenity of power, almost unequalled in tho 
literature of onr time, Mr. Morris has twice 
already combined with Mr. Magnilason in 
rendering the best Icelandic sagas which re- 
mained nntranalated into English, present- 
ing ua first with the " Grettissaga," next 
with the story of the Volsungs and Niblunga, 
He follows thia time with six short sagaa, 
the most important being the three first, tho 
" Gunnlangasaga," the " FriBpjofssaga," 



and the " Viglnndarsaga," and the others 
bein^ smaller tales of varied interest and 
weight. 

The treasure of the book ia its first story. 
It u difficult to understand how a poem so 
exquisite as the tale of Onnnlaug the Worm- 
Tongue and Raven the Skald has eluded the 
attention of translators so long, especially 
dnring this present generation, when so 
much notice is being paid on all aides to the 
language and literature of the North. It is 
true that the bare online of the story has 
been made known to BngHshmen, notably 
in Messrs. Cox and Hunter's Tales of the 
Teutomc LanAt, published three years ago, 
bnt now for the first time we have the saga 
rendered word for word. It is one of those 
worka for which any rendering leas exact 
than thia ia wretchedly inadequate ; it 
claima admiration for a rounded and finished 
form, a passionate perfection of style, 
a fulness of detaU without an iota of 
triviality at thinneaa, which distinguish it 
above all its fellowa. Without the grandeur of 
"Njala," the romantic verve of "Grettia,"the 
fotnosa of humanity of that " Lucdaela " which 
we can only hope Mr, Morria may yet find 
time to render for na, the" Gunnlaug" has a 
coDciae picturesqueneaa, a purely artistic 
perfection, whfah place it at least as high as 
these, perhaps higher. A delicate critic has 
pointed out how &r removed " lea pens^s 
. donees, les rSvoi'iee " of this sa^ are &om 
the rough manners and fierce emotions of 
most of the Icelandic roinances, and those 
who are leas eager for tenderness in poetry 
tbau the excellent M. Ghoiecki may yet 
allow themselves to be subdued by the subtle 
and exquisite perfume of love tMt breathes 
from this fanluess saga. The strong yonng 
poet, with his goodly light-red hair, his love- 
some countenance and masterful mind, whose 
tongne is ao shrewd and bitter that it bites 
men like a snake, ia contrasted with the 
stately and gentle Helga, meek and maidenly 
in all her ways, so bathed in the glory of 
her gold hair that Gnnnlaug calla her &ce a 
aweet field islanded in sea-flune. For all their 
passion and all its fitness they never win more 
than brief words tc^ether before tXi men, save 
that once when Gunnlang spoke with Helga 
in Thorkel's hall and gave her the foireet of 
things, the cloak, Ethelred's gift. Then, 
when both the men who loved her were 
dead, slain on tbe moor of Dingness by one 
another's hands, Helga meekly marries the 
Tnn.r> she cannot love ; but with a final tonch 
of genius that completes tho poem, we are 
told how, when she came to die, resting her 
dying head againat her husband's knees, she 
had the cloak of Ounnlaug's gift sent for, and 
after gazing at it awhile, sank back into her 
hnsband's arms and died, dutiful to the last, 
true to her pledges, true also to her love. 
Mr. Magniisson, lor the best reasons doubt- 
less, alters slightly the dates of the story. 
The birth of Gunnlang has been quoted aa 
belonging to the year 988 ; the present 
volume placea it five years earlier; and 
the date of his death, too, in 1008 in- 
stead of 1015. These are det«iils of minor 
importance, but in one matter Mr. MaguAs- 
Bon aeems to be incorrect on his own show- 
ing, since bo makes Gnnnlaug twenfcy-tbnxi 
years of age at his death, whereas by the 
internal evidence of the saga he must 



have been twenty-five or twenty-six. Tho 
oldest MS. which is known attributes thia 
work to An FroKi, the great skald to whom 
we owe the first draft of the LandHomabdk, 
and one of the most famous of Icelanders ; 
he died at a great age in 1148, and therefore 
if tJiia attribution can be relied on, about a 
century elapsed between the occurrence of 
the events and tlieir narration. There seems 
good reason to believe that &s persouB 
mentioned really existed, and that the ad< 
ventures described, in great part, at least, 
aeally happened. The chief ohtu^cters in 
this saga are mentioned elsewhere — in 
Landndma, in the EgUstaga, and in the Bdda 
of Snorre, for example — and both Gnnnlaug 
and Hr a fi i (Eaven) are mentioned in the 
list of the most eminent skalds preserved in 
the Upsala MS. of the yonnger Edda. Some 
of the incidents, as for instance that ex- 
quisitely humoroua one of King Sigtrygg 
SilkybMrd in Dublin, who has never bad a 
aong made in his honour before, and who does 
not know what it wonld be etiquette to offer 
Gnnnlaug for his, bear a stamp of trath 
about them, while others m^ well be the 
pure creation of the wonderfel genius who 
evolved and arranged them. If that genina 
waa indeed Ari, then Ari ought to be named 
in honour among the great world-poeta. 

In " Fnthiof " we at once pass into the 
domain of a more limited and less powerful 
imagination. Full of strong and lovely 
passages as it is, it is not pnt together with 
an art so masterly as to retain and anbdue 
the momoiy with the spell of first-rate work. 
The gift of the anthor aeems to lie in his 
ahiK^ to preaent certain scenes with intense 
vividness before the inner eye ; he does so 
notably in describing Ingibiorg's bowers in 
Baldur'a Meads, in the splendid psasage 
about the storm, in the burning of Baldur's 
temple by Frithiof, the three passages that 
enthrall the imagination moat and aatisfy it 
best. It is considered wholly mythical in 
character ; it seems pretty certain tii&t it was 
written in Iceland about the year 1300, and 
no acconnt of its principal peraanae is found 
in any older eaga. Certain critics have 
maintained that Frithiof was a genuine 
historical personage, but others and among 
them more especially P. A. Munch, have 
strongly contested this view. That historian 
mentions it as one of the few purely romantio 
works of tbe imagination which the early 
literature of Scandinavia has preserved, and 
avers that it contains absolute historical and 
geographical absurdities. Munch 's strictures 
Mre very minute and stringent; the most 
important of them are that, at the time that 
Frithiof is supposed to have lived, no Horse 
vikings bad yet come to Orkney, and so 
that Frithiof a finding of Angautyr aettled 
as earl in those islands is obviously a myth ; 
and, again, that it is incredible that any 
kings of Sogn and of Bingerike can have 
waged war with one another by land or sea ; 
but these arguments have been met by 
Nystrom and other Swedish critics, and the 
matter remains uncertain. 

The story of "Viglund the Fair " ia far 
inferior, in interest and ability, to its two 
predecessors. With all deference to Mr. 
MagnuBBon's learning and Mr. Morris's 
taste, wa foel doubtful whether they wore 
justified in occupying so much time and 



THE ACADEMY. 



65 



blance to "Nj^," which it palpably imi- 
tates in various poiDtfl^ bat it is ia&nitel; 
beaeaih it in regard of merit. It ie one of 
the ikriik-abguT, or fabuloim aag&s, and the 
very name exprea§es a kiad of Ecom of it, 
as a bastard -growth upon a nobler stock. 
The " Viglondaraaga " is imderBtood to be 
inelegant and nnclassical in language; its 
oldest MSS. lieloiig to the fifteeath century, 
and its data of composition cannot poaaibly 
be pat earlier than the end of the fonrtemith. 
FuBB^ea lisTe been pointed oat which prove 
its author to have been familiar with the 
"Piithiof," and with another of the alarok- 
(u^, the " BarSarsaga." The host parts of 
tu work are the passages ia veise, which 
bear marks of an earlier and a iai more 
gifled hand. Yigfdsson, whose Copeithagen 
edition of 1860 remains the standard one, 
Gonaders the best of the staves to date &om 
the close of the tiiirteenth century — two 
hundred years, therefore, before the balk of 
the Baga. We would taJne this opportnnil; 
of pointing out how especially beaotifol are 
Mr. Morris's yersiona of these short poems. 
It seems to ns that he has excelled most of 
all in the " Yiglundar ; " the staves in the 
" GamUaag " are often so extremely obscore 
that they hardly present any idM to the 
mind when literally translated. The deter- 
minatian of the Icelandic poets not to call 
a spade a spade if there was anything in 
heaven or earth that it could be called be- 
sides, makes their fancy difficult to follow. 
Here, for instance, is a beantifnlly worded 
bnt very elaborate way of sapng that " none 
bat the brave deserve the fair : " — 
" Bo who biBud of battle 
Beaietb over-WBiy, 
Nbtot lore shall let him 
Hold the liDeD-folded, 
Fflff WB, iriien wo were jonnger, 
In msBy a waj inire plsTing 
On the outSHnl aeiaes 
From golden land oatstandipg." 
Of the remaining three stories the best is 
thatof "KoitheFool." Acertain franklin is 
so tuifiortanate. that all men call him Boi the 
Fool, hat, a^r bearing many affronts, 
he proves himself shrewd Enough at last, 
ud baulks his enemies as Shylock was 
duped. Henceforward he is colled Boi the 
Wise. This b a version of an oriental story, 
ibnad in the Thousand and One Nights and 
eIsewbeT«. The story of " Hogni and He- 
dinn" is amplified from a tale in the treatise 
of poetio diction called Sh3idskarpannal,saA. 
in an appendix the authors give a version 
of this earlier original. Finally ie added 
tLe sh(«t saga of " Thorstein Staffsmitten," 
the son of Thorarin. It is to be hoped that all 
lorera c^ literature will turn to these pages, 
in which Mr. Uorris has enshrined the 
grand legends of oar forefathers in the 
crystal ra his pore, simple and idiomatic 
English. EDMnND W. GoBSB. 



A Eittory of the Weald of Kent. Bj Robert 
Fnrley, F.S.A. Vol. II. CLondon: J. 
RosseU Smith, 1874.) 
There has been for some years a good deal 
of agitation among the antiqaariee aad his- 
torical students of Kent with the object of 
briugiDg oat a new history of the coon^. 



Hasted deserves the highest praise for his 
well-known History, on which he spent about 
foriy years of his life and the chief part of 
his fortune ; bnt the progress of historical 
knowledge since his day woold render it 
comparatively easy for a sncoessor to cor- 
rect many errors and supply many imper- 
fections which it was impossible for him to 
avoid. The present centary also has seea 
many events take place in Kent which are 
wotth recording. It is well known in the 
county that two distinguished antiquaries 
ooQeoted a large quantity of materiel from 
the records of the kingdom and private 
libraries with this object ; bnt nnfortunately 
neither of them lived to carry ont their in- 
tentions, and their collections are 'biting 
for some other hand to atilise. Their value 
mast be so great that it will be a serious 
loss if they are doomed to be pat away and 
forgotten Uke the note-hooks of the nnforta- 
nate scholar, so feelingly described by George 
£liot in her last novel. It is no small boon 
to have a history of a portion of the county, 
such as the present book, bnt it woald bo 
better still if this were only an instalment 
of a larger and more complete work. 

We have not seen the first volume, which 
appeared, we beUeve, about three years ago. 
The second takes ap the history at the reiga 
of Henry in., and carries it down to me 
present time. AH the events in the annals 
of our country which specially concern the 
locaUty in question are narrated at consider- 
able length, especially the tnro inaorrections 
of Wat Tyler and Jack Cade. In the former 
case the author has not been able to clear np 
the confnsion in the usual accounts of the 
leaders of the rebellion, and seems to think 
that John Tyler of Dartford, and Wat Tyler 
of Maidstone were really the same person ; 
while he cannot decide whether John Ball, 
the priest, or one of the Tylers, was known 
as Jack Straw. His aesomption is that the 
coufiision arises from the ringleaders having 
had several aliases, which is by no means 
improbable. 

On another point of greater importance 
Mr. Farley nses his local knowledge to refute 
Mr. Bogers' theory that the former rebellion 
was an attempt on the part of the costomary 
tenants to vindicate their right to pocnniary 
oompensation against a threatened invasion 
of wa costom. If this was the tme origin 
of the discontent, oar author thinks it 
strange tliat Kent shoald have taken 
prominent part in the oatbre^, as bnt little 
of the land in the coaaty was held by copy- 
hold or costomaiy tenure. It is just on 
such points as this that a local historian is 
valuable. Hie knowledge of detail enables 
him to correct the generalisations of an his- 
torian, even when they seem moat reason- 
able. 

From one of the chief featores of a coanty 
history— long pedigrees of the holders of 
manors — this book is happUy free. Not bnt 
what authentic pedigrees aro often of the 
greatest use in historical work, bnt there is 
so mnch looseness in their compilation, and 
often so many contradictions in descents of 
the same families derived from dificrent 
sources, that it is impossible ta place mnch 
reliance on tJiem in general. Instead of 
this Mr. Farley has endeavoured to put 
before his readers a' picture, or ratjier 



materials for forming a picture for them- 
selves, of the state of the common people 
on the Weald in past times. With this end 
in view, he has printed full abstracts &om 
the Plea Bolls and Hundred Rolls in the 
reigna of Henry III. and Edward I., from 
which may be gleaned curious and graphic 
particulars of tbe social state of the inhabi. 
tants of the Weald, though, as might be 
expected, they rather illustrate the worse 
than the better side of human nature. We 
find, for instance, accounts of a party of 
labourers breaking into a beershop and 
maltreating tbe proprietors, who had re- 
fused to sell them drink; of a fight 
between some burglars at Ightham and 
the night watch, an inatitntion which one 
would hardly have expected to find in 
snch a small place ; of men, doubtless drunk, 
tumbling into marl-pits and beii^ drowned, 
and other accidents incidental to an agricul- 
tural population. Two rather serious cases 
concern the Cbnrcb. Of these one was a 
fight, which ended fatally, between the in- 
habitants of Tenterden and the proctor of 
John Maunsel, provost of Beverley, who held 
the church as one of 700 hvings ; the other 
was a contest between the aecular and eccle- 
siastical authorities, in which the latter had 
very much the best of it. The baili& of 
the king and the archbishop disputed about 
the right to levy a distress, and the last step 
in the affair was the cudgelling of the roj3 
bfuhff round Maidstone church on three 
Lord's Days, by order of the official of the 
archbishop. There are many presentments 
for encroachments on the highways, and as 
Hasted tells us that even in his time the 
roads were atrociously bad, and fiily or sixty 
feet wide with sward on each side, it is 
scarcely to be wondered at. In most cases 
the occupier is allowed to retain what he has 
appropriated on payment of a fine. The 
abstracts of these rolla are accurately and 
carefully done, and are well worth the 
perusal of all readers resident in the Weald, 
containing as they do references to most of 
the towns and villages in the district. 

One of the last chapters in the book i 
devoted to an investigation of the origin o 
the pariah. Mr. Fnrley examines' the chief 
theories previously proposed, and shows 
reasons for notaccepting them. Blackstone's 
idea that the parish is identical with the 
manor, he disproves by hia statement that 
in Blast Kent only one parish is coextensive 
with a manor, and that no churches in the 
Weald except perhaps Hawkhurst, are ap- 
pendant to manors. Mr. Kembte's theory 
that the Christian church superseded the 
pagan temple does not appear satisfactory, 
as it seems probable that all traces of 
temples had disappeared long before any 
ecclesiastical organisation was set ou foot. 
More space is devoted to a refutation of Mr. 
Toulmin Smith's book on the subject, which 
was written a few years ^o, as Mr. Fnrley 
sug^sts In the interests of the Libemtion 
Society, to disprove the ecclesiastical origin 
or purpose of the parish, which Mr. Smith 
believes to be identical with the tithing, a 
division of the hundred. This is at all 
events unlikely, as in E^t there arc very 
many parishea whose botmdariea do not 
coincide with either the hundred or the lathe, 
and were evidently formed irrespectively of 



56 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JnLT 17. 1875. 



eitlier dinsion. We have not space here to 
state l£r. Fnrlej'a argnments, bnt hie con- 
dnsion is that the borough was the foanda- 
tion of oar ecclesiastical division, one or 
more being taken to form a parish. This is 
not, however, absolntely proved, for there 
are several instances in the oonncy where 
boroughs are divided hy parishes. Strange 
to ea-j, also, although Mr. Forlev will not 
aUow Mr. Smith to &ther the pansli on the 
tithing, and advooatea the claims of the 
borongh, be distinctly states in another 
place that " what are termed tithings in 
other oonnties are called boronghs in Kent," 
ao that it seems, in spite of all his arguments, 
that he really agrees with Mr, Smith after 
all, except in his statement that the tithing 
is an integral portion of the hundred. The 
etymology proposed fbr_ the . word parish is 
ingenious, bat we fear wiU not find many 
philologists to accept it ; — " The word is de- 
rived &om preogtaeyre, which Bigoifies the 
precinct of which one priest had the care — 
in Baglish priestshire, in Latin paroc3tia, in 
Trench paroiste." 

The derivation snggeated for the word 
kobblw, a light cavalry soldier, is equally 
anbappy. Mr. Farley states that it is de- 
rived m)m the Frendi hobile, a qnilted cas- 
sock, a comparatively rare word, while the 
English hohhy is in constant use in the 
middle ttges, especially in the sixteenth cen- 
tary, as applied to a email kind of horse, and 
i^ords a mncb more obvious etymology. 

It sotinds odd to read that the King of 
England "became head of the Chnrch and 
defender of the faith," in conseqnonce of the 
Statntes passed in 1533, when the latt«r title 
■was conferred on Henry VIII. by the Pope 
for sapporting his authority by his book 
gainst Luther, and the former title was 
asanmed a.s a protest against the same aa- 
thoritv. This, however, ia no donbt a mere 
glipof thepen. In his account of the Boleyn 
&mily, Mr. Farley has adopted the theotr 
revived by Mr. Kepwortn. Dixon in his 
recent book, that Anne Boleyn was older 
than her sister Mary, mother of Lord 
Hunsdon, bnt haa made no comments on 
tbe snbJQct. The authorities adduced by 
Mr. Dixon certainly do not bear ont his 
statement, and if Mr. IWley baa discovered 
any new evidence on the sobject, it would 
have been better to have produced it. 

6. Trice Martin. 



Bopes of the Stttnan Roes Sereafier tutd 
Sere. By Frances Power Cobbe. (Lon- 
don : Williams & Xoigat«, 18?4.) 
TTndbk the above title, rather too big a one 
perhaps for the book, Misa F. Power Cobbe 
bas reprinted several theological essays, and 
introduces them to her readers by a very in. 
teresting preface, in which the latest views of 
Mr. Stnart Mill are oonaidered entirely &om 
a theisttcal point of view. There is always 
something to be gained &om the writings of 
this valorous and noble woman. She haa 
inherited the boldness of ber master, 
Theodore Parker, as well as his humanita- 
rian sympathies and mtionalistic mysticism, 
and though leas forcibly eloquent than the 
Boston orator, she is superior to him as re- 
gards good taste and that flexibility of 



thought which distinguiahes her sex. If, as 
E. Kenan believes, the truth really does lie 
in the shade of colour more than in tbe 
colour itself, then this feniinine faculty is 
more necessary for the attainment of tmth 
than the logical inflexibility of the oppo- 
site and presumably the stronger sex — 
provided, of conrse, that tbe understanding, 
by being more ductile, lose none of its force 
of penetration. Now, such ia the rare quality 
of Miss Cohbe's mind, that she is able to 
combine masculine penetration of thought 
with feminine delicacy of sentiment. She is 
familiar with all the evolutions of contempo- 
rary science and philosophy, and unfettered 
by any traditional a priori. Her rare enei^y 
in upholding the jnat and too often unrecog- 
nised claims of theism is due to the vivacity 
as well as the sincerity of her religious 
feehnga. In her case tbe conjunction of 
Bublime affectiona and a faith that is full of 
hope with modem science is a fait accompli 
—aa& most encouraging for those who will 
never consent to a complete separation be- 
tween the two divine sisters. Although I can 
trace nothing positively new in her endea- 
vours to unite them, and at the same time as- 
sign te each a distinct and lawful sphere, 
there is something original and personal in 
her view of their respective claims and ber 
manner of defining them. Her reasoning 
is always straight te the point, and she 
waives numberless objections that are com- 
monly raised by those who do not as yet 
understand how to reconcile them. There 
is much ingenious and novel insight dis- 
cernible in the details by which glimpses are 
obtained of the truth which we shall never 
wholly possess, under its hitherto little ex- 
plored and even disregarded ospecta, Aa a 
apeeimen I would gladly cite the page in 
which the writer, while speaking of the con- 
ceptions we are capable of forming of the 
divine goodness in relation to man, foresees 
the dimcnlties that will be raised on various 
sides, by taking her stand on oar incapacity 
to determine in any way what does or does 
not accord with the perfection of the Divine 
being :— 



nesa to enquire whtit it \AJvxt poitible He may be 
or do without injustice or cruelW ; but what ia 
the very higheet, the noblest, ths Idndest, the 
moat royal and father-like thing we can poasibly 
lift our minds to conceive. ... It is the nearest 
we can yet approach the truth." 

I recommend this as a principle of a aoand 
and fruitful theology to those who make 
use of the divine attribute in their deduc- 
tions 08 if tbe Divinity bad hidden no secrets 
from them ; and to those, likewise, who under 
pretext of -being incapable of forming any 
adeqnate conception whatever of the nature 
of the Divinity, deny tbe lawftilness of all 
statements concerning God. 

The volume before as contains three es- 
says, the first on tbe great question of the 
" Life after Death ; " tne second, " Doomed 
to be Saved," on tbe universality of that 
salvation which is reserved by divine good- 
ness for the whole of bumanity ; while the 
third, " The Evolution of the Social Senti. 
ment," is a curious history of the develop- 
ment and growth of the feeling of sym- 
pathy in the human race. The second is 



tbe least remarkable and the least original. 
The writer has especially aimed at proving 
that the assurance of salvation to which. 
we are all destined, under the limitations 
of the trials each must undergo in order to 
obtain it, very &r from having an evil influ- 
ence on our moral diapositiona, exerts on the 
contrary a salutary cfiTeot on our spiritual 
nature, and supports us in oar struggles afber 
righteousness. Moreover, we are t^d (and 
this is very striking), that as the unhappy 
individuals who had, as thoy imagined, sold 
their eonls to the devil and were therefore, 
they believed, irreclaimably his, sank through 
their despair into the lowest depths of vice 
and crime ; so the theist of our ^y who feels 
that he is destined to Tighteouaness, to sal- 
vation, and to eternal communion with Ood, 
reaps fi:«m this precious certainty continnal 
encoura^ment and the best inducement to 
rise agam after having fiUlen, to persevere 
when he has once had strength to resist eviL 
It is, in point of fact — ^tbe authoress will not 
deny the truth of this observation — a trans- 
formation, as far as the making it universal 
is r^arded, of the cherished thesis of ancient 
Calvinism, namely, the "perseverance des 
eius," or " I'inamissibilite de la gr4ce." 
How often it is sufficient to strip Calvinism. 
of its scholastic jargon, its Canaanitish 
dialect (without for tluit reason giving up ite 
eaaentiai tenets), to find that it is embodied, 
though under a changed aspect, in the moat 
philosophical and reiigioua form of modem 
thonght ! Thia eaaay, which ia in itself little 
else than an edifying sermon, yet contains 
usefiil lessons for many worthy Christiana 
who would think they were lost if ever- 
lasting punishment were to disappear from. 
their view. 

With the essay called "The Life after 
Death," which is divided into two parts, 
the case is different, although the one part 
is very preferable to tbe other — the first, 
namely, in which the ymter has indicated 
the reasons ou which, even on the ground 
held by modem scientific thought, the 
assertion of a future life may be based. 
The second treate of c|ueBtions bearing on 
the same subject, very interesting questions 
undoubtedly, such as the immortalitjr of the 
underatanding, of the memory, of the aes- 
thetic perception, of the affections, and the 
earthly ties that love has formed. Sic. ; bnt it 
offers ns nothing but vague conjectures, 
which are necessarily the fruit of the ima- 
gination rather than of logical argnmeat. 
For the answer to all these questions the 
authoress should simply have referred ua to 
tho fondamental principle of the first part. 
Faith, Ihiet in Ood, "L'Etemel y pourvmra." 
It ia the only reaaonable and at the same 
time religious answer to the questionings 
with which our souls are beset when we 
attempt to &ce the great mystery of the 
life beyond. And we may add to this the 
comforting experience that time has taught 
us, namely, that in all cases in which man 
has attained any positive knowledge of the 
works of God, he bas invariably discovered 
them to be a hundred times more beantiful 
in reality than his dreams had pictured 
them. 

The queation which forms the subject of 
the first part is the main question and throws 
all the others into the shade. Hay we, are 



Jm.T 17, 18?5.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



57 



we to hope for a life conHeqnent on the dis- 
Eolatioii of our e&rthlj organism ? Not to 
know that thia is a problem that lias grown 
to be more serions and formidable now than 
ever, is to have remained completely igno- 
lant of the progress of modem science and 
philoaopby. The writer is, I consider, per- 
fectly justified in aGserting that with the 
disappearanoe of faith in a fatnre life, the 
moral level of hnm&n society mast nccea- 
sariiy sink. Religion loaee its inSnite charm. 
God is the Master still, bnt no longer the 
Father. To the individoal, good and evil- 
are no more of the same paramount import- 
ance- Ijife, as soon aa we hare passed its 
noonday, resembles a garden in antnmn, 
wliere th^e is neither soming nor weeding : 
why Ehoald there be, since the winter is 
ooming in which nothing can grow, neither 
flo*-era op weeds P The most virtnons mnst 
be ready to give np their virtne, which is 
perishable like all their other possessions ; 
those who love Ood most traly mnst be pre- 
pared soon to love Him no longer. Yes 
indeed, this question will shortly become 
" the battle-gronnd for one of the most 
decinre straggles in the history of the 
mental 'pcegreaB of oar race." 

On theoUier hand it mast be admitted that 
as modem thonght cannot rest any longer, 
as it did of old, on snpemataral revelations, 
it finds itself cast aiJrift when it examines 
into the classical argnments on which in 
(brmer times rational theology and spiritnal- 
ist philosophy pretended to found belief in a 
futore life. Accnstomed, henceforward, to 
base all its assertions on observation and 
experience, it finds itself face to face with a 
nil^ect that obtrudes itself on its notice, bat 
to which the inductive method cannot be 
apphed. Will it be baid that the natural 
sciences, physiology more especially, con- 
demn this grand belief ? No ; at least those 
who maintain that they do, give them a 
tongue which they never possessed. The 
real troth is, that it is a point on which they 
remain absolutely silent. We notice only 
tiiat in their onward march they reveal to 
us more and more of the majesty of what a 
learned writer has called " les infinies pos- 
DbOites de la nature." In return, whoever 
bu within himself a living sense of God as 
of a Being supremely good, faithful and jnst, 
finds that his faith folly counterbalances 
all the doubts which the gloomy sOence of 
natural science might suggest to him. In the 
main, all the nsaal arguments lead to the en- 
couragement of that trust that the human 
raca will not be deceived, that in human 
destiny justice will have the final word, that 
the man who dies for the eanse of truth or 
charity will triumph over him who saves his 
mortal life by falsehood or egotism. It is 
the morai argument which gives all the other 
argnmenta dieir value. Do not let ns regret 
the absence of scientific certainty. The 
mental chaoe in which, in our day, those 
who fan^ that they possess tangible proofs 
of the life beyond the grave are engulfed, 
proves that none bnt moral proofs are con- 
cordant with our true nature. The life 
present claims its own just worth, it would 
be cancelled by palpable evidence of the life 
to come. By virtne of the moral argoment 
we may say that faith in a jnst, wise and 
loving God indicates to ns by difierent bat 



converging lines a future life as the neces- 
sary postulate. 

The following are the seven principal 
lines: — 1. Justice cannot be vanqaished, 
man is incapable of admitting her final 
defeat. The Buddhist who lives without 
faith in God is not living withoat faith in 
justice, and among the most ridiculous errors 
of the dayaforemost place mast be assigned 
to the theory which attributes onr sense of 
supreme justice to a " set of brain " which 
we have inherited from the experience of 
preceding generations, as if oar forefathers 
had witnessed more often than wo have the 
steady triumph of justice on the earth. 
WUl it be said that the -ways of justice on 
the earth are unknown ways ? The in- 
stances of the triumph of tyranny, the deaths 
of the martyrs, &c., do not admit snch a 
supposition. 2. The designs of Providence 
as regards man — whatever they are taken 
to be, eithei* the possession of happiness or 
his moral perfection — fall short of their 
accomplishment under the conditions of an 
earthly existence. 3. The body can grow 
to its foil stature, the sonl never can. 4. Onr 
human aSections, the noblest, the purest, 
the mdst tender, are poisoned if they are 
linked to the sense of tiieir being ephemeral. 
5. The creatures whom God loves are for 
that very reason, in so far as they are objects 
of the divine love, imperishable (argument 
of Mr. Kewman). 6. Humanity has always 
had, in the whole course of ite historical 
development, the instinct, or rather a pre- 
sentiment, more or less obscnre, of its im- 
mortal destiny. Finally, 7. Our religious 
weakness has a right to appeal to the testi- 
mony of sodIs that have been closely and 
exceptionally knit to God, and with whom 
immortality vras an intnitive evidence. 
" Faith in God and in our eternal union 
with Him are not two dogmas, bnt one." 

These, according to the author, are the 
seven great indications of a future life ; tbey 
are like the first notes of a melody, the con- 
tinuation of which is lost in a region whence 
it cannot reach onr ears. As I generally 
share Miss Cobbe's opinion on these various 
points, I can only recommend her views to 
thereaider's careful study ; they are clearly and 
methodically stated and show great prescience 
of the possible and probable objections that 
may suggest themselves, as all those who have 
Eeriously reflected on the Eamous question to 
be or not to be cannot £ail to acknowledge. 
It will be enough to point oat an apparent 
lacuna. Why has the anthorees not given 
dne weight to tbe special argument that 
may be deduced from the act of "death 
from devotion," that highest of all moral 
acts ? Whenever it finds its accomplishment, 
we see two sovereign laws in direct contra- 
diction — one which has dominion over every 
livingcreatnreandmakes "self-preservation" 
the first impnlse, and the other which governs 
the moral being and demands catv quo the 
sacrifice of his mortal life. This is an an. 
tithesis, and one of which tbe synthesis is to 
be fonnd nowhere but in an order of tbings 
in which " he who loses bis life shall find 
it." 

The last essay, though not so import- 
ant as regards the subject, is nevertheless 
very interesting, beside being probably 
tbe newest and the most original of the 



three. It goes to prove, in a clever and 
intelligent manner, that the feeling of (j/m- 
paihj which occapies so great a place in 
these days, both in pablic and private life, 
is not far from being a new feeling ; that 
it is a transformation of other and very 
different feelings which long held undivided 
sway, and of which more than one vestige 
still exists in the present day. When human 
societies were in their infancy, the sight of 
the sufierings or the enjoyment of others 
provoked anger and annoyance, rather than 
pi^ and good will. 

Man in his primitive state, like many 
kinds of animals, nsed to kill his fellow- 
creatnres when they grew old, or were sick 
or maimed ; a practice common still among 
more than one savage tribe. The ancientr 
historians tell ns of cnstoms of this kind as 
existing, even in their own time, in certain 
remote corners of Europe. The total ab- 
sence of the sympathetic faculty, at least its 
extreme weakness, is at the bottom of all the 
barbarous customs which are still in force 
LQ China, of the perfect indifference society 
in its ancient form shows for the poor and 
the infirm, of the taste tbe Bomans had 
for combats of gladiators and cruel forms of 
punishment ; of the aversion so many men, 
even in these days, have from misery and 
suffering of all kinds ; of the ornelty to women, 
children, and animals, so fi%quent among 
tbe lower classes, &6. 

The anther tries with all the acatenesa of 
a subtle* and observant mind to discover in 
onr habits and prqndices tbe vestiges of 
the ancient heteropathy, and is probably 
not mistaken in indicating the mother's 
love for her weak wailing offspring as the 
sacred source whence the sympathetic faculty 
arose, to extend successively to the father, 
the fiimily, tbe tribe, the nation, and finally 
to the whole of humanity. We, as yet, see 
bnt the dawn of the changes this &icnlty will 
work as it expands in social life, bnt may 
fearlessly predict that its influence on the 
^ture of the human race will he no less 
beneficial than prodoctive in its results. 

ALBBltT B£tiu.b. 



* Too subtle, Bome^mM ; and I would TecommBud 
this clever And enthuHiastic eeeker after trutb to b« 
ware of n propeniiTt; she shows to giva &r-fetcbea 
ezplAnalions for very Dimple thiogB whicli hava io 
reality much mors immediate causes — to do, in fact, 
vhnt in Frrnch ia cnlled " cheicher midi i quatons 
liBureB." For iuttnnce, who could help amlliiig oa 
reading, p. 17fi, thai "tbe immense success of insur- 
ance offiws in France is aUribut«d to the Tslne of 
thsic plaques placed prominently on a house as ■ pro- 
tection a^inat malicinUB arson"? Who could oavs 
told Mirs Cabbe such a trraieniiouB. , . . blague about 
theee ptaqtia f Thsj are put up in a " pFomineut 
place," nmply as a means of advertisement, by tJie 
inauiauce companies. And direcU; afterwaida, we 
rrnA- — " In Normandy, of very recant yeaia, the ia- 
hnbitante «f eereral diitiirts have adopted the use of 
tiles (alatee. more correctly speaking), iastrad of 
thatch, avowedly Id sere themselves from the danger 
arising tram the envy of neighbours and reIativM''(l) 
Pardon me. the Norman peasants — and you maj 
credit one who is a Nnrman himself and lives id the 
midst of them — are neither such incendiaries nor such 
had neighbours, nor siich poets as that wouTd imply. 
The; are substituting the more costlj tite or stata for 
the ancient thatch rouf now because they have grows 
richer, and because from the manner ia which their 
fitrms are organised tbe thatch roof is a constant 
danger iu cases of unintentional fire. We should be 
careful not to try to prove too much ; tlie wisdom of 
old snid that it came to the same thing as proving 
DothiDg at nil. 



58 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 17, 1875. 



HISTORT OF EASTEBH CIYItlBATlOS USDER THE 
EHALlFBHS. 

Cvlturgetckichte dee Orienia uiiter den Cha- 

li/en. Yon Alfred von Kramer. Bd. I. 

(Vienna: Braumiiller, 1875.) 
The author of The Leading Ideas of Idwm • 
will not snfFcr in reputation b^ his new 
■worfc. The history of the civilisation of the 
Mohammadtin East daring the mle of the 
Khalifehfl is a most fertile anhject — so mnch 
so that it is matter for wonder that it has 
not already been thoroughly explored — and 
Herr von Kremer has done a good work in 
making some portion of it known to Euro- 
pean readers. When we leam that more 
than a thousand years ago a Mohammadan 
philosopher laid down the proposition that 
"the first pre-condition of knowledge is 
donbt ; " and when we are told that in the 
jarist schools of Baghdad it was debated 
whether the life of a slave or of an nnbelieTer 
was not worth as much as the life of a free- 
man or a Mnnlim, whether a woman coold 
hold the oBBce of jndge, and Hnchlike ques- 
tions, we need not ask whether the civilisa- 
tion that showed itself in thoughts sach as 
tiieae ia worth investigating. Bat were the 
pitch of civilisation less high it would atill 
hare been historically of the greatest im- 
portance to study the system of government 
and the military and financial oi^^iaation 
employed by that power which, in half a 
century, from possessing a comer of Arabia, 
came to spPtid from the Indus to the 
Atlantic, and from the Black Sea to 
Aethiopia. 

It is the province of a history of civilisa- 
tion as much to deecribe the formation and 
organisation of the Sute, as the manners 
and cnstome, the literature and modes of 
thought, of the people. Accordingly, Herr 
Ton Kremer has divided his work into two 
parte : the first, dealing with the political 
and judicial civilisation of the Uohammadan 
East dnriog the rnlc of the Khalifehs; and 
the second, yet to be pabhshed, treating of 
the religion, the culture, and the social con- 
dition of the period. 

Passing over the first chapter, wLich is 
an interesting, though somewhat difinse 
sketch of the characteristics of the Kba- 
liteh'g ofBce when held by the first four or 
"orthodox" Khalifehs, showing the essen. 
tially religious nature of the office and the 
absence at that time of any notion of ite 
hereditary right, we come to a very interest- 
ing part of the book, headed " The Town- 
Life " (daa stadtischc Leben). In it we 
obtain a moat charming glimpse of the daily 
life of the busy merchant-city of Mekkeh in 
preiislamic times, with its caravars bringing 
the silks and woven stuffs of Sjrria, and the 
iar.famed damask, and carrying away the 
sweet- smelling produce of Arabia, frank- 
inoense, cinnamon, sandalwood, aloe, and 
myrrh ; its assemblies of merchant chiefs 
"on 'Change," near the Kaabeh ; and, again, 
ite yoong poete, running over with sonnets 
and chivalry ; ite Ore^ and Persian slave, 
nrls brightening the Inxnrions banquet with 
their native songs, when as yet there was no 
Arab school of music, and the monotonous 



hat not unmelodious chant of the camel- 
driver was the national song of Arabia ; 
its cinb, where busy men spent their idle 
hoars, and idle men what should be their 
busy ones, in playing chess and draughts, 
or in gossiping with their acquaintance. The 
passion for poetry and music among the 
Arabs at that time is well illustrated by 
the numerous stories of poete and singers 
abonnding in this chapter. One of these 
is worth quoting. A certein stonemason 
named Hndall had a wonderfni gift of sing- 
ing. When he was at his work, the young 
men of the city used to importune him and 
make him presente of money and food to 
induce him to sing. He would then make a 
stipulation that they should first help him in 
his work ; and forthwith they would strip 
off their kaftans, and the stones wonid 
gather round him rapidly. Then he would 
mount a rock and begin to sing, while the 
whole hill was coloured red and yellow 
with the variegated garments of his audi- 
ence. Singers were then held in the 
highest admiration, and the greatest chie& 
used to pay their court to ladies of the 
musical profession. One of them used to 
give receptions, open to the whole city, in 
which she would appear in great state, sur- 
rounded by her ladies-in-waiting, each dressed 
magnificently and wearing an elegant arti- 
ficial chignon. This honourable condition 
of the pre'islamic musicians contrasts un- 
favourably with their later state. In the 
check be put upon music, as in most of hie 
dealings with the fine arte, MohEunmad made 
a mistake. For, although in p^an times 
there was a shady side to the musical en- 
thusiasm, and it was not all singers who 
were honourable, the Mnslim sappression of 
the art only brought that shady side into 
prominence, and nearly obliterated what was 
high and noble in it. An art that is made 
illicit and is held of ill reputation is sure to 
bear out its enforced character. 

The third chapter deals with the ad- 
ministration under the four "orthodox " 
Khalifehs. On the question of finance we 
find that the sources of income (beside the 
very important one of war-spoils) were chiefly 
the xokah, or prescribed alms, which was 
levied on all Muslims but the very poor, and 
consisted of a certain proportion (generally 
about 2^ per cent.) of their camels, sheep, 
money, produce of land, etc., and which went 
to pay the army, to provide the salary of the 
officers who superintended the levying of the 
tez, and to support the poor ; and, secondly, 
the poU-tex, levied on male adult unbelievers, 
amounting to about 40 francs' a^jear from the 
rich, 20 from the middle class, and 10 from 
the poor. The most curious feature of the 
administration was the annual distribution of 
the balance in the State treasury to the 
faithfol, in fixed proportions. 'Omar had a 
carefnl census taken of the whole body of 
Muslims, and every addition or decrease caused 
by birth or death was duly registered' from 
time to time. The distribution of the treasure 
began with the prophet's family. His 
favourite wife, 'Aisheh, received 12,000 fra, 
a-year, the other widows 10,000 ; each of the 
Helpers (Ansar) and Exiles (MahajirQn) 

* CoanCing tha dirhen at nbouC sqa*! M the fnuic, 

waigbt for veiglil., wilhoul rsfarenee to ths flucUudng 
MKhoDgs Tslnc of ■ilrer. 



who had fought at the battle of Bedr, 5,000 ; 
and the Khallfeh himself received the same 
sum. So the distribution went on till it 
came down to 300 franca a year given te 
certain ordinarymen of the Yemen. Women 
who had left Mekkeh for Medineh' after 
Mohammad's flight had 6,000 a year; 
children at the breast 100, increasing to 200 
and further as they grow ; and foundlings 
were similarly brought up at the State ex- 

The effect of this unparalleled system of 
finance in consolidating the nation and 
uniting it with one centre — the State — ia 
obvious. The same chapter contains a very 
valuable account of the war-department — the 
tactics in battle, the arms, officering ajid 
marshalling of the early Mnslim armies, and 
the practice of establishing garrisons and 
military depdts in a large number of the 
principal cities of conquered countries. 

"•Damaacns and the Court of the Omey- 
yades," as the next chapter is headed, seems 
to have been introduced chiefly with a view 
to the picturesque. The German language, 
however, except in the hands of a chosen 
few, does not lend itself readily to the 
description of scenery, and we must vote Herr 
von Kremer' B acconnt of Damascus, its 
country, ite houses, ite inhabitente, and its 
intrigues between high-bom ladies and en- 
thusiastic poet-lovers, a littlo tiresome. 

Chapter V., "The Formation of ttie 
State," is a sort of constitutional history of 
the mle of the Araawi (Omeyyade), and 
'Abbaai Khalifehs, abounding in important 
information concerning the division of the 
empire into provinces, the duties of the 
various divans, or departments, in the head 
administration, and of the various ministers 
and officials. The account of the postal 
communication is excessively carious and 
unexpected. It appears that there were lines 
of couriers between all the moro important 
cities of the empire and the capital ; and 
stations at intervals for changes of horses. 
The number of these stations in the entire 
empire amounted at one time to nearly a 
thousand; and in early times the annual 
cost of maintaining the horses and paying 
the postboys in the single province of 'Irak 
came to what was equivalent te four million 
franca. The speed of the post left nothing 
(except perhaps railways) to be desired, for 
we read that a courier travelled 750 English 
miles in three days. The pigeon-post wBi* 
also nsed. 

We are not able to do more than refer to 
the remaining chapters, VI. andVIf. ("Das 
Kriegswesen" and "DiePinanien "), twoof 
the most important in the book; Vlll. ("Der 
Organismus des Staates") equally valuable ; 
and the last, on the Mohammadan Law (IX- 
" Das Recht"), which, after on account of 
the formation of law among the Mnalims 
and of the principal judicial schools and their 
founders, proceeds to give a brief summary 
of Hanafi law. At the end of this chapter 



the author seeks to trace the origin of the 
Mohammadan code, and among other poiati 
he shows the improvements Mohammad 
effected in the existing systems of law ^ 
Arabia as concerned marriage, slavet^, aM 
the blood-revenge, etc. : a part of the work 
which will be spedally priaed bjrtiose who 
reverence the memory of the great AiaW*" 



JmT W, 18?5.3 



THE ACADEMY. 



69 



IVophet and believe in the good influence he 
isaa exerted on the £aat. 

One frord of critioisni before we end. It 
were mocli to be desired that Herr tou 
Kremer wonld give ua more aathoritj for 
his statements, many of which are so start- 
ling as to roqnire the fnllest proof before 
they can bo accepted as facts. We do not 
qnestion hia accuracy, but we should be 
glad if he wonld substantiate each statement 
by a refevence to the original antborities 
&om irhich it was derived. In a second 
•dition the work might also very well be 
improved by a more perapicuonB arrange- 
ment, and by being made considerably less 

The gfratitode, not only of Orientalists, 
but of students of histoiy and of what Mr. 
FrBCman calls the new-bom science of Com- 
parative Politics, is dne to Herr Alfred von 
Kremer for one of the most important cod- 
tzibutions to oar knowledge of the East that 
faae for a lopg time been made. To Orien- 
taUsta it wiUbe "athoosand years" tmtil 
the second volnme is completed. 

Stutlbi Lane Poole. 



TRATBIJ.IBO IN SOBWAT, 

Norwai/: Muetraied Handbook for TraveUert. 
Edited by Chr. Toaaberg. With 134 En. 
glarings on Wood, and 17 Maps. (Chris- 
tiania: Chr. Tonsberg, Fnblisher. Lon- 
Am : Triibner A, Co., 1875.) " 
Tka Vada Meam, or A B Chiide to Dm- 
mark, Sweden, and Norway. By Ttenmb 
Elolifca. With Map and Illnatrationa. 
(London : Provost 4 Co., 187fi.) 
The popolarify of Norway as a place for 
Bummer resort has so mnch increased within 
the last faw years that any information ve- 
Bpecting that country is a matter of interest 
to an infinitely greater nnmber of people than 
it was fifteen or even ten years ago. A very 
complete iUostrated handbook for traveU 
lers in B^orway baa been published by Mr. C. 
Tonsberg, of Chriatiania, which can be ob- 
tained at Meesrs. TViibner's, of Lndgate Hill. 
It is abont the size of a Continental Brad- 
Bhaw, and contains nearly 600 closely printed 
pages of valnable information, together with 
a series of dearly executed maps of varions 
nnit«a ; vrhile some idea may be formed of 
Its exhaastive character from the fact of the 
index containing upwards of 1,200 names 
of places to which reference is made. In 
additioD to this the preface contains an 
acconnt of the geology and natural bistoiy 
of the coontry, the national chaiacter of its 
inhabitants, statistics of commerce, &o., 
together with suggestions for tours, and 
DSefiil information regarding equipment and 
other mattem which add to the traveller's 
comfort. The scenery of Norway varies a 
good deal in different parts ; though monn. 
tains aboond all over the country, those- in 
the south do not attain a great altitude, 
while there is more of a woodland cha- 
racter in the landscapes, and more verdnre, 
especially as the foliage of the larch is 
blended with that of the fir. The finast 
scenery lies undoubtedly in the fiocds and 
their neighbourhood on the north and west 
coasts, such as the Sogne and Hardanger 
fiords and the Bomsdal valley up to Dom- 



baas, where the snow-capped bills and the 
cliffs and waterfalls are extremely grand. 
The monntainons parts of the interior are 
rather disappointing where they consist of 
vast tracts of dreary heath with no sign of 
life save a few hoodie crows and magpies, 
while the height that the traveller ha^ to 
ascend takes off very much ^m the appa- 
rent altitude of the mountains. The very 
best and most comfortable way of seeing 
the fiords and western coast of Norway is 
in a steam yacht, landing here and there, 
and making short excursions up the country. 
All trouble about hotels is avoided ; and the 
grandeur of the cliffs and mountains is much 
enhanced when eeen from tbe water. A 
Bailing vessel is of httle use unless where 
there is unlimited time, and even then it is 
a precarious mode of locomotion, owing to 
the prevalence of long calms in the summer 
and the chances of contrary winds. There 
are, however, convenient lines of country 
steamers which run all round the coast, and 
up and down the fi/trds, stopping at the 
different stations. The greater .part of their 
course ia in smooth water, owing to the 
landlocked nature of the fiords and the belt 
of reefs and rocky islands which snrround 
nearly the whole of the western cosat and 
act as a natural breakwater. Carriole travel- 
ling, though pleasant enough at first uid for 
a day or two, when pursued for honr after 
hour fbr several days in a springless vehicle 
is apt to become very monotonous and tiring. 
It is impossible for a traveller to see the 
whole of Norway in one season, and many 
people visit the countiy year after year 
apparently with increasing pleasure. Those 
who wish merely to pay a flying visit will 
find Mr. Burnett's little book of use, but 
as be compresses Denmark and SiTeden as 
■well as Norway into the short space of 90 
pages, the information though good is not 
very extensive ; he has, however, added 160 
pages of vocabulary and advertisements, 
which it is to be hoped may be of service. 
There is, apparently, some confosion in his 
acconnt, in the pretloce, of the season allowed 
by law for shooting, as he places it in the 
breeding time of the different birds which 
A. J. Cbosbt. 



The Botidoir Cabal. By the Author of " The 

Member for Paris." (London: Smith, 

Elder & Co., 1875,) 
The High JUillt. By Katharine Sannders. 

(London : H. S. KSig & Co., 1875,) 
" Oomin' thro' the Rye." (London : R. Bentley 

& Son, 1875.) 
Jean. By Mrs. Newman. (London : Smith, 

Elder & Co,, 1875.) 
A Garden of TFonwin. By Sarah Tytler. 

(London : Smith, Elder & Co., 1875.) 
The fashion of novela seems to change almost 
!n the same way that dress changes. One 
season will devote itself to colonial life, 
another to continental life, a third to mis- 
taken identity, a fourth to the ideal and 
ill-used ^vemesB, a fifth to the beautiful 
fiend, and so on. We seem lately to have 
taken to the newspaper novel which ia 
about equally divided between politics and 
the money-market, with occasional police 



intelligence and breach of promise oa^eB 
to make it palatable to the lowest tastes. 

The Boudoir Cabal is full of " the weary 
ways of earth and men." The trials and 
temptationa of the very highest circlee form 
the subject-matter of the three volumes. 
Lord Mayrt^e the hero is one of those beau- 
tiful and gifted beings who chiefly exist in 
books like liothavr. He begins life wi^ 
5,000i!. a year, and after many vioissitndes 
ends with 25,000i. In the course of a year 
or two of Parliamentary hfe, he becomes a 
Cabinet Minister, rejects an earldom, mar- 
ries the daughter of a millionaire, refnses to 
commit the Government to a speculative 
loan for his own private interests, gets into 
unhappiness and out of it, goes through 
many difficult and compromising circum- 
stances, and at last saves the life of bia 
greatest enemv from a raging lunatic in 
what is called oy tbe author " a palpitating 
scene." But we cannot help thinking that 
hie conduct towards Lady Azalea Carol, 
when he makes up hia mind to cure 
her of her love for himself after be is 
married, by means of an affectionate cai- 
respondence and a series of clandestine 
meetings in a summer-house, is at least open 
to question, though we are informed it was 
all done with the highest motdves — at any 
rate it does not warrant him in his violent 
treatment of Grace Marvell when she finds 
him out. Sir Ham aud Lady Pennywon, 
the "nonveanx riches," areexaggerated cha- 
racters, though the author treats them with 
a certain amount of respect and kindneaa 
because they represent Mie class of people 
who hiiy novels at Zla. Qd. Their daughter 
Mary, and a quaint secretary called Quilpin 
Leech, are the only people who inspire us 
with any admiration, and we feel that Mary 
is much too good for Mayrose, who looni 
down upon her, and Quilpin Leech is too 
good for Grace Marvell. In real life we do 
not think that she would have married him, 
or that he would have wished it. 

The book will probably be read, for it con- 
tains some smart writing, a sensational plot, 
much political allnaion, club gosaip, and 
fashionable scandal. 

Several of the characters seem to be por- 
traits from the Hfe, and we think are not 
always drawn in the best taste ; but that is 
a matter of opinion. But to set ^^ainst 
what is amusing we have such passages aa 

the following ; — 

" It was like the room of a royal paUce. 
There waa no gas, bat six wax candles of pearly 
whiteneaa, Bet in branches jutting from ovu. 
minon, bathed the bias ikrnitim in a light 
h«itiitifiill J clear. On the round table in the centre 
of tbe room stood a amall, axquiaitely chased silver 
urn and a tea-eervice of porcelain, so transporaat 
BB to be like pink Bhella. These preparatione for 
tea removed all melodramk glamoiu from the 
room, &c." 

And ia another place we read that " Majroae 
glanced in from the threshold, and his eye 
fell on the portraits of hia ancestors. Tt^ 
were standing motionless in their frames ! '* 
— we are not told what they ought to have 
been doing — " so motionless tliat they 
seemed to be like an army saluting him." 

From the strength and pathos of the 
former short stories by Katharine Saunders, 
we had expected something better than The 
High MilU in a longer book. It is in- 



60 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpLT 17, 1875. 



terestios and in parts well-writteii, but it is 
too mnch at bigh pressare. Life does not 
consiBb entirely of violent eiDotiooB, and a 
miller's mau even with homicide on his mind 
wonld not be always striking attitudes. The 
Bcenerjr of the story is very pictnresquo. A 
windmill plays the principal part in it, 
and the old miller and hia wife (always 
watching for the retnm of the son who has 
deserted them to be an artist in London) 
are pathetic and aait the scene. The story 
commences with the arrival of a mysterious 
stranger, who works for them night and day 
nnder the pressnre of some terrible secret. 
He fills in love with Nora, a beaatifnl girl 
in the neifibbonrhood, who is betrothed to 
the miller's absent son. The arrival of a 
blind beggar, with a blind granddanghter, 
who are in some myaterions way connected 
with his secret, throws Michael, the miller's 
man, into great anxiety ; and in passing it 
may be noticed that the blind beggar 
Bardsley is the most original and amnaing 
character in the book, as, for instance, when 
he tells Polly, his granddaughter, who is half 
idiotic : — ■ 

" I'm well aware as you're not strong, and cao't 
reckon on your mind in the right place and the 
right time, and it ain't for my sake but vour own 
hiotirely as I could wish for you to brealt off this 
sort o' childish way you has of roaring out over 
a bit of trouble, which as I've told you often is a 
thing ssws'ie all bom to, and as runs in your own 
ftnaij most perticklerly." 

At the end of the second volume the 
secret oomea oat, and the third ahows the 
coneeqnences of it, which are not so very 
fearfnl after all. There are very few cha- 
racters in the book, and if the emotional and 
descriptive parts had been restrained, the 
plot, with the exception of the end, which we 
think is an anti-climax, wonld have entitled 
the book to a high place among the fictions 
of the day ; but we cannot feel the reality of 
a miller's man of whom it is written " that 
with eyes closed in rapture, Michael erected 
liimself, turned his dark face skywards, and 
laughed." Or again, when he bears a sky- 
lark that " starts np out of the silence and 
langnor, like a sadden sweet deed from a 
stagnant life, he looked up and laughed, 
and muttered, while his worn nptomed eyes 
danced in light, 'Well said, little silver- 
pipe, I believe you too.' What was said 
and what believed in lay between Michael 
and the apeck growing more and more 
minute against the blanched blue of the 
evening sky," And this fine writing turns 
to bathos occasionally, as when " those tiny 
dents " on the grey-walled church are ac- 
connted for "as if through Time having let 
80 many of hia baby years cat their teeth 
on it ; " or again, when Michael " looks out 
of the window in the early morning, pushes 
back his cap, and throws npward, as if 
straight into God's eyes, a smile of irre- 

Sreeaible, lowly, but full-hearted congmta. 
ition." There is plenty of imaginative 
power in Miss Sanndera' writing, and an 
abundant gift of words ; but her style needs 
pruning and dramatic force, the force which 
will faithfully represent, not what a person's 
feelings and actions wonld be under certain 
circamstancea if that person's mind were 
regulated by Miss Saunders' will, but what 
he would really think and do if left to himself. 



We have traces of an inspiration derived 
from Miss Broughton in Comin' tkro' Ihe 
Rye. It ia written with an ease and light- 
ness which make it readable, though it con- 
descends every now and then to vulgarity, 
and also to such words as "unhungry," 
" houghten," 4<i. Its bero " looks deep into 
the heroine's laughing foce with his brown, 
brown eyes, that ore self-willed and strong 
and tender at one and the same time ; " and 
it quotes poetry and quotes it wrong, as in 
Shakspere's lines where it speaks about 
" Pale primroBes 
That die unmvrmurtd," 
when it shonid be " unmarried ; " and in 
Jean Ingelow's song " When sparrows 
build," where our anthor quotes with great 
approbation a line about 

" The faded benle o'cfhead." 
totally oblivions of what " bente " are, or 
that the word in the original is " o'erspread," 
which makes sense, while her quotation is 
nonsense. The book conveys the impression 
of being written very rapidly, and aome- 
what recklessly, and it rattles on cheerily 
tbroogb all dificnltics. The heroine is one 
of a very large family, who have a disagree- 
able father, styled " the governor " all 
through the story. She has, of course, two 
lovers — one good and sensible and devoted to 
her, and him of " the brown, brown eyes " 
whom she prefers. The latter, who has the 
remarkably ugly name of Paul Vaaher, has 
broken off a foolish engagement, and engages 
himself to our heroine Nelly, whom he sees 
" comin' thro' the rye " with a crown of 
poppies on ber head ; but very utiforeseen 
circumstances arise, through the wickedness 
of his first love, who pats Nelly's marriage 
to somebody else into the paper, and in ten 
days (an incredibly short space of time for 
all that happens in them) these two hap|^ 
lives are blighted. At the end we hear of 
Paul Vaaher in heaven, expecting to see 
Nelly "comin' thro' the rye, God's rye." 
What is the meaning of " God's rye," with 
which the book closes emphatically, we can- 
not tell ; it reminds us irresistibly of C, S. C.'s 
line, " We thrid God's cowslips as erst His 
heather," and we wonder that the author's 
own sense of humour, which is evidently 
strong, did not make her think of the same 
thing. 

Mrs. Newman's Jean Is the most 
gushing, unpractical, and foolish young per- 
son that ever took upon herself the duties 
of companion or governess. She is always 
"blushing rosy red" and shedding "deli- 
cious tears." She talks about " a tiny little " 
of things, she throws ber arms round the 
neck of the nearest housemaid whenever 
her feelings are too much for her ; for a 
considerable time she keeps a will hidden 
which wonld make her wealthy while she 
nearly starves, and draws a good woman 
who is kind to her into difficulties on her 
behalf. 5er death is put into the news- 
paper when she is not dead, and she becomes 
companion to her own mother without ever 
knowing it. These indications of the plot 
will be quite sufficient to make people sure 
that there is plenty of incident in the book, 
and some people like a gushing heroine. 

The Garden of Women, by Sarah Tytler, is 
a charming volume of stories, mostly reprints 
from Frater and the CornkUl Magaxine. 



The stories are told with a graphic sprigbtli- 
ness and a grace and delicacy of touch that 
make them. Miaa Tytler's specialiie. The 
little plots ore so clear and well-balanced, 
the sketches of character, however slight, 
are all so thoroughly defined, that none of 
them are nnintereating. We like " B.no " 
(Keeping Faith) one of the best, and well 
remember the charm it had for many readers 
when it appeared not very long ago in the 
Cm-nldll ; but the " Lent LUy " (Bae GifTord) 
and the "Sprig of Heather" and "Sweet 
Pea " are almost as delightful in their own 
way. F. M. Owem. 



CUKREirT UTBRATUBB. 



Thb new Aldine edition of Ccm^beiri Poeti- 
cal Work* (Oeoifce Bell & Sons) wiU suggot 
anew for the couaideration of poetical atudenta 
one of the moit curious of poetical Bnanialiee. 
For mere and pure " bloodatimngneas " Oampbell'a 
three great martial lyrics probably stand alone — 
or if notalone,in the company only of Brant Lori 
WiUotighbj/, of Drayton's Agituxmrt, and of the 
SchwertUed. On the other hand, the knguid ad- 
miration with which one endeavours to read the 
remaindar of hia poems — numerous as aw the lines 
which have somehow commended themselves to 
the general memoiy — is perhapa not the most 
desirable crown for a poet. Au. Allingham has 
written a hiogiaphico-cntical introduction fur this 
volume — which introduction wa would praise, if 
we could. Mr. AJIingham's style appears to ua to 
be that of .a man who haa endeavoured to achieve 



ii of b 






duoing a by no means lovely patchwork. Neither 
are his critical deliveranceahappj. The meimsidia 
the "Battle of the Baltic" — upon whom Ur. Allin^- 
ham has committed an aggravated assault — u 
Burel; a harmless personage with some peculiar 
local propriety. The verdict on " Lochiel," that 
" there is a superabundance of blood in the ri^ 
ture," shows a strange critical insensibility. The 
poem ia a viium — and the aufiuaion of the hue of 
blood over everything is one of its most character- 
istic features. But it is easy to skip Mr. AUing- 
ham's piefiace, and then we have in the book a 
full, convenient, and sstiifactory edition of a poet 
whose position ia generally easy to feel, however 
specifically difficult it may be to determine. 

Oleanin^ for the Curiou*. Collated by C. 0. 
Bomhough, A.M., M.D. (Low & Oo.) If Dr. 
Bombouirh by means cf the quotation from Ruth 
which stands on his title-psgb leads any of the 
curious to expect an " ephan of good corn irom 
his book, he will not, it may safely be said, leave 
them long in that expectation. Like Ruth he has 

K' »ned diligently, but unlike her he seema to 
ve quite for^tteu to beat out that he has gleaned. 
Beginning with a chapt«r on " Alphabetical 
Whims," Dr. Bombough treats us in the course of 
the volume to copious iUostratdons of all binds of 
eccentric verse, churchyard literature, epigrams, 
puzzles, foucies of fact, historical memoranda, 
Sc, winding up with a law odds and ends strung 
together under the conveniently vague title of 
" Life and Death." In such a large and hetero- 
geneuua collection there must of course be a great 
deal to interest and amuse, but Dr. Bonibough 
seems to forget that many things which might 
suit the *' Varieties Oelumn " of a provincial news- 
paper are umply astounding in a hook which 
purports " At one time to rescue iiom oblivion 
fugitive thoughts which the world should ' not 
wulingly let oie,' at another to restore to sunlight 
germs which have been too long ' underkept and 
down supprest.' " The book seems American, and 
it ia a little unfamiliar for us to have names of 
towns which occur both in England and America 
msriied with the «icUtic " Eng." 
Cabor SwAinsoH in Tht 



JcLT 17, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



61 



</' tit Aet of Vm/ormit^ (Mumj), has given io 
great detail an account of the proceodinga ofGon- 
rocUicni and of the two Hoiuea of Parliament in 
dte rerisioii of the Pmyer Book and the production 
of this important atatuts. This ia founded on the 
memotkndA Tec«iitly dtBCOrered in tile House of 
Lords, ^hichenable ns totRLcedikj by day the altar- 
sdoiiB made in the Bill in the coursa of diacuBuou. 
The Kll is nrintedas it left the Lorda.and special 
^p» ie DSea to incUcate the changw inade liy the 
Ciunmona. B; this meana, with the help of Canon 
Swunson'a elucidatory remarks, a clear insight is 
sifen into tlie aims and temper of the Tarious 
Dodien irhoae ooncuirence was neceasary, which 
will be of the atmoat use to the historian even 
whan the special circoniatancea whicb are just now 
dtvring attention to the Aet shall have passed 



9 history and historiography of a 
city which, after Bome, has hardly any equal. 
Psm SchefTer-Boicborst's Fiorettimer Studiin 
centaina a raiics of critical diaaertations on the 
foiKed chroiuclee known hitherto bv the names of 
Maleapini and Dino Oompanii, ana on such other 
BOnrcM aa were chiefly uied tj Giovanni Villani 
for oompiling thti history of Florence during the 
twelM) and thirteenth centuries. On the other 
hand, the Itloria delta RepabbHca di FiraToe, by 
tbe celebrated Marchess Oino Oapponi, will be 
veteomed by the schohua of all cultivated na- 
tions. Id ^te of two such historinna, however, 
tiiere ia ilill room for another fellow-worker, 
Docoments only referred to by SchefTei^Boichorst 
■re printed for the first time, and the earliest hia- 
iarj of the city, hardly touched by Giao Onpponi, 
aince he starts only from the middle of the thir- 
teenth centmy, is moat conscientiously elucidated 
in Dr. Otto Hartwig's Qudien und fbnchungtn 
our a&tatim OetehieMa der Stadt ITormiz (Erater 
neil, Maxbuig, 1876), quarto (iliii, 95). 
This geDtlsmaQ, already lavourably known by his 
books and treatisee on the history, antiquities, art, 
and literature of Sicily, has fately turned his 
•ttention to Central Italy. After considerable la- 
bonra, he communicatee the results of his re- 
seaiches in the archivea and librariee of Florence, 
Lucca, and Siena, in which he has been most 
hbarallysupported by the assistance of certain well- 
known local biatoHans. 

The &at instalment of Dr. Hartwig's work, 
which will soon be followed by a second and con- 
cladin^part, begins with a critical t«xt of the 
OttlajiorerainorumtKna the only extant manu- 
tcrint which was never printed before, and which 
in net appears to be the earlieet production of 
Tlorentine historit^rrapby of which the author is 
buwD. The editor discusses in an elaborate 
introdoction whatever is to be nthered about the 
psjBOD and the time of the Index Sataanome, 
whose oajrative atop* ahort in the middle of a 
eeatextoe referring to the year 1231. He diavs 
luB conclusiona with regard to the relative value 
of a chronicle which, though ita opening lines are 
fra^nnentary, bc^ns with the days of Cicero and 
Julius Caesar. 



Florence mannscript, to which are added in col- 
lateral columns, for purposes of comparison, a ver- 
noD in the Trecento language from a mamiacript at 
Iiooca, aa well aa a reprint of the Iiibro Fietotrmo. 
It is this Florentine chronicle in which occur the 
very nuiaeir talea told by the women of Florence 
to their children according to Oaccisguida, Para- 
<«M), zv. 123:— 



The student will find again in the learned intro- 
duction a string of valuable remarks on the 
legendary, or rather prehistoric, antecedents of the 
dij, whose inhatutanta in Dante's time were not 



satisfied with an origin so lata aa Caesar and 
Octavianus. 

The third and last item in the present pub- 
lication is a dissertation by Dr. I^rtwig him- 
self on Florence, from its foundation about 190 
B.C, to the bc^nning of the twelfth century. 
The author shows how the city was re-founded 
by Augustus, who named her Julia Augusta 
I^rentia, and how she had in later tunee a very 
chequered destinj^, though the story of ber de- 
struction by Tolila (alias Attila), and her re- 
building by Cbarlee the Great, is doubUess 
legendiuy. Moreover, Dr. Hartwig is able to 
trace the original square of the Boman walls in 
connexion and comparison with the later me- 
diaeval circumvallatlon, both from diggings at 
the spot and from some very curious notices 
occurring in these early chronu^es. The descrip- 
tion of the politico-ecclesiastical events, which 
shook Florence as the residence of the great 
OountesB Mathildia to the very bottom in the days 
of Pope Gregory VII. and the Emperor Henry IV., 
is well worth a careful perusal. 

The second portion of this interesting work, 
which is nearly ready for press, is to contain 
extensive commentaries on the earliest annals, a 
complete list of the Consuls and Podestas, a ^s- 
sertation on the so-called Oironiwn Bruneltt La- 
tinif and a reconstruction of the annalistic Gegta 
FlorerUinontm, trom which Villani and other his- 
torians of Florence derive nearly all their know- 
ledge down to the year 1308. 

Dr. Wtlib, in The Sietory of Prrdm/.ardiim 
(Oassell, Fetter, 4 Galpin)— now being issued in 
parts, and widely advertised na " a new and im- 
portant work which all who are interested in pro- 
moting a true Protestant feeling throughout the 
land " are eamestiy besought to circulate — repre- 
sents the Albigenses to his uneducated readers as 
a primitive Church, holding pure doctrines, which 
suffered persecution for justice' sake, and sur- 
rendered a noble arm^ of martyrs to witness 
with their blood " sgamst the corruptions of the 
Ohnrch of Bome." Aa the Acadbmt finds its 
way to the drawing-room as well as the library, 
it would scarcely be prudent to attempt here any 
elucidation of so unsavoury a subject sa that of 
the doctrines held and tiie practices adopted 
by the Albigenses. It is enough to say that the 
curious in such matters will find a very full, and, 
at the same time, a very impartial account of the 
mediaeval sects generally, in the Protestant Hahn 
(^Oe»chkhie der Katxer, vol. i., Stuttgart^ 1846), 
whose statements are fortified in everj instance 
by copious referencea — a method of compiling 
ecclesiastical history which we would venture to 
recommend to the attention of the Rev. Dr. Wylie. 

Getchk/Ue der OtrutUiA-LaUinuiAen LUrra- 
tur. VonA. Ebert. (Leipzig: VogeL) Ebertis 
known already by several interesting monographs 
vpon the apolo^sts and upon the Christian poets ; 
and as both thme subjects are exhaustible, he has 
ventured npon a larger one, and undertaken a 

Sneral history of mediaeval literature, of which 
I present work may be regarded aa the first in- 
stalment, as up to the time of Charlemagne all 
literature was Ohristian, and even ecclesiastical. 
It may be doubted whether the writer, at starting, 
had precisely foreseen the nature of his task ; for 
his selection is made decidedly more with re- 
ference to what at our day is considered 
literature than with reference to die propoi~ 
tion in which different writers helped to con- 
atitute the common stock of notions and images 
upon which mediaeval literature went to work. 
For instance, no writer waa more influential 
than Gregory the Great, but he is very lon^, 
very dull, and it sounds plausible to say that his 
fantastic exposition of the Book of Job does not 
belong to literature, and so be ia diamiaaed in some 
sixteen pages after a very perfunctory account of 
his Dialogues, with a nther fuller treatment of his 
metrical significance, as marking the transition 
from metrical to rhythmical hymns. If it was 



still uncertain to the author how much of the 
patristic writings had passed into mediaeval 
literature, it would have been sufficient to describe 
the whole activity of each writer at a length pro- 
portioned to his contemporary rank ; but this, of 
course, would have required philosophical and 
theological knowledge, and perhaps some accuracy 
of thought, which can hanlly he expected of a 
writer who renrda Bede's Life of St, Cuthbert 
as an historic^ romance, marely because Bede, 
like St, Cuthbert, bebeved in contemporary mira- 
cles. This is the mora inexcusable, because in ' 
treating Sulpicius Severus's life of St. Martin the 
writer shows a great deal of acuCecesa in auggeat- 
ing how more or less imaginary miracles come to 
be supported by contemporary evidence. Such 
evidence, however miatakeu, belongs to history, 
not to historical romance. Nor is it possible to 
Bay much of the treatment of authora hkc Jerome 
and Augustin ; their principal works, or those of 
them which are regarded as literary, are analysed 
in a painstaking way, hut with no particular 
insight into their characteristic ideas. On 
the other hand, the account of the apolo- 
gists, all of whom the author thinks made use 
of Minucius Felix, is verv suggestive and good. 
One curious inference the author is perhaps 
too discreet to draw, that Paganism succumbed to 
a criticism as unfair and inadequate as Voltaire's 
criticism of Christianity. Still better is the treat- 
ment of the poets, whose intrinsic literary merila 
are scrutinised with exemplary patience and a 
skill which almost convinces the reader that solid 
results are reached. Perhaps patience and skill 
are rather thrown awa^ on writers like Commodian 
or Dracontius, but it la a gain to have our atten- 
tion called to the services of Prudeutius as the 
creator of the ballad, and it is promising for the 
fiitura portions of the work to observe how in- 
geniously the author traces the spirit of modem 
Spanish literature in Prudentiua, and that of 
NorthemFrench literature in PaulinusandSidrauaB 
Apollinaris. Eduob. 



NOTES AJm NEWS. 
Wx understand that the article in tiie coirent num- 
ber of the Brkiih Quarta-ty ReoUm on " Augusta 
Trevirorum " is from the pen of Dr. E. A. Fiewian. 

Thx firat volume of the loog-eipected Hutory 
of Co-operation in England, Dv Oeoige Jscw 
Holvoake, embracing the perioJl from 1814 to 
183S, will be published in a few daya. 

Mr. W. Cabxw HAELirr has in the press a 
supplement to his Saad-Sook to the Popuiar, 
Poetical, and Dramatic Literature of Great 
Britain, from the Inetmtion of Priating to the 
Beatoration (J. R. Smith, 1867). The new 
volume will be uniform in die and type with its 

fredecessor, and will contain the results of lib. 
laxlitt's unwearied gleanings irom rare books 
during the last seven years. 

As a compliment to its English subscribers, who 
number twenty-five out of its list of 360memhen, 
the Old-French Test Society has resolved to re- 
print and re-edit " The Debate betweene the 
Seraldet of Englimde and Fraanee, compylad by 
Jhone Coke, Olerk of the Statutee of the Staple of 
Weatmynater," black letter. As the volume con- 
dndes with three pages of verses addressed by 
Ooketo the enemies ofEdwardVL (Hazlitt),its 
date must be about ISfiO a-d. 

We understand that the Rev. N. Pocock, aa- 
thor of Frincmlet of the Beformatioa, intends to 
publish very snortiy a aeriea of documents which 
will prove the authenticity of the fecta detailed 
in that work. 

Mbssrs. Abel Ebtwood Ain> Soir have in 
preparation a new and complete- edition of the 
poems and songs of Mr. Edwin Waugh, confes- 
sedly the first of those who have illustrated in its 
ovm dialect the poetical side of Lancashira life, 
and not only in Doric, bat in cultivated English 
also, a poet of great lyrical power and beauty. 



62 



TKE ACADEMY. 



[Jtot 17, 187>. 



n Club of OLiBgoiv hae just Best 
ontitefiTut iuae for the third year 1873~-l,coiiBiHt> 
ii^ of Samuel Rowlande's Mora Knaou Yet? no 
^i»;TheEnax<tofHafU,\&U; The MtlanclmUe 
:atight, 1815; Lodge's PMi»: Hortmired with 
PMoraa SormeU, 1593: and The Divtl Coniwred, 
1B06. The text of Patrick HwHifty's Pettieai 
Worla, 1622, ia ready, butwBita for Dr. D. Lain^'a 
titroduction to it. The Club hopes to issue this 
year the second part of the Bammtyue MS. ; 
and has in the preM Rowlands's Bttraymg of 
Chritt, 1598; 'Tn Merrie when Gostipt Merte, 
1602; A Sacred Memoria, 161»; and Lodpe's 
OrfAaroB .- Diogenes in hit Sirtffalaritie, 1691 ; The 
Wotmdi of Vimll War, 1S94. The Honorary 
Secretary of the Olub, Mr. AIot. Smith, Laurel- 
hHnk Place, Shawhuids, Qlaagow, -will be i^ieatly 
obliged by information about any of the follow- 
ing rare tmeta of Samuel Rovlande, as the OInb 
wantB to reprint them, but can find no copy of 
■ny of them : — Tit Mvrrie mhen Oom^ Mr«te,''2tiA 
«dil£on, 1606, for collation ; A Theatre of J)e~ 
Gghtfid Recreativn, 4to, 1605 ; Demoeritvi, or Dr. 
Merry-mrm, 4to, 1607 ; Six London Qotnpa, $w. 
(mentioned in the Harleian Catalogue), 1607; 
e/u^ Earl of Waneieke, Lond. by Edward All-de, 
4to, no date. 

Mb, Kbsworiii's reprint of Merry DroSery 
(Boston ; Roberts) ie just ready. 

Thb Beport of the oommittee appointed to 
•zamine into the alleged errors in the Lthographed 
fitcsimile of Lebor na Huidre haa just reached ui. 
It leaves us in ignorance as to tha composition of 
the committee, but it betrays the bet that its 
BuiD object waa to exculpate the copyists aa far 
•s poBBible. So it ia very significant when these 
fl^^erte, if such they are, admit that the copy is 
M>t quits accurate in ten cases out of the twenty 
alleged by Mr. Stokes ; of course, tlu^ take ean, 
•8 a rule, to qualify the inaeeunmeB as very 
trifling, but we are not aui» that pnctised tmcera 
VToold agree with them on that point. One CSJI- 
not help thinking that the Report read in thia 
light virtually admits the inaccuracy of the copy 
in three more eases, eapeciallv aa it cannot be re- 
garded aa a point in lavour of the copyists that, 
when a chanict«r may be read la n or u, for 
BiBtanee, they reproduce it as a decided a or a 
decided u, rather than by a character equally 

Suivocal with the original. On the whole, then, 
r. Stokea seems to have the best of it in thirteen 
cases out of twenty, and the inaccuracy of the 
work is established. But whether " auch errors 
as have !j«n proved to exist mnst," as the Report 
tells us, " be eTpected to occur in all human work," 
K a question which demanda the Academy's moat 
leHoua consideration, and one on which we could 
offir it no advice. 

It was not likely that M. Groen van Prinsterer 
would hUow Mr. Motley's version of Damevelt's 
&1I ta remain without repl^. In his Maurice et 
JBamenelf, (Utrenht: Keminir et Fils) he has 
answered in the best possible wav by reprinting 
from the Archiset ile la Maisoti d'Orange Nnami 
fte corref.r on dunce between Maurice and his cousin 
William Louie, together with his own introduc- 
tion to tbc volume, in which that correspondence 
Is found. To thia he has added a long and dis- 
ciufwve preface in which he expresses hia high 
sdmiratinn of Mr. Motley's powers, but gives 
reasons for thinking that ha has misapprehended 
both Maurice's character nnd the nature of the re- 
Tolntdon of 1618. Mr. Groen van Prinsterer is, 
as IS well known, a fervent admirer of the decrees 
of the Synod of Dort, but even those who do not 
agree wth him on this point will hardly deny 
that hp hns shown good cause for questioning Mr. 
Hotiey's inferences. 

PBontmoB 0. F. Hastt has printed at Rio de 
Janwro an interesting brochure on the Ama- 
zonian Tortoise Myths. He experienced great 
difficulty in obtaining these narrations from the 
Indiana, and it wns only when they were sur- 
loiuided by the circumstances " that make story- 






lytbs are 
told not in Portuguese but in the Lin^roa geral, 
and the same story is found with but slight varia- 
tions from near the mouth of the Amazonas tfl 
Tahatfnga on the frontiers of Peru. I'rofessor 
Hnrtt doea not think it probable tJiat those fables 
have been introduced by the negroes. There are 
mytha of " the Paitiina, the wondei>-workiag sou 
of woman belonging to a tribe of females with 
only one huBhand," of Kurupfia the wood-devil, 
of water-aprites, and of a species of were-wolves. 
The tortoise myths narTate the stratagems by 
which the creature outxuns the deer, cheats a 
man, kills two JBguars, provokea a contest of 
rtrength between the tapir and the whale, kills a 

^1182 and makes a whistle of one of his bones, 
Ls an opossum by inducing him tA buiy him- 
self, sends ihe jaguar on a fool's errand, &c. These 
are all explained by Professor Hartt aa sun and 
moon myths. 

Toe Reoue CHlique at the 10th instant contains 
an unpuUished letter of Schl^;el, in the possession 
of yf. E. Eg^r, which is interesting as fihowing 
the 'gr^t critic's tender lef^d for Mdme. de 
Staef, who had just died. It is as follows : — 

" Foudroji pur la perfa inuaenw qno j'ai &ille 
quelque pr^coce (ait) qu'eUe fit, je suis iDcapable de 
voir personne, autrement j'auroia amnrinieiit it& chcz 
vnus, pour voiis t^moigner ma reconaoisssnce de 
toutcs vos boDt^s. et surtoat de I'int^t qne vous 
aveE toujours pria i, la mnladie de nion illnslro et im- 
mortelle protcctFice. Devunt partir ce Boir pour la 
Suisee pour remplir un devoir triate et sacrA, jovous 
tuis mts udieuz par krit. 

" Je Tons renvoye les livres que vons m'avei si 
libfraleraeot communiqniB, et j'eapiro <^nfl vous lea 
trauverez soigneosement conaervia. J'eu joins la note 
i cette lettre. 

"Je ne aais pas quHud je rsTieadrai i Fans. 
Vanillas m^ conservsr un hon eoavenir et eroire a 
I'aaaunnce de mas sentinena Ua plus empress^ 

" J'ai rhonneuT d'etre, 
" Honrienr, 

" V, It. h. et tr. obi. sscTitsur. 

"A. Vi. o* Scm-BOBL. 
Monsieur Langl^, chevalier, etc. 
, ■), 4 U Bibliothiqoe Eojalo. Ci-joint 3 
volnmee." 

Thx May and June numbets of the lyeiaatcAe 
JahrbOeher contain an interesting discussion on 
the manner in which the public semi-official task of 
editing the Moimmenta Oermamae is being carried 
on. The subject ia one that presents wider inte- 
rests than those appertaining to it aa a mere 
question of GFerman literary management, and 
in Professor Bninner's protest agwnst the un- 
wieldy dimensions, expensive forma, and arbitrary 
system pursued in the publication of these stan- 
dard national racords, other eommissiona besides 
those of Imperial Gtermany might find useful 
hints. Profcesor G. Waitz, in hia defence of the 
nndertj^ng for which be is now the reapocsible 
director, explains that the alphabetical order of 
anangement to which Dr. Brunner had objected 
in regard to the publication of the I«ws was dire 
to the nccidentnl circumstance that Br. Herkel 
had completed the " I-eges Alamannorum " and 
the " Leges Bajnvariorum " before any others in 
the series were ready, mnd that for uniformity's 
aake the alphabetical order was thenceforth 
adopted. Professor Waits admits tha tardiness 
and shortcomings charged against tbe department 
of the "L^es, when compared with the courae 
pursued in regard to the " Scriptores," but he 
pleads in extenuation tbe magnitude of the sec- 
tion, and the necessity for subdivisioB nnder a 
number of bands. He does not, however, as fkr 
as we can see, explain or extenuate the pmclace 
objected to 1:^ Dr. Brunner of printing n folio 
boohs intended to be carefully stadied and fre- 
quently eonaulted by jurists, nor that of having 
given notes and jirefacee in Larin in esses wli^« 
clear definitions in the vmiacular would seem to 
be especially called for. 



Tfi 



I IiT snother papei in the same journal, Samuel 
Pufiendorf is drawn forth from hia obecurity by 
Kerr von Traitachke. The almost total abeence of 
letters or aay other direct memoriaU of tiie gre«t 
Saxon thinker, whose hand was raised against all 
men, and who was at oDce admired and hated br 
his brother scholars, has made his task a diffi- 
cult one, but for that very reason the writer is tlie 
more to be thanked for the new light whicli he 
has tihrown on the diaiacter of Pu&odocf, who w 
known to us rather as the erudito Froteetant 
jurist of the seventeenth century than as tha oi^ 
ginal thinker, keen wit, accomplished tcaveUer, 
and acute politiciui, which ha really was. We 
can Bcaroely wonder at the storm of wrath and. 
perplexity excited in the minds of princes, eonr- 
tiers, and professors by the opinions advanced in 
his scathing satire, entitled Severini de Meeauihrnti^ 
de Statu Imperii (published anonymously in 1667 
in his thirty-fifdi year), when we bear in mind that 
he could sug|^ no remedy for the deep s e ated 
leuoDs whicli he broi^ht to view in his demon- 
stration of the conditions of the head and 
extremities of the entire body politic of Garmany, 
but the nnedr extinction of die mde line of 
Hapsburgf Hett v. Treitschke has given ns a 
clear description of tha current mode of thougiit 
in German nnivereitiee and at GermMi Courts at 
the time when Pulfendorf and hia contemponry 
and opponent LeibnitI were at the xenith of tbeir 
fiune in regard to this and other ptnnts. 

Ta£ well-known German critic, Herr Julian 
Schmidt, has bean giving the readers of the 
AUffemeine Zeitang a minute analysis of the cha- 
racter and style of the late Charles Eingsley'a 
earlier novels, more especially Alton Locke and 
Hypatia. The writer's intimate acqusintanoe wiUi 
English literature and with our social and ptditical 
history durii^the last half oentury, enables him 
to judge of Kingsley's works from a broader and 
more comparative point of view than any uausUy 
at the command of a foiugn critic. 'Thua, fw- 
instance, in estimating tbe merits of Wettward 
Ho! he compares the aut^r's pictures of the 
Elizabethan times with those given by contempo- 
rary dramatiate, and in recent novels, such m 
KauiiBorth, and again analyses its distinctive 
features when compared with those presented by 
historical fictions riearing upon different perioda 
of national history, as 'RiacWay's Etmimd. By 
thismethod of comparative analyaiBgHBrr Schmidt^ 
critique of Mr. King^y's writings acquires even 
greater interest for English readers than for those 
to whom it especially addresses itself, while his 
estimate of the real importance of that period ctf 
ferment in which Kinosley played so prominent a 
pEirt is highly sug^tive, and merits attention a» 
the unbiaaaed opinun of a foreigner. 

The publicatioB of Pnudhon's coneepondeiioe 
is now complete with the exception of the twelfth 
volume. The principal diaracteiistic of tho 
eleventh, which comes down to February, 1883, 
is its tone of grief and discouragement : — 

" We have not time, my dear friand," he writes to 
M. Neven, " to complain in these daja. I see miaeriee 
far otherwise lamenublo than bruiaed timlis and dead 
man ; it ia a society falling into disaolution, a civili- 
sation becoming extiact, a collapsing world. Eig^tMn 
centuries ago the worid was, ai now, in travail ; than 
the chamcter of this decomposition vaa frantic licen- 
tbusneas ; now ita chaiscter is oowardica. All Is 
cowardly and vils, boas and flat, from the aovoreign 
down to the beggar. ... I rise every day with £e 
thought ol' my nation dishonoured and takiag plea- 
sure in her shame, of ■ generation that is rotten and 
lorsB its rotlenneaa, of a public that is imbacils and 
adniirce itself in ita imbecility." 
And later on, in January, 1802, Proudfaon Umib 
notices the absence of reading and the paucity of 
thought in France : — 

"The smallsat ides alarms, th« least reasoning 
fiitignes; debilitated intalligeacaa no longer recoiv*, 
no longer hear anything. . . . Ia this, then, tie end 
of civiliestion, or only the end of the Frandi demo- 
cracy? That is what a near flitore will teach na." 



JniT 17. 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



63 



We have to tlumk the Rev. W. Shaw Calde- 
cott, vicar of Southseft, for a letter — our space 
forbids its insertion entii« — in which he point« 
out the probabilitj of Bunyan's indebtednees 
in one or two passagee of TAt FUgrim't Pro- 
ffreu to Bishop Woinack's EiamauUion of 7¥- 
iemu (see a reprint in Nichol's Arminianitm 
and Calninwm Con^tared) and to Kabop Patrick's 
TOrabte of tha FOffritn. The list of the Jnrj 
in t^e former work ia certainly worth com- 
paring with that of those who, returned a 
verdict against Futhfiil. The latter production 
bas several pointe in common with Bunpm'a work, 
and it was the earlier to appear j fox Mr. Caldecott 
etatee that the &rst edition of the FartAle of tht 
PSffrim came out, not in 1678 (as has been said 
"by Sir Walter Scott in the Qiutrttrly JUview, 
vol. xliii.), but in 1666, and that the edition of 
1678 was in feet the fifth— a strikioK proof of the 
'wide-Bpread popular!^ of the book. Here are 
three extracts ; — 

" Yonr wBj to Jeniiiilem lisH through tho world, 
"yon most not think to Bt«p into none but religioog 
houeea. or to &U into no company bnt that of the 
pious : much less must you expect to lie immured 
Crom tlie «pectncle of vanitv: and to secure yonrself 
from temptations within the enelotmre of high walls 
which they cannot climb ovet to approach you." 
(Third edition, p. 109.) 

" Take the adraatBge of any shades or grores that 
yon eIibII meet witbol, for secrat conference and dis- 
conrsa between God «nd jour soul, B«pose yoareelf 
as long as jou ran in those cool aud atill places, and 
there invite Heaven into joor society. Nay, I would 
have you form jonraelf such occasions as oft as you 
are ablo, and contrive opporlunitios for pnTacj and 
inclosed thought. Build a great many little arbours 
with your own hands, into which yon may withdraw 
yourself and be alone. . . , These quiet placee 
an the Teaamblances ot the serene rcgioDS about, 
and Utile models cf heaven. They aie hung nxuMi 
about also with a great aiaay pictoiee of Jesus which 
wiU ravish your heart, and <Uaw it oul of your liody 
to snatch it up to himself. In one comer you will 
■Be him pictured as the Lover of Men ; and in another 
you will behold him in the gi«Ht«t ahasemont and 
humility t}i»t ever was. On this side you will tee 
him dealing his Charity to lim poor, and on that he 
will discorer himself attending on the sic^. Here 
his Meekness, there his Patience wilt be livelity ro- 
presented to yout eyee. In one place yon will And 
him pouring out bis iDBtructiona. and in another 
place ponring out his blood, for the good of men." 
<Pp. 129-181.) 

"At last, having gained the top of an hij;h hill, 
which, without some difficulty could not be climbed, 
they met witii a knot of more excellent persona who 
xacompenced them for the tedionsueis of that com- 
pany into which tbey had lately £sllen. 

"The apectade which now presented itself was nolen 
wcoderful than it was new. For there they beheld 
amtdry pilgiims like themselves who bad placed 
their bodies, thoagh in several poeturea, as if tbey 
Bever meant to stir from that place, unless it was to 
be carried diiactly ap to heaven. 8one of then wen 
iJoUen upon their knees, and, with their hands npon 
their breisU. their eye* elevated to the akiea. and a 
wery sinibng ooontenaace, seemed sot so much to ask 
as to possess somathiug that thay dearly loved, and 
fof which they peniiered tiuuks to God. Others of 
tiiem stood gaiing upon thsir tiptoes, with their 
■aonths opou and their eyee K> fixed, as if their souls 
w«rs gone half-way om of their bodies to fetch in 
something which they htmgered to receive. Andotiuars 
also stretched ont their arms to Such a length as if 
th^ saw that thing coming to them ; or else th 
thoaght them to be wings whereby they could fly 
that which they looked so greedily upon." 
The two Filgrims looUag in Hiat directii 



« of their eyes, snd tho goiet and silence vherei 

tiiey all were, tbey had » very fiur proepeet of the 
heavenly JaroMletn. ... It did not seem to I 
■itnate in a region like to any that they had as y 
bedield, bat in one ao clear and . pare that the akj 
bat a maokj vapour in comparison with it. 

" There was no clond that durA be so bold as to 
eome within Hi|^ of it, nor was there any darkness 



that could approach to sully its beauty. But as 
there was a perpetual serenity about it, soanererlast. 
ing day was one of the principul ornaments of it. . . . 
Nay. the very garments of the inhabitants (which he 
eoatd discern a little) were so glittering that they 
aaemed able of tbemaelves to creite a continual day 
tboee that wore them." (Pp. 464-.4U.) 



THE LATB PBOPBBSOS CAIRnXB. 
PsorSBSOB Oaihites has been laid to rest with 
eztraordiiiary honour. No other author's death in 
our time, save Mr. Mill's, has called forth so strong 
and general an expression of feeling ; and Mr. 
Mill Dad been a leader of a philoeophical school 
for a (jreneratioD, and for several years a distin- 
tahed end active member of Parliament, while 
r. Oaiioes had resided in England only for a &w 
ara, during the greater number of wmch he was 
._e victim of a cruel malady which secluded him 
from the world and deprived him latterly.even of 
the nee of liie pen. It is but tiiirtaea years nnce 
Frofeaeor Oaimee, thea hcAAing a chair of Folilioal 
Economy in Ireland, and known only to a few 
of the more studious economists in England, sud- 
f attained a wide celebrity by the publication, 
le most critical moment in the American civil 
of T/k SlavB PoKeTi one of the most masterly 
essays in the literature of political controversy, 
■" , even now that American slavery is extinct, 
of tlie most instructive and interesting treatisee 
which students either of politics or of economies 
can find in the English language. Vie progress 
of economic science, and the changes in the views 
of economists, of which there are indications all 
Europe, may disturb some of the conclusions 
of Mr. Oaimes's other works, but 714e Slave Jtotwr 
will ever defy criticism ; and no serious answer 
was attempted to be made to it, even when 
the war was at its height, and when the Southern 
States had the sympathy and support of some of 
the most powertul organs of the English prees. 
The practical object for which TAe Slavt Power 
was published has been triumphantly accomplished, 
but It had also a philosophical purpose wbicn 

S'ves it a permanent vahie as an economic classic, 
r its subject was originally selected by Mr. 
Cairnes for a course of lectures "to show that 
the course of historv ia latiiely determined by 
economic causes." ^he skill and ability with 
which this purpose was carried into effect will, 
WB believe, mate future economists regret more 
and mora as their science advances that Mr. 
Oaimes did not in his subsequetit works develops 
another side of the relation netween historj' and 
political economy, namely, the connexion between 
the whole social history of a country and its 
economic condition as one of the phases of the 
entire movement, and not as the result of a single 
principle or desire. 

Before the publication of The l^ave Powia-, two 
essays in fhiier's Magaxine, "towards the Solu- 
tion of tiie Gold Question," had attracted the 
attention of economists in this country, especially 
Mr. Mill, to Mr. Oaimes's remarkable talent for 
deductive reasoning and exposition in economics. 
We think for our own part, and we have reason 
to believe that sucb was subsequently Mr. Mill's 
view, that in his practical conclusion Mr. Oaimee 
took insufficient account of the influence on prices 
of the acquiaition by France, Oermauy, and other 
ccmtinental countries of the power of producrion 
and communieation by steam, conlemporaneoualy 
with the diffuMon of the new gold ; but those who 
dissent from the proposition that prices have risen 
more since the discovery of the new gold mines in 
EnarlaDd than in any coutinentalcountiy, will never- 
theless find nothing to dispute in the principles 
which Mr. Oaimes applied with eonsnmmate skill 
to the solution of the problem. The causes which 
have raised prices on the continent so greatly 
above thdr forraer low level are causes of the 
1 same order with those wboiw operation Mr. Caimea 
discussed in relation to England. 

Aitbongfa an invaJid, impeded in every pbyaicel 



by the malady from which he enfiand, 
Mr. Cairnes took an active, though aometimea W 
nnaeen, part in the discu-'iaion of all the chiat 
political controversies in this country duroig the 
fast ten years, especiailv the Irish land iiueetion • 
and iiBh University eflucation ; and to him mora 
than to any other single petaon it is due that 
University education in IreWd is not now nndw 
the control of an Ultramontane hierarchy, and 
me of the chief subjects of historical and 

iphical study have not been banished frcm 

tie Univeraity of Dublin and the Queen's Ool- 

Tjist year, althoogb then no longer able to writs 
with his own hand, Mr, Caimee published hii 
Landing Principir* of Political Eetmoiiiif nMobl 
ErpounJfd, a work which ought to be r^aided, 
even by those who dissent most from some of ija 
principles, as an important contribution to economie 
science. To state with the greatest posaiUa 
clearness and force the reasons for espoosn^ on* 
side of a scientific controversy, is to render one <rf 
the best services to those who seek to know dl 
that can be »id on both sides. And if any p 



ucceemltf 



m^ntained, the student may fL__ . 
literary and dialectical skill could haw delteded 
it, it would be impregnable. The second editaon 
of Mr. Oaimes's Logieal Method (f^ ftWiwf 
fboiunnj/, which has recently been pnblished, and 
which we hope on a future oceaaon to rerieWy 
ought in like manner to be welcomed by thosa 
economists who incline to the inductive or hie- 
torical method, not only for the intelleetnri in- 
terest which the reasoning of a powerful mind 
must always excite, but also as a masterly expo- 
sition of the deductive method, and a complet* 
preeentation of all that can be said for it m got 

We have no words to ei[wesB our admiration 

of the heroic fortitude and public spirit witboot 
which no amount of intellectual jiower would hava 
enabled Mr. Caimts, under sufferings of the most 
prostrating kind, to maintain bo high a f lace in 
the philosophical and political hiatory of his time 
as t^at which is assigned 1o him by universd 
cotwent. His moral as well as hia intellectual 



WILSELH COBBSEK. 

Wb learn with deep regret from the AagAtarg 
GazeUe the death of Wilhelm Cursaeu, the author 
of the great work on the Ihoauacialton of the Latin 
Language, whose name has lately been so often 
mentioned in connexion with tiie decipherment of 
the Etruscan ii»criptioua. Corsson was born at 
Bremen in 1S20. lie waa a pupil of Mi-inecke, 
Biickh, and Lacbmann. As earlv as I H44 he puV 
liahed his first book, Oi-ig'taa I'o^iU lioinanae. 
Afterwards he worked duriu^^ twenty ve.irs as one 
of the masters at the public school of Porta. He 
resigned bia mastership in ISijO on account of ill 
health, and lived chiefly at ISirlin, supporting him- 
aelf bv literary work. Hiswurk, Ui'bei- Aiuapraeka 
Yocaiamiuaitd Betonungder Laleinirrheii Spiiiehe, 
which received a priie from the Berlin .\cftdemy, 
was pnblished in IWSS, the second edition in 
1868, It WIS followed up by two controversial 
books, Kritische Beitrdge. sur Latrimf:-hen For- 
menlehre, 1883, and Kiitix-he SachhSge otw 
Lateiratchen Formntlehre, l^'Wl. Cura».>n devoted 
the last years of bia life to a collection of Etrus- 
can inscriptions. He spent several years in Ital^, 
exploring mnaeums and private collections, in 
Older to have none but autoptic cjpies in his 
Cm-jnu Inacri^iomtm Et,-wicar,im. The first 
volume, containing the losoriptions with com- 
mentary, was published last year; tliu second, 
which was to contain the liiijcuistic results, waa to 
have followed thia year. We believe that it waa 
nearly, if not altogether, finished before liia death, 
and vaaX, it will contain Oorssen's replies to the 
I critidsiDS passed on bis first volume. There baa 



64 



THE ACADfiMY. 



[JtJLt 17, 1875. 



lie«n but ooe oiniiioii aa to the colaesal induBti; 
with wluch the materiala neceaaary for a acieo- 
tifle study of the EtruBcaa language have lieen 
Inoufi-ht together by Coreeen, but hardly any 
Bchobf of authority hae aipresaed himaelf con- 
Tineed by hia interpretations. Thia ia all the 
moie ugnificaat, because of late yeais almost 
eyery comparatiTe philolo^t of note had given a 
moie or lees qualified approval of the theory ad- 
vocated by Coraaen, vu., that the Etruacan is 
an Italic dialect, or, at least, that it belong 
to the Aryan family of speech. Though it 
is bnt fail not to eipreaa a final jodgment be- 
fore seeing Ooissen'a second volume, every reader 
of his first volume mnat have felt the forced 
cbaTBct«r of the interpretations there proposed. 
There is a ayatem in every language, and in at- 
tempts at dedpbsring, nothinf^ is more curious 
than to observe how, if the nght path is once 
found, we are led on naturally from passage to 
paaaage till the dark labyrinth is changed into a 
chcM^oord. In the interpretatioua of the cunei- 
fbrm Achaemenjan inacriptioae, nothing was more 
strikiDg than the facilitv with which, after the 
right spell had been found, worde and grammatical 
forma dropped, so to aay, into the lap of the deci- 
pherers. Jri Ooraaen's interpretationa every in~ 
acriptioo, every word, every grammatical form 
requires a new effort, and though wa may admire 
the force upended by the indeiatiKahle decipherer, 
we euinot help feeling that a re^ Aryan or Italic 
Iragoafce wouU have fielded to much softer prea- 
aure. Gorssen shows oimaelf in hia Etruscan book 
the same as in hia previous works. He aeems to 
have no eye for difficultiee. Hia power of collect- 
ing evidence and producing truly or apparently 
analogoua caaee for every change of letters is 
greftt. But be is deficient in tl^t delicate tact 
which ahrinka from doing violence to lan^juase, 
even where language seema unable to resist nia 
determined aaeault. Much of this want of aelf- 
conlTol ia due to Corsseo's imperfect knowledge 
of Sanskrit, which he quotes largelv, but not 
always wiaaly. However, with all theae draw- 
backs, not only his work on Latin pronunciation, 
but hia Etruacan work also, will retain a permanent 
vftlne. If Oorssen's attempt at explaining Etruscan 
by means of Latin and the Arvan languages has 
failed, the experiment need nut be tried again. In 
thia sense even an unauccesaful experiment, if only 
conducted according to strictly acientific principles, 
will mark a real advance in science. Bopp'a at- 
tempt at proving the Malay languagea to be related 
vrith Sanskrit failed, but it left this positive ad- 
vantage, that where Bopp had failed no one need 
repeat the experiment. Here is the difference 
between Mr. Isaac Taylor and Professor Gorsaen. 
Etmacan may be Tunmian, it may be Samoyedic, 
in spite of Mr. Taylor's book ; it can never be 
Aryan or Italic, if Oorsaen haa failed to prove 



L TBirBiiAir VIEW OF SOKE EiraLiSH istiisa. 



don Brown from the archives of Venice, and 
deposi^i-il by him in the Record Office for public 
iiae — ;>i'omise to be of great aaaistauce to future 
hiaturiana, not only by placing within their reach 
the opiniona of unbiassed contemporariea upon the 
greater ^lidcal eventa of the time, but by supply- 
ing detnila of matters, of minor moment and yet 
not without their influence on afhiirs, which are 
UBUsJly slurred over by historical vmters. A few 
notea and extracts in proof of the value of this 
correspondence during the latter yeara of the 
reign of Charles L, and the Commonwealth will 
not perhaps be unattractive to the student of 

In July, 1686, Secretary Zonca resigned his 
charge to Giovanni Oinstinian, who came direct 
to Inland from Madrid, where he had resided aa 
ambawador from the Signory Ut Philip IV. 



Giustinian is said to have been an able diplo- 
matist, and indeed the task of conveying to the 
Senate a clear weekly account of the confusiona in 
!&igland during his residence there required a man 
of no ordinary powers and ability. One of the 
leading female politicians in Great Britwn at that 
period was the staunch Govanonter, Anne Cun- 
ningham, daughter of James, Earl of Olencaim, 
and mother of Jamee, Marquia of Hamilton. In 
JonuaiT, 1639, QiuBtLnian writes of the decided 
part taken by her • 

"in favour of the agitators in Scotland where she had 
great authority so that parsoas the best iDformtd 
were suapiciouj ot Marquis Hamilton's good faith ; by 
ao much the more, as in default of the royal line, he 
was bcir to the crown of Scotland." 

"This commeot," obserree Mr. Brown, "i» in ae- 
cordance with the remarks made on tfais nobleman by 
Lord Clarendon, who has been reproached with pre- 
judice and bitlenjccB in this matter, and therefore itia 
but fair to state that his opinion was shared by con- 
temporaries, including bo impnrtial a bystander aa 
Oinstinian, who nuuntained 'that the son of such a 
mother would do the CovenanlerB no harm.' " 

Oiuatinion baa also much to tell the Senate 
about a " female firebrand," whoaa virit te Enghmd 
had been long threatened, hut was not accompUahed 
until October, 1638, when Mary do Medici wsa 
driven by stress of weather into Harwich, she 
having Bailed &om Holland with the intention of 
landing at Dover. Her retinue consiated of six hun- 
dred persaiiB,all of mean extraction and therefore the 
more inclined to take every advantage of the mag- 
nificent reception prepared for their royal mistresa. 
For some days Mary de Medici remained in bed 
under medical core, to recover from the efiects of 
her stormy pnesege. Queen Henrietta Maria did not 
go to Harwich to meet ber mother, her own state 
being such that at the cloee of January, 1639, ahe 
gave birth to a daughter who died instantly ; but, 
though unable to travel, she exerted beraelf to 
allay the general discontent caused by the immense 
expenditure to which the country waa aubjected 
by thia untoward visit. She announced that the 
. queen mother would have her expenses defrayed 
only for a few days, and that ample fiinda would 
be subsequently remitted to her from France. 
Those ssaursnces were not, however, verified, as 
the sojourn in England of Mary de Medici, at 
the cost of the Britmh Grown, Issted nearly three 
yeara, namely, from October, 1636, until Sep- 
tember 1641. On Wedneaday, November 17, 
1636, she was met by Charles I. at a distance of 
twenty-five miles from London, and nearei 
metropolis^ found her daughter waiting to receive 
her. The king and queen conducted her with 
every mark of respect to St. James's Pslace. 
On the momiug following, the Queen Dowager 
of France waa complimented by visits at St. 
James's £;om all the foreign ambassadors, inclu- 
ding even M. de BelliSvre. The kiiu and queen 
visited her conatontlv, Charles for the moat part 
addresaing her standing and bare-headed, and 
Henrietta Maria likewise exhibiting no leaa extra- 
ordinary marks of filial deference to her exiled 
Cnt. l^lve thousand pounds were at once pud 
n for her maintenance, a monthly aaaignment 
of three thousand pounda waa also made to her, 
and the citiaens, moreover, presented her with a 
gilt bowl containina; one thousand pounds. Mary 
de Medici vouchaa^ but a cold return to all the 
demonstrations made in her honour. She re- 
mained seated when the cabinet ministers went in 
a body to viut her ; to their compliments ahe 
made a most laconic repl^. Nor did ahe treat 
the nobility and chief ladiea of the Court much 
more cordially. Her Prime Ministera during her 
atay in Enghmd were the President Ooigneux, 
Montg^t, and Fabrom, the last-named bein^ the 
&vaurite. Early in 1630 the French Preaident 
endeavoured to oust his Italian rival from the 
supreme post filled by him at St. Jamea'a ; while 
at the some time it ia suggeated that the Queen 
Mother is adapting a more courteous manner to- 
watda the most inflwentia] msmben of the Privy 



Council, a necessary step,perliape, towards attain- 
ingthe jirompt payment of her monthly allowance. 

English historiana have very little to tell us of 
this visit of Mary de Medici, though there is no 
doubt that it was the cause of much discontent 
throughout the counttr. 

In November, 16&, Oiuatinian fwrites that 
Wentworth, who had recently arrived from Iraland, 
was paramount and prime mimster. By all pos- 
sible aigumenta he urged the K'ng to have re- 
course to the swordj he promised 30,000 Irisli 
soldiers, and Laud ofiered 10,000 on behalf of the 
Anglican clergy. The Privy Council also deter- 
mined on levying ship-money, which was expected 
to yieU 200,OOM. ; the nobili^ vfere to aubecribe 
300,000f. Of the proceedings of the Lon^ Parlia- 
ment Oiuatinian transmitted the most mmute de- 
tails to the Senate, and on May 24, 1641, i 



" The King nAvertiieleaB being deteiminsd to leave 

no mesDS nntried for the preserratioa of the lif^ d 
the Lord IJeaunanC wrote on Tuesdaya innchiDgand 
bumble antt^mph letter to the Parliament, of whom 
he asked as a &Tour that the seatence of death passed 
on his Givoiirite might bo commuted for perpetual 
exile, or at Iwist that its exacutioa should be deferred 
until another year. To pve this lBtt*r more force, he 
sent it by the Prince, who aeeonded it meet earaestly, 



!i refjsed to read i 



is odditiomtl shame. 



ig crowd of 300,000 persons, the santence 
was executed, and they took the life of this minister 
whose noble qualities (preslaitti condUumi) were 
ssauredly worthy of a better age, and of a happisr 

In December, 1642, Giustinian qiuttod London 

on his wa^ home, leaving the secretary, Glrolamo 
Agoatini, in charse of the Venetian emhaaay. The 
latter'a first mention of Cromwell is dated Sept. 
9, 1644, in reference to an attack made by him on 
^nce Rupert's cavalry near Cheater, cauain^ the 
RoyoliaU a loaa of 300 horse. The ordinary 
hiatories of the period contain no account of this 
littie episode in Oliver's military career, so far ss 
we have been able U 



Council" of State took possession of Lord Derby's 
mansion in Cannon Row, Weatminster ; and he 
also aJludee to a tine imposed on absentee mem- 
bers, thus;— 

" The two Honses of Parliament have eetnblished 
the new Council of State, consisiing: ot indiriduab of 
the two nationa (English and Scotch) who are invested 
with supreme nuthority, and they have held several 
meetings, poosessing themselves for tbia pui^>o«« of a 
house belonging to a nobleman of the oppoBito parn, 
famishing it with hangings from the King's whi4- 
robe ; and some of the £m brndnesB proposed by them 
related to a restriction of the comoiand held by the 
ISatl of Easfli, binding him to do nothing without 
their couniission. AnticipaUng, too, that the I^irda 
and Commons not on the Committee — and for whom 
there will consequently renuin but small and umm- 
portauC businan to transact — may Bbsent themselrM^ 
they bave mode the two houses pass a bill, charging 
the members to be present every morning from nins 
to twelve, and eatabliabing a fine Of one jilting to be 
[«id by any member who chances to be absent at the 
appointed hour." 

In December, 1644, Agostini givea the history 
of the quarrel between tbe Earl of Moncheeter 
and Cromwell, and adds that the Earl's written 
vindication preaented to the Commons was to the 
efi'ect 

"that Cromwell brought Manchester to jnia hiai, 
promising to form an anny of independent seclarianst 
which should dictate the law, not only to the king, 
but also to the I^lioment, fntiiig ihemsalvoa thoa 
from this tyrannical synod of eonscisDcs; that ha. 
Cromwell, would be the first to draw his own iwrad 
on toe Scotch who aimed at introducing Presbyterian- 
ism, and that ere long be shonld hope to destroy the 



JjLT 17, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



65 



In Lord Olarendon's account of this dispute 
(ed. Oiford, 1843, p. 516) there is no alluBion to 
any such invective on Cromwell'a part against the 
Scotch PreBbvterifUM and the Engfisli nobility. 

AgoBtini's last letter, dated London, Janua^ 27, 
lB4e, nnnounces the death of Arehbiahop Laud 
in terma which Mr. Brown thus renders into 
Bnglieh :~ 

" Tha Archbishop of Canterhnry died, affording a 
Bingiilar ewiniple of conaUncy. Ho made a long 
speech on the aeafeld, colebrating tha King's o^ 
eervooce of Religion and the Lavs; he reproached 
the Citj of London with ita bloodthiratiness, nor did 
ho omit adroit aHuaiona to the confueion which this 
present Pnrliamflnt has introduced both in the Church 
and in the law of the land." 

AgoBtini himaelf died in London a few davi 
after the date of the above letter, and for 
BCTen years afterwards there waa no Venetian 
Ambassador or Resident Secretary eetsblishod in 
England. The appointment of an envoy to the 
Commonwealth '' .■..-.■ 



Valier— a most influential member ( 
pubUc, who waa elected Doge in 1656— but with- 
out Buceeae. At length, in February, 1662, just 
five montha after the battle of Woreeater, the 
Senate ordered the ambassador Mgrosini, in 
Paris, to Bend his iecret&ry Lraenio PaiJucci 
to London, under pretence of chartering ves- 
sels and negotiating levies for the defence of 
Candia. Paulucci waa iostnicted for ^is pur- 
pose to have recourse to some of the leading 
membeiB of the Government, and in the event of 
their alluding to a renewal of the political inter- 
course between England and Venice, he was to 
declare the Signorj's willingness to give the Par- 
liament " prooft of the esteem due to ita grandeur, 
and in conformity with the ancient custom of the 
Venetian Eepubfic." J. J, OiKTWHieHT. 



iraW TOBX T.wiTBB. 

NbwToA: Jnne», I8T«. 
A Short Anooaat of the Xiobe Oroup, by Thomas 
DavidBon, has juBt bean published by Mr. L. W, 
Schmidt of this city. This Httle pamphlet calla at- 
tention to one of the most admired of Greek antiques, 
and one over which there has been much contro- 
jerBv. What figures among the excavated hun- 
dreds should be allotted to the group, and, when 
that is settled, what poaition the efected statue 
should occupy in relation to the othe«, has been 
the cause orwordy battles not a few among lovers 
of the antique. Mr. Davidson writes from the 
Btandpoint of the best German authoritiee a very 
pleasing and interesting treatise. 

Mr. Hjahnar HjorSi Boye«eD, who has been 
bvmg io the United States for only a few years 
post, and who occupies a Professor's chair at Comell 
Univeniity, is already a Uiorough American, and 
his writings are looked upon as important additions 
to current Ajneiican literature. Mr. Boyman has 
a new and rich vein to work, and he works it like 
a skilful miner. It is that of the romance and 
taagedy of emigration. He has studied the subject 



.. — J standpoint, and that of -^ 
enthusiastic American also. it. Boyeeen's latest 
■work is A Norteman't Pilgrimage, a novel recently 
publislied by Sheldon and Co. of this dty. The 
story mn first as a serial in the Qaiaxy, where it 
attracted fnvounible attention. One great attrac- 
ticm of this author's writings is their simplicity. 
The reader gets only Ihe reflection of the 
writer's erudition — there is none of that learned dis- 
play which is the trick of the half-educated and the 
weakness of the well-educated. A Sorteman'i Pit- 
gnmage is written in benutiAil English and in 
the purest literary style. As a story it has little 
plat and little adventure, bat the reader's interest 
never wearies for a moment. The story opens in 
Germany, where the hero, Olaf Varbei^, has 
stopped for a while on hia way to Norway from , 



ire he has been living for some years, 
and where he has already e«tabli£ed himself aa a 
successful man of letters. While in Leipzig he 
re-reads Fau»t one day, and rushes out of the 
house in a romantic mood in search of a Mar- 
guerite. He is not long in finding one in ilie 
peiHon of a beautiful American ^rl, whom he 
afterwards becomes acquainted with in an un- 
conventional way. They become bat friends, and 
he looks upon her for some time as an interesting 
literary study, and is about to stow her away in 
his brain for future use, when the man gets the 
better of the artist, and he falls in love with his 
model. Mr. Boyeeen is never more delightful than 
when he shifts hi* scene to Norway. Jlie heroine 
of this story visits her. lover's home, smong the 
pine-trees and glaciers. The author fairly revels 
in the long twilights and ice-hound rivers of the 
land of the Vikmgs, He weaves the charm of 
the mysterious legends of the North through all 
his pages. Mr. Boyeeen, I believe, has some dis- 
tance to go yet before he reaches thirty, and hia 
two flrst novels, Qtmnar an^ A Nor»eman'» PH- 
grimage, are likely to be mere forerunners of more 
serious and more ambitious work in the field of 
fiction. He is also known as a poet and a critic 
He is now engaged npon a senee of articles on 
German literatmre for via Atlantic Monthly. Some 
of Mr. Boveaen's shorter stories have recently been, 
or are to be, translated into Danish and published 
by a Oopenhogen firm. 

General William T. Sherman's Memoir* have 
met with a large sale. We have no public man 
who is mora universally popular than General 
Sherman. He is sn impetuous writer aa well as 
a fighter, and he wrote nis book almost entirely 
from memory, I am told, hardly referring to the 
papers in his possession. The consequence is that 
alUiough his style is bold and brilliant, his &cts 
are not altogether trustworthy, and do not always 
agree with the official statomente. . It is said that 
the President, who is his warm friend, has ex- 
pressed his re^rret that General Sherman was not 
more careful about having his bets correct, and 
thinks that he was a little hasty. No doubt the 
President is right, but if Genual Sherman had 
a the humour seized bim, we should 
probably have had a very stupid instead of a very 
entertaining volume of memoirs. 

Mr. John Hay, who was known during the 
recent civil war as the secretary of the late Presi- 
dent Lincoln, is now better known as a writer of 
brilliant prose and of dialect poetry. For some 
years past be has been one of the most valued 
members of the Tribime'i editorial staff, and the 
contributions from his pen have been a marked 
feature of that journal. To the regret of a large 
circle of friends, both public and private, Mr. Hav 
now leaves this city for the West, when he will 
make his home in Cleveland, Ohio. He will, 
however, continue his contributions to the Trt- 
bttn^t editorial page, but not to the same extent 
as heretofore. The Hay and Nicolsy life of Lin- 
coln may DOW be looked for ere long. By the 
way, Mr. Hay, who is intimately acquainted with 
the Lincoln family, warmly Bustsine Mr. Robert 
Lincoln in his much censured action of placing 
his mother, the wife of the late President, in a 
lunatic asylum. Colonel Hay thinks thnt there is 
no question aa to Mrs. Lincoln's insanity, and 
that her son should have the sympathy rather 
than the blame of the people. 

Henry Holt and Oo. have recently pnUished 
the first English translation of the writinga of 
Richard Wagner. Mr. Edward Borlingame was 
the. translator, and he has done his work well, 
having kept the spirit of that wonderfully spirited 
writer. Wagner's German is like his music — 
original and bold, and complicated, too, if the 
truth must be told. 

Scribner, AimstroDBT and Co. have on sale fur 
the ovraer a tastefully gotten up little volume, 
entitled Haud Itnmemor, which contuns some 
half-a-dozenautograph letters written by Thackeray 
to Mr. Wm. B. Reed, of Philadelphia. There is also 



Thackeray's letters is a cbaracteristio little sketch 
of a man and woman dancing. These letteia were 
reproduced in a recent volume of the " Brio-^ 
brae " series. At an ant^^iaph sale in this ci^ 
a few days ago the highest price pud was for a 
letter by John Penn, of North Carolina, one it 
the signers of the Declaration of Independmoe. 
This brought /30. A poem W Mary Howitt 
came next, and sold for $li. Dickens, a short 
letter, $5; a letter of Bulwer's, ^1.33; Lord 
Jefirey, letter, fifty cents ; Mark Lemon, signa- 
ture, six cents j Sheridan Enowles, letter, $a,fO. 
The liveliest bidding was for signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, as collectore are all anxioni 
teget complete sete of these, and also of thePrtd- 

The August number of the {Atlantic MontUj/ 
will contain the first instalment of Mrs. Fanny 
£emble Butier's autoUograpby. The varied ex- 
periences of this gifted lady aa'an actiese, and her 
relations with literary people of distinction, to- 
gether with her admirable style, wUl make this 
an attractive feature of the Boston monthly. 

Ton have doubtless heard on your side of the 
Atlantic of the nand muocal festival recently 
held in Cincinnati. To you, with whom musical 
feetivals are an everyday occurrence, the Cincin- 
nati jubilee has perhape not seemed like a matter 
of such vast importance. With us it marks a 
new era in musical culture. This far-weatem city 
has had such festivals before, but not on such a 
magnificent scale. The festival opened on May 11 
andcontinuedforfourdays. The streete were deoo- 
ited with flags, and portraits of the great com- 
MBTS framed with evergreen appeared on every 
utd. People from all parts of tiie United States 
were in attendance, and the excitement was eqaal 
to that of Derby Day. The Exposition baildmg, 
seating 4,000 persona, was used for the concerta. 
The orchestra, under Mr. Theodore Thomas, of 
New York, numbered 100 performers, and tha 
choms, under Mr. Otto Singer, nnmbered 800 
The opening programme consisted of 
Brahms's Trintt^Mi^d, buitone solo, double chorua, 
orchestra, and organ ; Beethoven's Seventh Sym- 
phony in A ; end selections from Wagner's Lo- 
Am^rth, aolo voices, chorus, and orchestra. On 
the evening of the third day, Bach's Magnificat 
in B was performed for the first time m this 
countn. Thia was the pOct de rMitanet of th» 
feetivnJ. It waa beautinilly rendered, and when 
the end came the entire aodience arose to its fbet, 
and cheered and shouted, and called for Mr. 
Thomss with the excitement of madmen. ESght 
thousand persons had crowded into the halt, and 
the building was surrounded by as many more. 
The programmes of each performance were akil- 
tiUly mamged, and Mr. Thomas and Mr. Singer 
were treated like conquering heroes. None but 
tiie most classic music waa given, and orchestia 
and chorus outdid themselves in their eflbrts to 
do justice to the great composers. Since the fes- 
tival a private citisen has ottered ^160,000 for the 
purpose of building a permanent hall for Buch 
concerta if the same amount be contributed by 
other oiticens. 

The Spring ExhiUtion at the National Academy 
of Deeign waa a semi-centennial occasion ; so yon 
see that academic art in America is half aa ola aa 
the country. Although it seems to be a good deal 
a matter of chance — the d^ree of exoellenoe 
achieved by any single show of this kind; yet as 
some stress tfas laid upon the exhibition sa an 
"occasion," it is fair to assume that it was ia 
more than an ordinary sense a representative 
collection. Taken in that light there were many 
points of discouragement : and on the other hand 
manyjileaaant and hopeful prognostications. It 
was discouragine to find places of honour given 
to a great deal of ttash and trumpery ; to a gteat 
deal of arrogant bad taste backed l^ academical 
preitige j but, then, never perhaps bas the spxii 
of genuine art been more thoroughly avenged 



66 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JPLT 17. 18?5. 



than by die acorn witli which Buch eonspicuous- 
DHB haa heea metj not merely in the public 

nrfl, bill ill lliii II II of sweet silautcriticiun; 

IB tlte Uftme vivited bj thd conitAQtij JTicreaMng 
artistic eeaea of the coaununitj. Then, too, 
there was eoma work of a Tigoroufi and -very 
■ngseetiTe and promising eort ; work in diverse 
matbode and under vanoiu inspirations, fiac 
Entee, Ilomer, La Farge, Wjatt Eaton, Thayer, 
Hue Bridgw, and others who could be mentioned, 
eonlributed aome of thcdr most important work. 
Soon after the exbiludon at the Auademj w 
meaei, a collection of American paintiuga was 
Waeed upon bee exhibition at the Fifth Avenue 
Boonw of Messrs. Oottier and Co. (the Amaiican 
laaach of the well-known London firm). It con- 
Msted of pictures b; John La Farge and Williain 
Hunt, and of some younger painters of New York 
uid Boston, among whom were several pupila of 
these maaters. It was an intereating little ex- 
lubidon verf different in loue from any single 
coUectiaD ever before exhilatad in New York. 
ne more Mrious modem French art seemed to 
have Isecn the prevailing influence with these 
tttiats— although English methods were repra- 
aeuted, and there were some things done (and 
some good things) "in the admiiatiou " of the 
old _ Spanish masters. There was plenfr of 
oiigiiiautj,^ however, and the exhibition shows 
jthat there ia skill as well as intellect among some 
of our youi^r and least known painters. 

J. L. GlLSEB. 



Btnerat LUtrahtrt and Art. 
SncniT, le ttebnl. Ia TUtaae de Fuk, ISKMSn. T. 1. 

PbI>: Data. 
KSOHEB, B. La Sulnt-Oiul od Is J<agph d'Arlnuttil«, ■». 

~" ■ nsdelBTaMorondflipoBltt "" " 




WW. 
VErtDmoK dn duo d* Golv i, Kapls 
(liW-l««) piUilifc pMli;i«l,— - " - 
Puii : vmn. 10 U. 



B qui noiwiul n Fnsn. 



ir.oben HddlcliL Diemsdlciii. 
■ritar J>eat«hluda. 1. Ai.ih. StBttoart : Bnlce. 11V. 
I., A. TntUpnUiiDBdettHafaudMltulMu. Furta: 



TWanKUItU-TSLTBTBURB. J. T. Du Ocbict dcc BaeBDJia B. 
TliiunB, mlt beWDd. Berttclmlditg. do- orOfcnfiliiKbeB. 
ttfitiBa B. oMtaciCDkiglscbB VaUUtDlasii. Wimi : 

PhOology. 
ItBUB, Cta. Dte QrandlilBa d. HcimH too Stnndponkte der 
TvcMchendn Hjrttudogto. l.AMIi. BrlH>|«i ^ IMchnt. 

tauta. A.. L. muidUiteiu dt UcEuittJqqe it d'Hthnognphie 
uaAricalnv. PftTlj : Lsroux . 



COItR£SPONDEN<^ 

iHE Tojoe or CH. i,BNOBi[Airt Aim otfbixd 

MJJLLIE AT COLdTTTB. 

London : Jolj tt, 18TA. 

When at Athena last month, I saw a scene at 
Colonos which mavbe interesting and instmddTe 
to your readers. We had gone out, as every 
vidtor does, to see the home of Sophodes, ibe 



waters of Cpphissos, the ivy and the riive tmea 
and if possiblo to hear the traditional nightingali. 
complaining in the fresh green glades. And of 
couiBB we ascended the tiny mound, known ai 
hill of Colomia, and aat down at the marble tombe 
erected, as is pompously inscribed, bv the 
nation to Ch. Leuormant and O. HiiUer, bat 
whom died at Athens, the victime of their thirst 
for Greek archaeology and art. 'While sitting 
there, and enjoying the beanttfiil view of the 
Acropolia which the place afibrds, we observed 
■with indifference several workmen with pickazee 
quarrying out atones close to ns on the slope of 
tbe hillock. We did not attend to them, foir we 
were engaged at first with admiring the view, 
and next with wondering at the state of the two 
tombs, which we found peppered all over with 
marks of shot and bullela. Tiiey were evidently 
the habitual tarffeta of the neighbourhood, and in 
several places ^e scso^ ornaments which the 
Oreek nation had generoualv carved upon lliem 
were of course knocked off. But in Hie midet of 
our contemplations, we were suddenly startled t^ 
a shout from the workmen, who were all running 
away &om the spot. After a moment's besitatioD, 
my companion called to me that the men were 
blasting the rock beside us. So we took to our 
heels just in time to escape an avalanche of stones, 
earth, and dust which came down vpon the 
tombs where we had been wtting. When the 
danger was over I came back and measured the 
distance of the epot where the powder had been 
lud. It was exactly twdve poem from the neareat 
tomb. As the men were gradually working their 
way towards the top of the hill, I suppoee that by 
this time the monuments are not only in daily 
danger of being blown down, but that the lemains 
of the two amiable gentlemen there buried will 
likewise be blown up out of their venerable 
resting place. So mnch for burying one's friends 
in a fore^n eoimtry, and among harlxurous and 
reckless people. J. P. Hahaitt. 



THB KABLBOROrOH flBin. 

London: JnlrlO.ISTS. 

The mle of the bmous Marlborough collection of 
gems a week or two since to a single purchaser 
lor .15,000gs. will have its chief interest for the 
world in general in the proof it affords of the vast 
stores of wealth that the prosperitv of many years 
has accumulated in £ngland, and the enormous 
increase which has accrued as a conseauenee to 
the value of objects which are remarkable for ex- 
ceptional beauty, or for what seems to be a still 
greater source of attraction, mere rarity. The 
fantastic pitch to which male rarity will carry 
the value, or rather the price paid for an object, 
b being continuallv illustrated at public auctions ; 
and jet where is the man endowed with any pre- 
tension to taste who would not derive a pleasure 
of a higher and truer kind frwii a good little 
drawing, or other morsel of artistic work— such as 
an intaglio en^ved by a Sirletti or Natter— than 
he would, for instance, fr«m one of the seven cents 
that alone were struck in one year at Washing- 
ton, and which only on that account will fetcb 
J7W. in any sale room ; or even, we may add, 
ttoia a piece of not very pretty china posaessing 
as its only valuable attribute the mark of some 
obscure and extinct pottery. And yet not only a 
gem by Sirletti or by Natter, but frequently even a 
good Greek gem will not produce at a public auc- 
tion a sum comparable with that for which either 
of the other objects will find plenty of purchasers. 

The sale in sm««t« bts of the Marlborough 
gems would posubly have helped a little to correct 
this disease of the public taste, or perhaps would 
have shown that after all it was the dearth of 
objecU endowed with a higher beauty that had 
fostered it. 

Unfortunately, however, the debased sentimeiit 
that supposes that an inferior gem of antique 
engraving must be more heavtiflil or, at least, mora 
vBln»U« tJkan a tme worit of the Mine dast 



wrought in the Oinqoe-oento penod, or during tlie 

last century, was flattered rataer than rebuked by 
the dumay mutilations that cMiverted a catalogua 
that had been made some time ago with wvty 
effort to asaign to each gem in the Bleuheiiu 
Cabinet its true date and chaneter into a mere 
auctioneer's advertisement, from which every indi- 
cation of the Cinque-cento or modem origin of aoT" 
of the gems was as br as possible expunged, and 
the words of its author in many cases so twisted 
as to preseat the opposite meaning to that which, 
they caitied in the original. To such an extent, 
indeed, was this done, tiiat when connoisseuzB 
eame to examine the gems with the catalogue they 
found that it merely misled them. Theo, after 
using his name to give authority to this mutdlat»d 
work, an effort was made to throw aspersions on 
the author's literary capacity and competence for 
the task, and by direct misatetements to aaeigi) 
as the original purpose of the catalogue a motiva 
of the meanest kind. 

What I wish, however, here to point out, 
ia that quite the beet tiling even for the 
purpose of the sale room would have been to 
let the gema be sold witii the actnal descripttODS 
and honest criticisms they bore in the original 
catali^ue, and to have relied on the conunon 
sense of the only people likely to spend large sums 
on gems. Such people are either, on the ouo 
hand, archaeologists who are not likely to be 
taken in by the transparent trick of a couleur de 
nxe catalogue, whatever the name on its title- 



freguentlj set at roat — and that far more often, 
as it happened, in its &vour than against it — by a 
catalogue the history of which was known pro- 
bablv to eveiT arcbaeolopat in the sale-room. Or, 
on the other hand, the purchasers who would hare 
bought on other and, as fiir as the genius of col- 
lecting is concerned, less pedantic grounds than 
those of mere " antiqueness," if we mav coin a 
phrase, would have certainly not given less for a 
beautiful gem on account of the date when it was 
engraved. And tiie Maribcrongli Oollectiou is so 
rich in Oiaqu»«ento works of curious interest and 
of great beauty, not merely as regards the gems 
thamseivee, hut also in respect of their mounttnre^ 
and in some respects of their hi3tori<»l associa- 
tions, that to vulgarise a catakigue that recounted 
these poiote of interest with at least oooacteDtioiu 
care, by omittin^in all cases where it was posBibl* 
any hint or suspicion of a sixteenth or eighteenth 
centurv orinn, was umply to have knocked off 
from the selling value of the gems the half of the 
enhancement to that value which the coUectkm 
confeesedly owed to the catalogue. 

No one, probably, who was prepared to buy the 
far-famed cameo of the Nuptiala of Cupid and 
Psyche would think of spending a large sum of 
money upon it without asking what was known 
of iU hietoiy, what criticisms had been passed 
upon ite work bv distinguiBtaad soholan, and the 
date of the hand to which it must be ascribed. 
And sitrelv this gem, which is pwhaps the dttf 
iceuvrt of the age of Bsphael and Uwc Antonio, 
would have a higher value as sudi, than if it 
were invested with hesitation and nncertainty in 
the mind of the buyer as to whether it bdonged 
to the age of Augustus or to that of Gregory, 
A^n, in the part of the Oollaction which the 
third Duke of Mariboroogh acquired from the 
Earl of Beasborougfa, is a series of forty Imperial 
heads, from Augusta* to Valerian, of adnuiahle 
workmanship and on beautiful stones. Thc^ 
were the undoubted work of Laurent Natter, one 
of the master handa of the last centurv in gem 
engraving, The manipulator of the catalogue 
expuugM this cardinal fact, thereby 'diminishing 
by probably more liiaii 80 percent the value of thia 
series, a aeriee which obviouBly no one would 
have bought with the idea of its being othar than 
modem. Some of the most beautiful gems in the 



dationa of this kind ; wUIe «f othMe— wlii<^ 



3mi 17, 1975.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



67 



•re aiBMig the g«mB ^ff moat importaat — 
jt mAT be aaoerted that their Ttthte in a Htle Toom 
would depend entiielj on such criticismB bb those 
satheied round them in my original catalogue : 
lor they were gems that no archaeologiet would 
have bought as antique but for those criticismB, 
while no coonoieseiir would ha»e eet much value 
on them on account of their heautv. One of these 
is the Rape of the Palladium (No. 341) ; and 
another is the large and deefdj sunk intaglio of 
Pallas with a long and inapiciouH looking signa- 
ture. To the ar^ueologist, howe*w, theae gems 
'with their wgnatures are of the greateit interest 
as landmarliB in the history of the art. The 
Fallaa, for instance, I hold to be undoubtedly the 
orijrinal gem, as I described it in the catalogue, to 
which a pedigree without a flaw must be attached 
that csmes it back to a period too early for it to 
be a forgery. 

The padence and labour expended in ransacking 
ancient as well as modem volumes, and in forminif 
coats from existing collections, in order 
criticisms of such a gem on a sound 
vindicate it from the doubts that one of the first 
of modem archaeobgista and scholars had thrown 
round it — doubts certainly known to every true 
archaeologist in the sale-room — were simply thrown 
away as far aa the sale wma eoncemed, and the 
gem thereby reduced to probably one half its 

Without expending further discusBion on this 
auicidal and wqwe than shabby treatment of a 
literary work which the owner of the gems re- 
ceived as a free gift — treatment which his Grace, 
however, would certainly have indignantly repu- 
diated had its true character been brought to his 
notice— we may proceed to consider what place 
this important collectdon holds amcmg similar 
private coUectione in the world. Of these there 
are but few. The callection of gems of the Due 
da Luynes has passed into the Biblioth&que at 
Paris. Its rival, formed h^ the Due de Blacas, 
rests now, tlianks entirely to the appreciative 
promptitude of Mr. IhscaeU, in the Kitiah Mu- 

The Ptaim collection, formed two centuries ago 
in Ntimberg, Ivaa been diapersed ; and the Arun- 
del collection — probably tne only contAmporary 
of the Ptann that had survived to oar time in 
private hands — has now, as one part of the Blen- 
gems, just changed its owner, with what 



further destination who shall e 



Last 






9 repute in Paris— ^»n8iBtmg of 
of M. Leturcq, was 
London, though the 
reault of ita sals i« said to have produced dts^H 
poiutmeot owing to over ^au m the arrange- 
There indeed remain a £bw collectiooB of itime ) 
notably that of the Duke of Devonshire and one 
leas known but of choice excellence collected by 
Lord Algernon Percy, and inherited bv Mr. 
Heber Percv ; and there is an almost untinown 
collection, tne home of which should be Castle 
Howard. In Paris, too, there remains divided. 
between tha two brother Barons Bc^er, the 
Boger collection ; to each portion of it further 
additions have been made by their present owners, 
ajid they contain a few admirable cameos and 
specimens of cameo work, and some intaglios, 
(miefly small but of a high character, including 
many that are antique. A select collection 
formed during recent yeam by Mr. Oooke of Rich- 
mond, and the curious collection of Mr. King the 
well-known author, and in gnat part reviver 
of the taste for gems, may be named among the 
few minoi-collectionsofour own time and country. 
But among all of these the great collection of the 
Duke of Marlborough stood the highest. 

When we remember tiiat the 600 gems of the 
Blacaa collection which, as far as the intaglios 
went, were even a more remarkable series than 
those in the Blenheim cabinet, might be with 
some confidence valued (leaving out the gt«at 
cameo of Augustus) at about one-third of the 



48,0OOJ. paid by the nation for the entire Blacas 
Mnseum, the great Bom which Mr. Agnew's 
enterprise laid down for the purchase of the Marl- 
borous'h gems may startle the world. On the 
other band, it is to be Temembered that the value 
of gems has advanced, at least on a par with that 
of other objects of vertu, and that probably the 
^ms in the Bhu!«B collection would produce now 
in a sale-room from 30 to 60 per cent, more than 
the share they were estimated to bear in the sum 
for which Mr. Disraeli closed the purchsse cf the 
Blacaa Museum in his telegram to Paris. But in 
one respect the Marlborough cabinet stands con- 
spicuous, and that is in the large cameos whieti 
adorn it. Although such cameos belong to the 
Roman period, and some of the most striking of 
them to a conqiaratively late period of Roman art, 
they possess an archaeoI<w;ical interest of a high 
order, and if they are to be valued by their rarity 
they at least deserve to be as keenly sought after 
as the vases in which a Ch«Isea potter tried to 
imitate the deUeata prodncts of the Sevres mamt- 

Tha sale of the Btenhdm eoUection in a single 
lot leaves it still a matter of conjecture what 
would be the bir selling price of such objects aa 
these large cameos, while also it still remaiuB 
entirely uncertain how far an improved apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful productsof the rem engraver's 
art in the sixteenth and in the last centuries 
would have permitted the fine examples of these 
gems in the Blenhmm Cabinet to be sold below 
their value. N. S. MASKELun. 



xppoiRncErra tob fkxi wxez. 

, July 17, i r". Sitli finmmAr Coaart, CrjtM 

% pjn. Trench Opimfl at tl» Qtiaty {iBB 

□17 n, fl pjn, QoekBtt Clnb : *^'"'*' QtmriMl 



SCIENCE. 

Ancient Greek Imcriptioni of the Britieh 
Museum. Edited by C. T. Newton, 
Keeper of the Qreek and Roman Anti- 
quities. Part I. Attilca. Edited by tho 
Eev. E. L. HickB, M.A. (Oxford : Printed 
by order of the Tmateea at the Clarendon 
Preaa, 1874.) 

(FirH NoHee.) 
An edition of tbe Greek loacriptionB of the 
British Museum, about a thousand in number, 
isan undertaking in which the wbolo educated 
public of Europe baa an interest. Not only 
is it a sign (^ the continued vigonr witii 
which this great institution is conducted, 
bnt the matter itself baa a epeoial import- 
ance. It is not ereryone wno is called to 
study the sul^ect of epigraphy, bnt it is 
daily becoming more and more clearly recog- 
nised that every eoholar oagbt to be &miliM' 
with the inscriptions within his own pro- 
vince of history or philology. The stndent, 
indeed, is inexcoaable who neglecta the 
monnmentB wbiofa speak to him with tbe 
very voice of past ages. Bnt as it is im- 
possible in an ordinary lifbtims to examine 
the originals of everything broas'ht under 
discnssion, and as these originals toemselTes 
t^re perishable and somelimea wa&ionly 
destroyed, the production of exact and trust- 
worthy tests is an absolnte neoessity. Kach 
country has its own work to do in this 
matter, it must have its trained epigrapbists 
capable of undertaking expeditions into 
foreign countries, bnt above all is it specially 
called upon to edit and interpret the in. 
scriptioos contained in its own local or 



national collectiona. It is only socb p«noaB 
npon the spot who have the time and oppov- 
tanity for the repeated ooasnltatioiiB (n Aa 
origin^ stone or brass which are Beeeemr 
to produce an exact text. Hnch, indes^ 
may be done vrith w«t paper squeezes, with 
photographs, or with rubbings, eq>e<naUy 
when supplemented by manuscript copaai 
taken at the same time. Tbe nse of sgoeeiai 
ia, in &et, now recognised as almoet iadis- 
pensable eren in editing inscriptiona don 
at hand. But nothing bnt a repeated en^ 
mination of the originals nnder diferwA 
U^tB and varying conditions will give abso- 
lnte certaiBty in such minutiae aa brc^m 
letters and half rubbed-out words, the peoik 
liar shapes of oharacteis, and the like. It 
matters, therefore, compMratively littla what 
competent scholar edita a corpus or colleo- 
tion of the inscriptions of any provinoe ttt 
gronp of provinces, provided uiat the ovuri- 
nala have been first moperly studied hy 
those in whoaa posseeaion they an. Tbn^ 
while we oonld not but fed a certain r^rat 
that the Latin Insciipticms of Britain had 
not been edited as a whole by an Ekdidk 
man, we felt bound to confeu that, m all 
probi^Uty, the task was better perfbrmad 
by Prt^sssor Hiibner than it couM have 
been I7 anyone else. He had studied the 
great area of the Gallic quarter of the 
Empire to which Britain belonged nose 
widely tbau any other philologist ; and he 



had besides a just -^preciatioT 

ledge of the local work of Snglish mi- 

graphista. But without tbe accurate i^ 



boars of a long line of aativs editors &am 
Oamdea and Horsley to the present iaif, 
little or nothing oould have been done. 

The coUectimu of Latin iascriptiona in 
this country are mostly of Britiso origiB, 
and have been recently worked u^ ia 
a variety of ways, many of tbem m a 
popular form. It is not so, however, with 
tbe Gt9^, which have been colleeted by 
various travellers aad explorers from a 
number of distant localities. Much hoe 
been discovered since the puhlioatkm cf 
Boeckh's great work, and it has long bam 
known that the copies there given, owii^ to 
tha hasteandinaocuracyof manyof tbetooK. 
scriptioos, were not impUoitly to be relied oM, 
Others were only to be found in la^e and 
ezpeiiBive books of travels or the transaotiaas 
of learned societies, others again have nanr 
been published at all. 

It was therefore very fortunate that the 
Trustees of the British Mnseom possoMsi 
in Mr. Newbm a skilled archaeologist, enteik 
prising enough to undertake this task, and 
that he was able to secure the servicee of ee 
excellent a coadjutor as Mr. Hicks. Of Hr. 
Newton's qualifications it is almost needleas 
to speak, bnt we may remind our readaiB 
that when a young man be was chosen to 
complete uid edit the collection of Raman 
Inscriptions in tbe Monumenta SisUrriea 
BriUmnica oiler the death of Mr. Petrie, and 
that in bis very snocesgfnl expeditions te 
HahcamassuB, Gnidus, and Branchidae in 
connexion with his important architectniel 
and historical discoveries, he collected and 
edited more than a hundred Greek iasorip- 
tions, few of which hod been ever printed 
before. His practical sbilify as an archaeo> 
legist is abundantly ^parent, even in suoh 



68 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 1?, 1875. 



small brochmret as the c&talo^ee of yaaea 
and of the Bla^aa Collection in the Britiah 
Moseam, Mr. Hicks is also well known to 
OUT readers aa a writer in this journal, and 
he hoB contribated valoable papers to the 
Journal of Philoloffi/ and the Hermet, This 
is, howerer, the first TOlame of any size 
vhioh he has produced, and it moat be pro- 
iLOnnced, witfiont any kind of pretence or 
flattery, a great snooesa. Mr. Hicks is a scholar 
of whom the University and City of Oxford 
may well be prond, and that he is at the 
nme time a hard-worldng conntry clergy- 
man is a fact that deeerves to be mention^. 
We think, too, that the Oxford Press shoold 
rooeive some credit for the way in which the 
book has been got ap. In type and printing 
and paperit is admirable, striking exactly the 
ri^t mean between cheapness and laxnrr. 
The uncial type is, we believe, new in this 
OOBntrr, and deserves attention. It is cast 
&om the fonot made originally for Lebas' 
Vot/ag» AreMologiqtu, and seems to reprodace 
the Afferent characters of each period with 
great snccess. Actual misprints seem very 
tare and nnimportant. A slip of the pen 
at the bottom of p. 156 may here be noticed 
where " dissyllable" is a cnrions confusion 
for " synizesis " or some such term. As a 
matter of mere technical arrangement we 
■honld bare much preferred a fall table of 
contents at the beginning to a bare list of 
obapters. A short title with the actual or 
proximate date of each inscription, wonid 
not have oconpied mnch space, and might 
have been given as well at the beginning of 
the volume as in the beading of each num- 
ber, and in the headline of each right-hand 
page. We should like also to see a cursive 
text following in all cases immediately 
beside or below the uncial, even where it is 
repeated in detaU in the commentary. Some- 
ihmg too might be done to make the break- 
ages in the stone more evident to the eye, by 
applying, as far as may be, the principles of 
(he Oorpua Inacrij)lvmwn Latinarum which 
are in advoace of those generally adopted 
in editing Greek inscriptions. The use, for 
instance, of thick type in cursive texts, 
where in Latin we should use italics, 
wonld enable us to dispense with many 
a tiresome bracket. We mention these 
nunnbae, as we know by experience that 
npon them much of the attractiveness, 
and indeed usability, of a book depends in 
this hard-pressed and hurrying age. We 
shall look forward with interest to the in- 
dexes, which, no doubt, will be given when 
-another part or parts shall have appeared. 

Oar readers will, no doubt, desire to have 
» more detailed account of the character 
and contents of this volume. It contains 
136 Attio inscriptions, all edited by Ur. 
Hicks, with the exception of the important 
DO. 35, the Snrvey of Works in the Temple 
of Athene Polias, which is edited by Mr. 
Ifewton with some thirteen pages of com- 
mentaiT. All the und^ texts have been first 
cai«fnlly collated with the original marbles 
by Mr. Hicks, and then by Mr. Newton, 
who has also revised the whole in its passage 
through the press, with the assistance of 
Mr, A. S. Murray and Mr. Percy Crardner, 
so that we have every goarantee for the first 
great desideratum—exactness of reading. 
The results of this careful collation are ap- 



parent throughout the book wberev^ a 
broken line has to be filled up, or worn 
and rubbed tetters have to be made out : — 

" A repeated sxamination of the stone has ren- 
dered some of Bockh's conjecturaa untenahls and 
engiteBted others " (p. I). 

"I am glad to nave reCDvered oX«i£'o<ri from 
the BtODe. Rose and Bockh sre quite in error, 
and Sauppe only arrives at the right meaning 
by the noleat conjecture roia-i (V 'Aypas oliri 
MwmipiouT-i " (p. 7). 

" 1^ surface has been much worn away, hut 
by BBsiduouslj poring over the stone, I was Me 
to arrive at a oonaidaT&hlv more perfect copy than 
that given in the Oorpua (p. 40). 
These are merely specimens of the manner 
in which Mr. Hicks has worked patiently at 
his task. As instances of bia success in 
restoration, we may refer to no. 2, the Re- 
OT^nisation (?) of the Mensinia, as oom- 
pt^ed with Eirchoff Corpus, no. 1, and to 
no. 24 B, compared with Eirch. no 185, 
p. 64. See also pages 60 and 61, where his 
rearrangement oi some of Chandler's letters 
is found to coincide with a collation of the 
stone long supposed to be lost. But pro- 
bably his greatest trinmph is the reading 
of no. ?4, a small archaic fragment arranged 
liovm-po^ijZdy, on the restotstion of which 
B5okh at one time prided himself aa a type 
of his own method, though in later life he 
seems to have given it up as hopeless. 
Dr. KirchoST alao is at a loss to interpret it, 
Mr.Hicks shows that the letters which remain 
are perfectly clear, and that they are not 
arranged trroixiiov — i. e., in vertical lines 
exactly under one another. Hence any re- 
toration that is made mvtt include the actual 
letters on the stone, but need not keep to 
the same nnmber of letters in a line. Bockh 
by the aid of bold conjecturea made np the 
laeuHae on the rTot\r)S6v principle, and in- 
terpreted the whole aa a record of bnilding 
expenses. But such conjectures could only 
be allowable supposing there existed a con- 
siderable uncertainty in tbe extant letters. 
Mr. Hicks assures us that this is not 
the case. He therefore reads it very in- 
genionsly as a record relating to the sacri- 
fices to be paid by some deme or society, 
and probably a list of the perquisites of the 
priests : — 

"XPie[ON : HEMIHE]KTEOrN : nPOAPKT] 
OYPIOl[2I ; . , . , KAI : TOI : [BO]TYnOI : X 
r2YA]A r : Aino.\[l012l] : TPIS : XOINI 

[KES : DENT]E : M[EaiMNOl]," 
i.e., in ordinary spelling, xpSmv ifituKrioy (or 
iluiKTlvr) npoaprTovpiotm [r^ «pM ?], i:ai r^ 
pauTinry £vXa. ^ivoXiuiiri rpiie ynlnxtt riyrt 

ftiSififoi, Mr. Hicks' commentary on this 
should be read in which hedefends the above 
conjectures by a comparison of similar liste 
of sacrifices. The restorations r^ Povriry 
and ^iToXloiai may, we think, be accepted 
as certain, and Upoapierovploiai and £uAa as 
extremely probable. The latter is deft 
by the repeated mention of Apiyava ii 
similar inscription in Rangab/, no. 816. 
wish, by-the-by, that Mr. Hicka had quoted 
the parallels more at length, both here and in 
other cases, as the volumes and periodicals 
edited by Oreek savants are not in every 
library. The identification of the little frag- 
ment no. 30 is also a good piece of original 
work, though it does not yi^d so much. 
With regard to the exercise of tbe critical 



&cnlty in the det«nnination of dates, we do | 
not know that Mr. Hicks has had mnch ' 
opportunity for the achievement of such 
successes. A very fair specimen, however, 
of his ability in this respect will be focnd in | 
the commentary on no. 21, the decree of ] 
thegnildofSarapiaste, which he assigns with, 
great probability to about 150-100 B.C. I 
More interesting still is the argument from | 
a combination of internal evidence by which, 
the fragment of regulations of the Eleusinia 
(no. 19) is referred to the reign of Marcos i 
Anrelius. But in this case Mr. Hicks is | 
chiefly indebted to Dittenbei^er's com- 
mratary. John Wobdswoeth- 



Dr. Ure'a JHetumary of ArU, Manvfaciwret, 
and Minet. By Kobert Hnnt, F.B.S., 
Keeper of Mining Records; and Y. W. 
Rudler, F.G.S., assisted by numerous Con- 
tributors. In Three Yolumes. Seventh 
Edition. (London: LongmanBAiCo.,1875.) 
The Great Exhibition of 1851 did much to 
promote the application of science to the 
useful arts, and during the last five and 
twenty years our industrial arts have 
flourished and progressed to an extent qnito 
unknown before. One of tie main advan. 
tages of the first and of all succeeding inter- 
national exhibitions has been to briu^ before 
our notice the industrial products and pro- 
cesses of other countries, and thus to ooable 
ns to compare them with onr own. This 
comparison has often proved to us that our 
own processes are inferior to those of other 
countries, and that our own artisans and 
maoafacturera are lesa educated than those 
of neighbouring countries. Then there came 
a great cry for the better education of 
artisans, -coupled with the establishment of 
local muaeuma of arts and mann&ctuTes, 
emanating in many instanoea from the great 
central institution of South Kensington. 
Thus it happens that so great a stimnlos 
has been given to our arts and manufac- 
tures, and that scores of new prooessea are 
patented and pnt in practice every year. 
Thus also it happens that Dr. Ure's Dic- 
tianary of Artx and Manufacturee has attained 
its seventh edition and its present magni. 
tude. The book has always been welcome 
as a work of general reference, and as 
almost indispensable to the mannfi\ctnrer. 
Whether it be the brewer, or the dyer, or 
the cotton spinner, he will find a resume of 
all that is important in his manufiicture : — 
the newest dye, the last invented gun, the 
new methods of boring rocks, the new 
blaating agents, are all described in detail, 
and the description in nearly all necessary 
cases is accompanied by a good woodcut. 

During the lifetime of the promoter and 
first editor of this work it went tbroagh 
four editions ; in 1858, Mr. Robert Hunt 
became editor, and this is the thii-d edition 
which has been called for during his editor- 
ship. He has associated wiUi himself a 
number of men each a master in his own 
branch of science or art. We find the 
names of such eminent men of science as 
Dr. Frankland and Professor Ramsay, side 
by side with those of eminent maoufactQrers. 
The general result bos been that every 
article is complete in itself, and that it 
embodies the opinions of sound practio&l 



JJLT 17. 1878.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



69 



gun well acquainted with tho subject which 
tiej diacaas. It is, howeTsr, somewhait to 
be regretted that articles are not si^ed by 
their respectire antfaon. 

We will briefly notice aome of the more 
important articleB. The article on Alcohol 
commeDces with an acconnt of the prodnc- 
ttoQ of that substance, aad the general 
theory of fermentation. The preparation 
of alcohol ia divided into three stages: — 

1. The production of a fermented vinous 
liquor— the Fermentation, 

2. The preparation from this of an ardent 
Epirit — tbe Distillation. 

3. The separation from this ardent spirit 
of tbe last traces of water — the Rectification. 

Hiis is followed by an acconnt of the pro- 
pertiea of absolute alcohol, and a nnmb^ of 
Toy nsefnl tables are given to show the specific 
gravities of mixtures of alcohol andwater,and 
tbe percentages of absolute alcohol. We 
find also tables to show the relative strength 
of different fermented liqnids, ranging from 
London small beer with 1*28 per cent, of 
alcohol, to Scotch whisky with £4-32 ; 
while midway we have borgiindy with 14'57 
per cent., and port with a percentage of 
22*96. A. cnrions table is given, on the 
authority of W. Bence Jones, to show the 
letative stimulating powers of different 
liquids, beginning wiUi cider, the stimulating 
power of which is taken at 100, and ending 
with mm, whose stimnlating power, accord- 
ing to the same scale, is 1243, or nearly 12^ 
tmiBfl greater than that of cider. From these 
results it may be deduced that ten glasaea of 
cider or porter, six glasses of claret, five 
glasses of burgundy, four glasses of cham- 
ptgne, three glafises of port, sherry, or mar- 
nk, are eqnalto one glaea of brandy. 

An interesting article on Alloyt contains 
tables giving tbe analysis of various ancient 
coins and broneee, and also of all the prin- 
cipal modem alloys of copper, such as Mnntz's 
metal and alamininm bronze. Under the 
heading Alttminium we find a complete ac- 
connt of the mannfactnre of that body in 
Newcastle. Considering the enormous ex- 
tent of the aniline-dyes industry, the article 
devoted to them is, we think, rather meagre, 
but separate treatusea exist on the subject. 
The ftrticte on ArtfUery contains some capital 
woodcuts showing sections of the breech of 
Armstrong's and of Whitworth's guns ; we 
also notice an account of the most recent 
ezperimentfl and deductions on the subject. 
An ezhanstivB article of nearly one hundred 
pages treats of Calico PTinting, and an article 
of more than fifty pages on Coal (no doubt 
by the editor) contains all the most recent 
returns of coal raised in various parts of the 
worid, and of the consumption . In the great 
plain of China there are no less than 30,000 
square miles of coal-bearing ground, and 
coal costs here only Id. per ton at the pit- 
Bionth, while the wages of tbe miners are 6ci. 
a day. The account of Diamond* furnishes 
OS with the most recent details conoeming the 
Sooth African Diamond Fields, from which 
we learn that the lowest South African 
diamond (the " Stewart ) was discovered in 
November, 1872. It weighs 288| carats, and 
is a fine straw-coloured octohedron; it is 
only exceeded in weight W three diamonds 
in the world — the Gnat Mogal, the Nizam, 
and tike Hattan. 



Under the heading DigUllaiion a very clear 
description, accompanied by a woodcut, will 
, be found of Coffey's very complicated vertical 
steam still, which ia now need in all the 
lai^ distilleries. Tbe saving of coal efiected 
by this still is so great that Dr. Muspratt 
has calculated that throughout the kingdom 
no less than 140,000 tons per aimnm of coat 
are saved. The working of the still ia ou a 
gigantic scale, and one of them recently 
erected in Leith works oSao less than 3,000 
gallons an hour. Under tbe article Diving 
Bell, the author remarks that it is curious 
to find that as early as. 1693 a diving bell 
was designed, but George Sinclair (d. 1696) 
wrote his treatise De Urinaloria long before 
this ; moreover, Robert Flndd deacribes a 
diving apparatus in his Hiatc/ria Maerocoemi 
(1617), and before him Nicholas Tartaglia, 
the Italian mathematician (b. 1500). A 
valuable and well-illnstrated article on the 
Dressing of Ores receives additional import- 
ance from the knowledge that the editor and 
sub-editor and several of the contributors 
are officially connected ■with the School of 
Mines — the first school of mining in the 
kingdom ; and no doubt this article is from 
the pen of one of them. It contains all the 
most recent methods and processes. Among 
other noticeable articles are : a long article 
on coal gas, its mannfactnre and products of 
distillation ; an account of Mr. Siemens' gas 
furnace ; and a long account of the extrac- 
tion and mann&cture of iron. 

In tbe third and last volume the first 
articles which strike one are those relating 
to mines and mining ; they are very concise 
and comprehensive, and embody all the most 
recent knowledge. The mineral statistics, 
compDed by the editor, ore of great interest 
and importance. Mint operations are fully 
described, and the very complex balance 
which antomatically weighs every coin, re- 

i'ecting those which ore too light or too 
leavy, is figured and minutely described. 
We have also a long account of tbe manu- 
facture of sugar, by a practical sugar refiner, 
and many sketches of recent improvements. 

Throughout the more than 3,000 pages of 
the work we find constant references to ori- 
ginal memoirs, to specifications of patents, 
and to other books. A vast amount of re- 
search has from first to last been expended 
on the book, and each suoceeding edition 
has improved it very mnch. In this last 
edition the whole of the type has been reset, 
and a number of iroodcuts have been added. 
It will be nsefW to the general reader, by 
furnishing him with information on general 
subjects of arts and manufiustures, while to 
the manu&ctnrer himself it will furnish tbe 
minutest details of his craft. The work has 
been so much improved by snooessive editions 
that we have no fault to find with it at all, 
and we can cordially recommend it to our 
readers, G. F. Rodwbll. 



SCIENCE NOTES. 



ASTBOHom:. 
TVonnt of Veaut. — In the Amtrican Joam/A of 
Scianct Professor Newcomb hoH ^yea a summary 
of the operations of the American expeditions. 
The contacts were well obeerred at the three 
northern stations, in Siberia, China, and Japan ; 
bat unfortunatelj infrress was only secured at 
Queenstown in New Zealand, a station of com- 



paratiraly little value for this phase, and egress 
only in Tasmania, tbe Americans haring had veiy 
bad luck in the matter of weather. Profeasor 
Newcomh seems to place some reliance ou ob- 
servations of external contact, which was ob- 
served at ingrcBB at Kerguelen, but the ohaerva- 
tion is so largely dependent on the telescope 
used that great caution ia necasaary in accept- 
ing results from such oheervations. In their 
photography the Americans were much troubled 
oy the weather, their uniilvered glasa mirrors not 

Sving- a auffieiently bright image of tbe sun when 
int from haze, and thus there were a very large 
proportion of fulures, only fort^ photographs out 
of 2B0 taken at Hobart Town being good ; but not- 
withstandiugthehadweathernoleBBthan 133 good 
photc^Tapbswere aecured at northern stations, and 
187 at southern, a result which does great credit 
to all concerned. From a oomlnnataou of the 
results obtained by all nations. Professor Newcomb 
eonsidera that the sun's paiallax will probably be 
determined within Q"-02, and his distance within 
200,000 miles, but nnforeseeu aonrcea of error 
may modify thia estimate connderaUy. 

M. AnsbA has communicated to the Frendi 
Academy of Science tbe result of a comparison 
of the difference of durations obaerved at 
Noum^ (New Caledonia), and St. Paul's 
Island. The results obtained from one of the 
telescopes at Noum&i compared with those at St. 
Paul's agree well with the received value of the 
Bojar parallax 8"'86, but the other two telescopes 
give results differing much from this, and these 
observations are therefore suppresaed. The two 
stations ure not at all JavouTably placed for eom- 

C'son of duiatiooB, and the results seem to have 
1 worked out solely with the view of R«ttinff 
something tangible out of the observations, aad 
cannot be tixpected to decide such a delicate ques- 
tion flathatof thesun'sparsltas. There seems too 
to he some risk of the danger which M. Le Verrier 
predicted of the suppression or modification of 
some of the observations as the result of such 
partial discuBsiona. 

The reduction of the English observations is 
proceeding vigorously, and all inatrumantal enon 
that could poBsiblj aSect the results are heii^ 
carefully determined, but many months muat still 
elapse before the final value of the sun's parallax 
could be obtained, even if the English observa- 
tions alone were used, and we muat probably wait 
for yeais before the data collected by all nations 
are combined into one grand result. 

The EcUpse of (a.d.) 1239.— Dr. Celoria has 
exhaustively discussed the accounts of thia solar 
eclipse, which was total in North Italy, and aeems 
to have produced a great impreaaiou wherever it 
was visible. In particular it terrified the be- 
siegers of Oaatelfranco so much that they precipi- 
tately raised the siege and removed to Verona. 
Most of the reports are extremely vague, so that 
it is lUfficult to make out whether the eclipee 
was really total or not at some of the places 
mentioned, though it is particularly stated 
at all those whidi Dr. Oeloria has admitted, 
that the stars were seen as clearly as at 
ni)[ht. There ia, however, an account by an old 
monk, Bistoro of Areszo, which is admiiable for 
its precision, it being stated in particular that 
totality lasted for a space of time during which 
a mau could eoailv walk 260 paces, which would 

five a duration oi about two and a half minutes, 
f there had only been a few more such accurate 
observers, the place of the moon could have been 
fixed with greet certainty from a comparison of 
the duration of totality at difierent places. Aa it 
is, Dr. Oeloria considers that Hwsen's Lunar 
Tables carry the hand of totality nearly 1° too 
far south, hut bow &r this results from an error in 
the longitude of the moon, and how far from an 
error in the place of the node of her orbit, cannot 
well be determined from the data at present ac- 
cessible. If any accounts could be found ui the 
South of France, or in the North of Spain, an im- 



70 



THE ACADEMY. 



CJoH 1?. 1875. 



portaDt result might be obtwned. Both FrofesBor 
ScliiKparelli, vho fiist collected the DOtices of this 
eclipse^ and Dr. Celoria, who continned the -irork 
and discussed them, LftTB, however, done good 
KTvice hy thdr lahonn. Before their investiira- 
tion records of the eclipse hod onl? been dia- 
corerod at Uitabeau and Digue in the eouth-east 
of FraDce, and at Lesina on the Adriatic. 

SattOita of Saturn. — In tb« AttrommtueAe 
Jfae/iriehtm, No. S013, Mr. Marth giTM an ephe- 
ueriaof the aatellitesofBatuRi, which will greatly 
fltcilitate ofaaeiratioos of these ohjecta, as the; are 
TBiy liable to be confused with email atan in the 
Deighboiirhood. There is considerable uncertainty 
about the positioas of the inoennoet wtellite 
Miniw and &e outermost lapetus, and no 
ephemeria ia given for Hypeiion, the last 
djBCorered, as trustworthy obaearratioiis are want- 
ing for thia satellite. The placee of the other Stc 
an tolerablv correct, but ohaemitioDS are much 
wanted of this extremely intarestiDg system about 
irhich BO little ie known, the mutual perturbatione 
of the satellitea and the effect of the ring being 
most important questions, which can cmly be 
solTed by accumulated obflervations. With the 
Tiew of facilitating these, Mr. Marth has given the 
approximate times of conjunction of the several 
satellites with the planet. Eclipeee, occultations, 
and tramiits only occur when the earth is nearly 
m the plane of the ring (every fifteen years), 
except in the esse of Titan, whose orbit is consi- 
deraoly inchned to the ring. 

iftMctra o/_ SC^lr*. — Professor d' Arrest has cou- 
duoed his specboBCopic survey of Ihe Northern 
heavens, which has occupied hmi continuously for 
more than a year. The concluuons he arrivea at 
are: (1) that the thiid type of spectrum (chan- 
nelled space*) is not excliiuvelv confined to orange 
or red stars, and that sevBcal deep-hued orange 
stMB give an ordinary spectrum. Perception of 
colour (especially red) depends so mudi on the 
eye of the observer that Professor d'Arrest's re- 
Hilt must be taken rather as a caution agsiuit a 
hasty generalisation than as disproving any eon- 
Beiion between colour and the nature of the 
spectrum ; (2) that the fourth type of spectrum is 
much more closely connected with de«^ orange or 
red stars, and that the bands in this Bpactmm may 
be resolved into a number of fine lines ; (3) that 
aa a mle ench striking ^)ectra accompAny varia- 
bilitv in a star; (4} that no generaJ diffarence 
«an m ti»ced between the apectoa of sters in ( 
part of the heavens and of those in another, 
that there is no trutii in the aeeertiou that the red 
and yellow are wanting in all the stan of Orion. 

Ix the same number of the Attronomitche 
Naehrwkten which contains the above paper is a 
notice of the death of its author on June 14 after 
a fen days' illness; an announcement which will 
be loceived with deep regret by all aatronon 
Profeaaor d'Arreet has closed a career of great 
fulness with his valuable work on the spectia of 
stars, having all through Ufe made the most of 
the means at his command, which were very 
Uroited, though in his bauda they afforded results 
which liave not been equalled with the Urgeat in- 
Btnuncats elsewhere. Only last February the 
medal of the Royal Astrosomical Society was 
awarded to him for his grand catalogue of nebulae, 
the main feature of his work being the accuracy 
both of the positions and of the descriptions, and 
in his speech on that occasion Professor Adams 
paid a well-deserved tribute to Professor d'Arrest's 
skill and peiseveiaace. D'Arrest's name is in- 
separably associated with that of the periodical 
comet which he discovered in 1851. Thb comet 
has a period of six utd a half years, and ^tpears 
to belong to the Jupiter family. 



rsruaoBj. 



AMOSa the gT«At number of Greek writings 
lost for ever, and known onlv from quotations, the 
most to be regretted ale the historical works of 



Alexander, called Polyhistor, pi^iil of Elr&tes. 
Alexander was made a prisoner in the wars 
against Mithridates and nought by Cornelius 
Lentulus, who entmsted to him the education of 
his sons. He lived about 8G B.a at Rome, where 
he met hia death in a fire. It is sud that he wrote 
forty-two works j among these is a history of 
the Oriental nations, of which fragments still 
exist ; those concerning the Jews are to be found 
partly in some of the fathers, acd chiefly in 
the writings of Euaebius. Although it has 
long been proved that ihem fragments are far 
from beii^ accurate, still they are sufficient to 
show how valuable his history would have 
been to illustrate the halnts and thoughts of 
Oriental nations. Dr. Freudenthal, well known 
by his excellent monograph on tha fourth book of 
the Maccabees (Acasekt, 1860, p. 15), continues, 
under the name of JleUenittuche S/udim, his re- 
sesrches on later Hellenistic writers. He begins 
the critical examination of Alexander's fr^ments 
concerning the Jews, as well as of those of De- 
metrios Eupolemos, Malchos-Kleodemoa, Aristeas 
Artopanoa, and an anonymous Samaritan historian 
on the same snhject. Dr. FreudentbaVs com- 
parisons of the biblical accounts of those frag- 
ments with some of the Midrashim and other 
Agadic books are both new and remarkable. It is 
clearly shown that there was current among the 
Qreek-speaking Jews a kind of Agadsh which Dr. 
Frendenthal rightly calls " a Hellenistic Midrash," 
just OS there was aoiong the Hebrew-speakii^ 
Jews. These land of rcBcarcbea on later Hellenistic 
writers, so successfully carried on by Professor 
Jacob ifemaya, of Bonn, in his monographs on 
" The Chronicles of Sulpicius Severus," on 
" Theophnuitea' Book on Piety," and others, pub- 
lished us programmes of the Habbinical school at 
Breslau, and now continued hy his successor. 
Dr. Freudenthal, are of the greatest importance for 
the history of the New Testament writings as well 
as forsArly Ohristianity. Dr. Freudenthal's notes 
at the end of the second fasciculus, sa well as the 
Greek texts of some fragments, collated with USS. 
and various editions, enhance greatly the value of 
his monograph. We may mention by-tbe-by that 
he is gcing to bring ont a monograph on Isaac 
Ismeli, the first Jewish phflosopher, who lived at 
the beginning of the tenth century. 

Thb Rev. W. R. Burgess, Vicar of Ilollowell, 
has published a specimen of a critical commentary 
on tbe Hebrew Psaltw, with the view of ascer- 
taining what reception sad) a work may expect 
fromEngBsh scluMan. He speaks apologetically 
in his preface of the low level on wbicb he moves, 
that of "archaeological reeeareh and literary 
criticism." Perhaps there are some among us 
who will not be (usposed to accept this modest 
disclaimer on bebalf of philologicnl criticism. The 
specimen bears the title " Exsurgat Deus ; a Oriti- 
atl OoDunentary on the 68th Psalm," and is pub- 
lished by Messrs. Williams and Nor)2«te. ItsfeOWB 
both learning and independeat tkoagbt, though 
the new traiisktiona an» ssUok plauMble in pro- 
portion to their bohlnesa. We extiact a Esw ren- 
derings : Ver. 10. " With a shower of free gifts 
(bc. manna), God, didst Hon rain down upon 
Thine inheritance, and when it was fainting Tnou 
didst, refresh it with Thy living creatures (sc. 
quails)." Ver. 14, 16. "What though vou 
(Iseachar) lie between tbe sfaaep-fold>, as if tbey 
were tbe wings itfadove (yourself the dove), that 
is covered with ulver, Ukd whose feathers are 
yellow gold; When the Almighlr (Shaddai) 
scattereth kings therein (sc. within we borders of 
Issachar), in Salmon there is (as it were) snow." 
On tbe latter words Mr. Btirgese compares a de- 
scription in Macaulay of the battle of Aghrim, 
"he saw tbe country .... white with the 
naked bodies of the slain." Ver. SO. " KeMed be 
the Lord (Adonu) who daily patdraeA us : tliia 
God is our salvation." Ver. 28. " Them b little 
Benjamin (who was aftorwanb) their dkvastBtor, 
the princee of Judah (afterwards) their thunder- 
bolt, tbe princes of Zabnlon, tbe prinoea of Napb- 



tAli" In ver. 19 Mr. Burgess would render "MJtt^ { 

tanoth in Edom " (for " gifts among men '^, , 
referring it to the Mattanah of Num. xxL 18, 19. 

He thinks it is an echo of an ancient song of | 

triumph, similar to the archaic fragment ia I 

Num. xxi. 14, where he identifies "Vaheb in | 
Supiiah"with "Mattanah in Edom," 



\ aheb " with the AratAc waiaba " he gave," a. 

taking Suphah, " tempest," ■- Seir, which eeema to ' 

us simply incredibly On the whole we recom- I 

mend the application of tha Horatian " noniun | 

prematur in annum," i 

Anatecta Liviana. Ediderunt T. H. Monunadn '■ 

et O. Stndemund. Accedunt tabulae qiunque. i 

(Leipzig.) This little work will interest not ' 
only every student of Livv, but every one who 

cares to realize for himself^ the earliest forme in | 
whidi the text of Roman authors has been pr^ 

served. It contains five platM executed in photo | 
lithogmph J and repreeentu^ specimen pages of tbe 



four earliest manuscripta of Livy. The £M ■■ 
taken from the Veronese palimpsest, which oo^ 
tains fragments of booksiii.to vi. ; tbe second from 
the Oodex Puteanns (Paris 6730); the third 
and fourth from the Codex Vindobonenua, oon- 
tsining fragments of the fifth decade ; the fiftit 
copies part of the Vatican fragment of bo(A 
91. To these Mormnsen has added a few pages 
of explanation and comment, which, wit^ a 
complete conspectus of the msnoacripte of tha 
third decade, amounting to eighty-two, aevatal 



pages in which variants fnmi t 






collated for Mommsen by different friends a. 

S'ven, and a statement as to the relation 'of tbe 
uteanus to the Turin f^iagments and the Spins 
manuscript, so far as the readings of this last em 
be ascertained from tbe Munich leaf recently dn- 
covered by Halm, and the citations of RhenaniB 
in his edition (Bead, 1686), form iitt laificr, 
though not tbe newest or most interesting, portiaa 
of the work. This ia a cloae and obviousfy very 
careful cojiy by Studemund of tbe fragments of tbe 
Turin palimpsest ; these fragments are contained in 
eight leaves, and are taken frnm book xxvii, e. 
11, 13, 13, 31, 32, S3, 34, and book xrix., c 12, 
21, 23. They had already been aaeertained to 
belonf^ to Ijvy by an Italian savant, Covat 
Baudi a Veeme, and had been transcribed % 
Mommsen, of whose v^fen Studemund bm 
made use in re-examimn^ the leaves. It cu 
hardly be doubted that this work, with Momm- 
sen's earlier edition of the Veronese fri^pients, 
will contribute much to determine the questian 
of the relation of the manuscripts of Livy to 
each other. Madvig's v' — •'■- — '— ^— 






will ref^uire henceforward a nore complete inrea- 

tdgation. 

Heiniel's Getchkhte der Xiederfrdnkiiehmi 
OetchafimpraeAe (Paderbom, 9ehfiningh), is an 
investigation of extraotdiaary minuteiKBs and 
fuUneas of detul — such as it ia popolaa:^ 
ntiimn^ only a German is capable of cany- 
ing out. Its subject is the language spoken 
on the Rhine from Mum to the Nethffl- 
lands — as far, at least, as it is represented 
in official documents, charters, &c. These dialects 
are of great interest as being the connecting links 
between High and Low German. Heinzel dis- 
tingwishas no less than eleven of them, with a 
Urge umnber of lesser varieties, which he distiiH 
guishes most systematically by means of expaoenta 
II*, VII', &c. All of these are treated in sepa- 
rate sections ; the documents are enumerated uid 
criticised, the geographical Hxtent of tha dialect 
and its relation to other dialects at different periods 
ate fully investigated, and lastly, its characteristic 
ftatniM are described, baaed cblefiy on its phonetic 



^e datMls are, of course, of little interest exMpt 
for specialists, but tbe whole plan of tbe yrvik 
deoervea tha moat attentive atudv bom all who 
are engaged in similar investigations. The pi^ 
I fatory remarks on the various criteria fur dctei^ 



Jn,ri7. lars.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



71 



xmrng- th« vahte of doeumenta bb lu^niBtic wit- 
Etna are, bomver, of more general intereet. 
Sii ifco are the — ' * 



TeuIoDic philology. The firat of these treats of 
i^ (4tang« of a, 1, u into e and o in the West 
G^nuHnic la^aagee (following- Schoter's diTiraon 
■^ East and Weet Germanic) ; the second of the 
lADtrvrechieboiw; and tbe third of the modem 
h^ German di^ithongs, <n, ou, at. AU of these 
ftmvs show a pnisewortbj Btrivin^ after definite 
[AT^ological iteterminatioii of the Taiious Boimd- 
riianfres — ^tbeir tbIhb will depoid on that of the 
TJewB of Sclierer and Briicke, on which they fire 
faued. Thos, in the firet excimuB, Heiniel takea 
for granted. Scherer's hypothesis that Towel- 
cbsD^ee are the result of the attempt to modify 
the lone of the Towels by raising- or lowerin^f. 
To most Tlng-Kwh phcmeticianB of the present 
Khool, thia is putting the cart before the horae -, 
changes of tone Teanlt from physiological tenden- 
dcB of the ragana of spe«ch, economy of ene^, 
and 60 Ibrtli, not viet mthI. The Iodk diaaertAtaon 
on tbe lAatrerK^ehuiiji', in which Heineel aeema 
ptnlj to fbUow Schorer, partly to modify hia 
riewH, we eonfeae to not naTiag had coumge 
anogh to lead tiinrogh. Would that soma 
acMar endowed -with the un-^^ennan Tirtue of 
rwicirncas -would gire us an impartial Buirey of 
tbe eaonaaas mass of Itteiatnie that haa aocumit- 
ktad Touad this aobjecL 

P&OTKScn E. Mabter'b e^tion of the famous 
old Flemish «tirical beast-epic the ifcrnoert 
(Faderbom: Schoningh) deaerres the attention 
of all who are ioterestad either in the langoagv 
or literatute. It not only gives a carefol text with 
tbe rariouB lt8. readlogB, but also a general 
Ektotj introduction, together with a glossary, 
notes, and a brief sketch of the old Flemish 
ieetioiw and metre. 



XBETUraS OF SOCIETIES. 
ExTOKouMicAi. SocEBn {Moitdajr, Jalg S), 



^ceaae of Mr. Henry Donbleday, one of the 
oinnal members of this society, and Mr. Btaintos 
iBsae some remarka on tlie great serricea that he 
had tendered to Entomolt^. 

Mr. l>uniiing remarked that the OmiUtoptera 
hnd bj Mr. Sealy from larvae taken at Oochin, 
South India, and exhibited by him at a recent 
, had been identified as O. Mitujt. 
lond ezhibiled two specimens of a Our- 
ciuiD, Beat from Nova Fribourgx), Btaiil, which 
woe attached to the aame twig, and were bodi 
attadied by a fungus. Mr. Janson sud that tliOT 
bekHiged io the genus SyhpoM, and were well 
known to be aahject to auch attacks. 

The President exhibited a lock taken ^oi a 
gate at T-wickenham, entirely filled witii the colli 
of a epeciee of Osmia, which Mr. Smith said waa, 
most pTobablv, O. bicoriat, of which he had 
known sereral instances in locks. He also exhi- 
bited an example of the minute HyUehthnu nAi, 
one of the Stylopidae, parasitic upon. PnaopU 
nAieola, recently obtained from bnars imported 
tvna EpiroE ; and remarked upon a metliod of ex- 
panding the -wings of Sfylopidae. He also exhi- 
Wted a aeriee of SaUetat nitidtutculut, stykn^aed, 
and lecommendiid entomologists on the Soutli 
Cnaet to aestfch in August for sfyiopised HnUcti, 
e^eaally on tUstlea. Finally, he nouuled on 
tke paraaitea of Ovnia and Anthidinm, and ena- 
merated eleven insecte attacking the same apeeiei 
af Oamia in ita different stages, some davouring 
the egg and pollen paste, some the larrae, and 
odiers attacking the bee itself. 

Mr. Ohampion exhibited a series of reeantly 
aptured individuals of Otrytomda etrealit from 
Soowdon, ita only known ftitish lucalify, Mr. 
VUcblan stated that be bad recently seen tills 
nwiee in the deportment of Sadna-^^Ixwa. B 
rnnoe in great nnmlHn, each ear of wbaat 



having savotal of the beetles upon it; and re- 
marked on Uie ungular nature of its sole habitat 

Tbe Secretary exhibited nests of a faap-door 

aider, eent from Uitenhage, near Port Elizabeth, 
ipe Colony. The nests were not (as ia usual) in 
the earth, bat in cavities in tbe bark of trees, and 
the " trap-dooT " appeared to be formed of a por- 
tion of the hsA ; thua renderin))' it moat difficult 
to det«ct the nests when in a dosed condition. 

Mr. Charles V. Riley, State Entomologist of 
Missouri, exhibited sundry insect peste that do ao 
much damage in tbe Stilts, including the anny 
worm {Lmctmia iiiipuneta), And the Rocky Moun- 
tain locuat (Oaloptettut tfti-ttui), and entered at 
Bome length into the habiU of the latter insect, 
and the vast amount at deatitution caused by it ; 
stating that in a short period it devoured almost 
every living plaat, leavii^ nothing but the leaves 
of me forest tntea, and converting a frnitfiil 
oounta7 into an absolute desert From a know- 
led^ of tbe babrts of tbe insect, and belierinr in 
its inability to exist in a moist climate, be had 
predicted that its ravages woald noteztaid beyond 
a certain line, and he had seen these predioijoas 
folded. Having noticed that hogs and ponltry 
grew excessively fltt from devonriog the locusts, 
and consideringtthat the tue of tbetn as food for 
man would tend to relieve some of the diatreas 
occasioned in tbe devastated districts, he bad 
caused a number of them to be prepared in various 
ways, and they were found to 1»e well suited for 
food, eepeoally in the form of soup. 

Mr. Riley also stated that he was very deeirons 
to take a supply of liie cocoons of Microgatter 
glomeratm to America to lewen the ravages of the 
Wvae of the germs Pierie in that oontinent, and 
would be greatly obliged to any entomologist who 
ooold assist him in obtatmi^:; them. 

The following papers -were communicated r^ 
" Deseriptions of new Het«romerous Coleoptera 
hriongiu; to tiie Family Blapsidae," by Profeasor 
J. O. t^eatwaod ; " Descriptions of a new ^wcies 



Ausmlia," by Obarks O. Watetbouse. 



SociXTT or BtBLiCAi, A&CKAEOtoaT (Tuetdmi, 
Jvlye). 
S. Bi&OH, LL.D., F.S.A., Preudant, in tbe Chair. 
Tka following papers were read : — I. " On a 
Tablet in the Britisb Museum, relatiog apparently 
to the Delugo," by H. Fox Talbot, F.ILS. This 
tablet, of which the b^^ning and end are lost, 
despribee a panic terror which seized mankind and 
all an i mala aX a lime when some ^reat calamity 
was impending over -the world. It Stis been litho- 
graphed in plate 27 of the fourth volume of the 
Cukiifona Interipttmu of Western Atia ; it haa not 
been previously translated, and several lines at the 
beciiming of tha tablet are broken and ille^ble. 
Alter this lacuna it proceeds as fbllows : — 

"(1) Oae mad ran to another. (2) The girl >■- 
csndad to bar lopmost atacj. (3) The nuui ran forlli 
from the houae of his friend. (4) The eon fl^d from 
tba honaa of hii futher. (S) The doves flew awa; 
from Iheir dove-cote. (61 The eagle soared up from 
his eyrie. (7) The swallows few from their n»t9 
(8) The oxen and the shivp fell prostratB on the 
earth. (9) It was the great day ; the Spirite of Evil 
wws assembled." 

!%• Tenjainder of the story, with the excep- 
tion of a fbw words, is broKen off*. 11. "On 
an Early Obaldean Inscription of Agu-kak- 
nini and other Kings,* by William Boacawen, 
The anthor pointed out tjie importance of the 
text a* famiahing the names ot five new early 
ChatdaaB kings, wboae names were— Agu-kak- 
nini, tite monia^ of tbe inaciiption ; Seai-fjuru- 
mas, Ahinnakaa, Aq»4^as, and Umraah-zirite. 
'This laat qpsanto Bav« Ibeen tbe founder of tte 
lins. The avtluw also acniited out the indications 
in tlM text of the prohaDle Kaasite ori^n of these 
penona ■■ shown in the king daimtng deeoent 
mm tke nobh aeed «( the god Sagamima; tMs 



deity is identified with the Ehunite or Eaaaite 
god Sumu, W.A.I., ii. (!6, 2. The kiofr in bis 
titles calls himself first of all " King of the Sum," 
and of the " vast land of Babylonia." The inscrip- 
tion also illustnitea the belief of the Chaldeans m 
the future life, for tbe gods are besought to be 
" &vouTable to him in heaven " and in the " house 
and land of life," and than follows the pr^er 
that " he may attain to the hi^eat haayen." The 
inscription also Aimishes the names of the Obal- 
dean goddeeses in company -with their consort 
gods. Refraanoe is made to the great temple of 
iiit Saggodhu at Babykm. 



FINE ART. 

ART m TARIS. 

Paris: JnlrB.lBTB. 

The obsequiea of the sculptor Barye -were 
worthy of that great artist. The Academy of 
Fine Arte, of which he was a member, was re- 
presentsd by a certain number of Immortals be- 
longing to the different sections. The artists who 
had boBu his friends, hia admirers, or his pupils 
conducted him to Uie Cemetery of Plii« La Cmase. 
Tbere a very characteristio incident took place, 
H. H«iri Uelaborde made a rather cold speech in 
the name of the Institute, in which he eapeciaUv 
enlaced on the private qualities of the deceased, 
avoiding any mention of hia theory, which waa, 
indeed, very different from that of the other 
oflicial sculptors. Immediately after him, the 
Director of Fine Arts, M. Ph. de Ohenneviires, 
apoke, and in prge o noe of the Immortals, who 
grew red and pole with anger and surprise, sud 
that Barye had belonged to the nnrvous epoch, to 
a glorious Keoefstion. He added that the cen- 
turies to come will t^e greater delighi in the 
Centaur and the Lapithae, Thetmu jinhting the 
MiiKtam; the EUphant overcoming a Tiger, and 
other pieces, the small dimensions of which 
signified little, than in many a colossal figure and 
many a contemporary group ; that he was what, 
in our own century, CyricBult, Ingres, Delacroix, 
Rousseau, Oorot, Millet, have been in thtir turn } 
that ia to say, an artiat who was the creator of his 
forms and of his method, a contemner of current 
eommonplsoe, theslave of natnre andof truth, inde- 
pendent of his time, and therefore worthy of dl 
time. Thia speech, which was as regiirds ita 
allusions purely revolntionaiy, shows how rsellf 
violentisthe struggle, thongh apporentlv courteous, 
between this po-werful body and the Uirection of 
Fine Arts. 

It -was an innocent and honourable revenge for 
the frick the Institote bas just played thia Direc- 
tion. A Ministerial decree — not, as unual, pr^ 
ceded by a report — has instituted a superior Com- 
mittee of Fine Arts, which rauat in future be 
oonaolted upon almost all buaineBB, The Director 
of Fine Arts ia, tiierefore, reduced — and for oul 

ert we see only great advantages in this — to 
ing simply tbe head of an ofiice in the depart- 
ment. He will at least enjoy the security of not 
being carried avmy in the squaUa that overthrow 
Ministries. But tfcia superior Oomtnittee, which 
is created eolely in tbe inteicsta of the Institute, 
began by an action that bas excited much amuse- 
ment. It ia empowered to draw up the list of 
the acquisitions the State may make from the 
Salon. It began by placing a work by one of its 
membem, a very eommonplace picture from every 
point of view — Thamar, by SI. Alefcandre Cab^ 
nel — at the head of the list. It may readily be 
imagined that tiiis member of the Institute, who 
makes enormous sums by portraits, will draw 
back in consequence of the noise already made by 
this fhct, which has been noticed by several jour- 
nals, and will get bis picture bought by mote 
delicate means. 

Barye -was one of the original members of the 
Central Union of Fine Arte applied to Manu- 
fiicture, a society that haa already organiaed a verj 
eucceesM exhiUtton at the Ctiampa Elya^es, of 
which I gave you an aoconnt. The Central Union 



72 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpiT 17, 187S. 



at pKwnt.poeseMee a bouae in the Place dea 

VoBges, ia the Mantis, that ia, in the quarter 
generally inhabited bj the bronze founden. A 
li^aeral exhibition of Barre's works is to be 
organiBed there. 1 shall then speali to you of the 
well-filled life of this great artist, one of the most 
remarkable repreeeotatives of the romantic theory. 

M. FridSric Reiset, Director of the Museum of 
the Loufre and the Liuembouig, baa addre«aed a 
Teiy interestiiifr note to the deputies and to 
joumaliata on the irksome positian of our great 
institutions. _ This position ia deplorable as re- 
gards acquisition, of 'which it only admits with 
extMme difficult}], and witJi an inferiority of result 
Tery evident in view of foreign inatitutions. We 
hare had the pleasure of learning that the Com~ 
miaeion on the Budget proposes to double the sum 
apDropriated for such purchaser. The Chamber 
will no doubt adopt the prop<»al, which really is 
still very modest. 

The official world is too ignorant of the direct 
ioflnence of the muBeuus on the general wel&re 
of the country, on the average of criticiam they 
beep up, on the stimulus they giye to excellence 
of workmanship in the productdons of the higher 
industry. The French people, the oopulation of 
Paris in particular, has such a ungular method of 
working, of imbibing instruction while aeeming to 
be sauntering about I Would you believe t^t, 
on an average, three thousand persons daily enter 
— . jjji Sunday, six thousand P TTia 

tn of the people, of workmen, in the 
in the Salon, is a fact which baa 
always struck foreigners in whoee company I 
have walked through them. The penury of the 
budget obliged the Direction to open only on 
certain dnya, which was disastrous to the artdet 
and to the artisan who required some piece of in- 
formation at a given moment. The increase of 
the subvention will allow this inconvenience to be 
remedied in the first instance. 

I have often H>oken to you of the great move- 
ment which, it not TBiT apparent, is certainly 
tabii^ place in the public mind with regard to 
the application of our arts to industry. One of 
the bmt signs had been the creaUon, under the 
administration of Jules Simon, of commismons of 
enquiry, A very important work, issued by tie 
national printing press, has appeared at the^ 
Ministrr of Pubhc Instruction and Fine Arts. It 
is entitled R^ort addruud to tht Mmttter by M. 
Due, member of the Intiitvte, in the nanxe of the 
commiuioa for perflating the nntional manufac- 
ture of Sivret. I commend this work to all 
persons interested in ceramic art &om a practical 
and aesthetic poiut of view. The manufactory of 
Sevres has played too great a part in the history 
of Western ceramic art to admit of indifference re- 
garding its fitte. Hence, under the influence of 
different causes, of which the most serious are, I 
believe, the substitution of a scientific direction 
for an artistic direction, and also the raising of 

Kaeral education, which is, in our days, rapidly 
laming superior to the lazy march of institu- 
tions subsidised by the State, the manufactory 
of Sevres has deserved serious criticisms. Its ex- 
hibition last year in the Champa Elys^, on which 
I sent you a letter which has been considered '— 
severe on my part, was really deplorable in reg 
to form and colouring. It was depressing to 
■ueh fine material used only for objects so vulgar 
and ornaments so wanting in originality. That 
which I said here and in the lUptdil^ue IVan- 
eow with sorrow and in anxiety for the future, M. 
Due has just sud with a candour very rare in 
official documents among us. 

He had sud it with A the more authority that 
he is himself a proved artist. He gave the design 
and superintended the icasting of that Column of 
July which was erected on the site of the ruins of 
the Bastille to the memoiy of the dtiiens who 
died for liberty in 1880, and in which this fonn 
is more agreeaUy revived than in any other monu- 
ment of modem times. He is also the architect 
of the D«w Palai* de Justice, a public building the 



exterior of which shows classical feeling of a rather 
monotonous order, while the interior abounds in 
delicate details. 

This report contains the analytical eoti^e rendu 
of the sessions of which it gives the general sum- 
mary. Herein, as in the books of our illustrious 
potter Bernard Patissy, we see " dame Theory en- 
gaged in a controversy with dame Practice." 
Here, as there, dame llieory gives, in pompous 
language, a multitude of counwls, which for an 
instant glitter before our eyes, and quickly ex- 
plode like the soap bubbles with which children 
amuse themselvee. One is< surprised at the 
solemnity with which certain serious men pro- 
pound puerilities, and dismayed at the gravity 
with wWh audiences generally recdve these 
flowery inutilitiea. M. Due, whom I believe to 
be very sarcastic, hse reproduced several quota- 
tions of aesthetic formulae, read by his colleaguee, 
who vrere at the time Directors of Fine Arte. 
At the same time, however, H. Due is a man of 
sense, evidentiy concerned for the future of our 
great ceramic establishment, the fiune of which 
has been so long spread over Europe, and which 
still possesses a staff and machinery equally un- 
rivalled. Like Bernard Palissy in his Ditcourt 
Admirable, M. Due warns his readers against 
what he is careful not to believe^the opi- 
nions of those who say that theory has en- 
gendered practice. He gives extracts of some 
simple and substantial notes depouted in the 
bureau of the OonuniBnon by a painter, M, 
Lameire, and by an authority in ceramic art, now 
known all over the world, M. Deck. 

To gum up, after having token cognizance of 
everything constituting the elements of a serious 
enquiry ; after having cast blame on the abuse of 
the reproduction of ancient models, on the want of 
attempts at originality, on oblivion of the modem 
spirit ; after having praised the practical science of 
the artiste, the Report of the Oommisuon con- 
cludes with recommending an annual public com- 
petition for the model of a vase to be executed at 
the manufactory. The first competition took place 
this Bummer. 'The plans were exhibited at the 
School of fine Arts. They certainly did not fulfil 
the hopes that had been formed of them. 

The Report declared that " education and in- 
struction alone are wanting to the aggregate of 
brilliant qualities possessed by the present artists 
of the manufact'iry of Sivres." That is all very 
well, and it is clear that artists have everything to 
piin in regard to infiuence over the public by acquir- 
ing instruction and education. But this is only one 
of the isolated points in the vast question of public 
education. Now this, which bos already made 
immense progress during the last twenty ye«rs, 
will not be complete until the French State 
opens in France museums analogous to the South 
Kensington Museum, to those which have been 
opened by all the nations around us, Belgium, 
Cfermany, Russia. It is there that by a sort of 
permanent imbibition, very superior to scholastic 
education, the taste of the public, the tast« of the 
manufacturer who is in constant relation with it, 
who while obeying it can succeed in rectifying its 
errors, is formed. The naif masterpieccB of the 
Oreelm, the Russians, the Chinese, uie Japanese, 
apeak far more eloquentiy than the professors. 

The questbn of the uselessness of the institu- 
tions subsidised in France by the State will state 
itself and solve itself when the facts have proved, 
asthevhavtialreadybeguntodOfthat the monarchy 
itself had only been enabled to found and support 
state manufiictories by forbidding all commercial 
ogmpetition by decrees now impossible. Nothing 
can, in the present day, resist the progress of 
science made available for the enterprise of private 
indinduala, and the law of the vital competition 
between interests and needs. A new art will be 
bom of these, which ffovemmente, asnsted by 
academies, are altogether powerless to create. 

It is generally regretted that a commission 
analogous to this was not created to investigate 
the condition of the mannftctory of GobeJina, 



which also has eminent artists and unique materia.!* ^ 
at its disposal, but which only produeee at impo»- ■ 
nble prices, and ordem its models from artists of 
the lowest mediocri^. 

Yon know only too well what diluvian floods ' 
have devastated our sonth-weetem provinces. A. 
French sculptor, M. Falgui&ree, proposed in the 
newspapeiB to artiste to oiganiee a sale for tiia 
benent of the sufferers. The season beintr ^^17 
&r advanced, it is to be feared that this sale will 
not be productive. Would not English artists be 
willir^ to contribute their mite in the great 
disaster F Could not your journal suggest this 
to them F If tips project of a sale in London can 
be realised, it would awaken a ringing echo in 
Fiaitce. Ph. Bobti. 



IHX SOTAL ACASSm BXHIBITIOK. 
{Finai Notice.) 
Water-Coloiir>.—la this room we find vary little 
worthy of detailed notice ; but one painting, the 
Mmma lata of Mrs. StiUman, ranka among the 
very beet works of colour, and generally of artistic 
style, in the exhibition ; it is rich, full, and firm 
— the subject being simply a young maiden, witli 
dispread hiur of a bright tawny hue, holding vmn- 
coloured roses in a shallow dish of blue china. 
The green sleeve and the grey parrot may be taken 
as testing-points for the colourist &culty in tbi* 
work. Mrs. Stillman (late Miss Spertali) bad the 
advantage of receiving her art>-trBining from Mr. 
Madox Brown, and w^tever she produces testifies 
to right guidance, as well as to her own genuine 
fineneee of perception. Mr. Holiday has niade all 
interesting and praiseworthy essa^r >" '>>■ Dante 
AUighiert, ttwiied from a catl amd to katre b«at 
Uihen from the face of the poet after death— tii« 
well-known cast in which, notvrithstandiiu; sows 
counter-conatdarations, it is difficult not to believe. 
The Son. £uttace Vetey, a young soldier, of hand- 
some profile and gallant bearing, is a higb-bmed 
Ertrait by Mr. Clifford. Famingham, Kent, a 
idscape and figuro-sabject, by Mr. K O. Dalnel, 
with same ladies and a. shy eirl, and some geeae on 
the green, and the autumnal trees thiuning down 
to leafieesness, has much delicacy and refinement. 
Hc^py ai a Queen, by the same artist — a girl in 
a wheelbarrow, and a very ^ump woman— is also 
noticeable for finish. Mr. Huggics sends an ad- 
mirable study of Tigert, softly terrific in tbeii 
^uouB beauty. The Campmile of St. Mark't, 
Winter Eoening, by Mr. DarvaU, with rich con- 
trasts of blue and orange, is a true and fine piece 

Eaton Hall, Cheshire, it appears, is to be deco- 
rated by Mr. Marks; two of^his designs of The 
CanterJnury Pilgrimi are here displayed. The Wile 
of Bath was, no doubt, not a personage of veij 
exalted faculties or very elevated views of life \ 
but we object to seeing her reduced, as in this in- 
stance, to the level of an orange-woman. Xative 
Taient, by Mr. £. Buckman, is catalogued as 
"decorative treatment of modem subject;" it 
pourtrays some Christy Minstrels and other vagrant 
personages, and deserves some attention, though 
no great charm of decoration would appear likelj 
to result from such a method of presentment. 
Among the remaining water^colouie we may 
specify : — Pilsbury, When the Treet are Let^tett; 
Oaffieri, The Ottfcs; Miss A. Squire, Gnrden 
Friend* ; A. Hopkins, The Mowen ; T. Fritchard, 
C^ol in the Valley of Oavamie, I^rerue*; J. 
B. McDonald, Strathyre ; Jopling, In the Om- 
taraatarif ; Miss £. Martineou, Portrnit of a Lady, 
and Mitt £mmfUne SmitA; T. Wade, Spring 
Ploughing ; E. W. Andrews, Eing't Lynn, Moon- 
light ; J. W. Smith, The Mer de Glace, Chamoanix. 

Crayon Dramngi, Etchiagi, Sfc. — The Qalleij 
contains few thinss more worthy of examination 
and praise than Mr. Raven's study. Storm and 
Flood, which may trulv be termed a grand piece 
of work, and shows tne great knowledse and 
capacity of this artist more decidedly than his oil- 
pictures often do : the Hanging Committee have 



Onii 17, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



78 



one an nniigliteoiu act in pladng it at the 
eij top of the room. Two portraita of la^ea hj 
£r. Sandyi, that of TAmdon Martin, Eta., hy 
It. Laurence, and that of Dr. Ntwnum, byXiadj 
loleridge, ate excellent productioiiB ; in the laat 
le ejea are £», and there ii a ereat exprewion 
rsweetneaB and self-refiual in the montn. Mr, 
'. G. Hunt's wo»k, Mm-btonomt, (Mdrtn of W. 
t. May, £iq., and Mr. Osaani's drawing in 
iloured chal^, Mrt. Pope, should also be noticed. 

Among the etchings, we can heartiljr commend 
le Tumer't Cairn* Pier, etching tn two tlatei of 
U plate, hj 'Mr. Haden ; Snmtoomie, bj Mr. 
[eseltine ; Old Imu at Exeter, bv Mr. Edwards ; 
>n the Beach near Ventnor, bv 'mi. F- Sloeombe ; 
Vhe Gtudsoca, by Mr. J. H. Bradley; Mrt. Bote, 
ifter Sandyi, by M. Kajoa : and Vi«« m the Cam- 
jine near Breda, by Mrs. Weetlake. 

ArcMteetvre. — In this section, variotts drawings 
ry Sir Oilbert Scott are pTomlneot, pertaining to 
he Premiated Deiiffn for the New PariiamaU- 
ou»e for the Oerman Parliament. There is in 
beae an immense profuuon of elaborate detail ; 
<ut we discern little that loolis like originality, 
r a definite leading idea. The building is a domed 
lothic structure. The same architect sands An 
tMempt at the Rtgtoratian of the Northern Traat^ 
•f 'WeAmiii^er Ahhey, offering a formidable suggee- 
ioQ of committees, subscriptions, debatings to and 
TO, and finally a great monumental building need- 
.essly transmuted. Ajiother scheme of alteration 
^t decoration is set forth in the designs by Mr. 
Baizes for St. PouT*. These woriis are " drawn 
uid coloured by A. H. Haog," in pursuance of Mr. 
Burges's project, and pethape, in some respects of 
^lour^fiect, do rather less than justice to his 
ntentione. The bandeau of youthful an^ls just 
iver the Whispering-Gallery is the detail which 
ippears to us most promising ; bat, after allowing 
Jl that ought to be acknowledged in favour of 
he architect's talent and zeal, both of them in- 
lisputable, we must avow the opinion that some- 
thing more satisfying than this ought to be pro- 
fKiaed ere the decoration of St Paul's it actually 
taken in hand. One of the best designs for new 
buildings is that of Mr. Street, Stmtk-w^ "View of 
the Church of St, Paul m the Via Nasionale, 
'Rome, runo bemtf ^vetedfor the uae of the Ajneri- 
^an (3mreh, witii courses of red ana drab brick. 
Vfa like niso Mr. Shaw's Vietn of Roiue nom 
treeting in Queen't Oate, Ketuington ; a fine and 
lenaible deeign, in a freely treated seventeenth- 
century style, with square-headed windows. 
IfessTB. Lee and Smith, and Messrs. Spiers and 
Phipps, send Qm^tetitim Deiigiufor the (Smreh of 
'Jie Sacred Heart, Montmartre. ' The former is in 
)l&borate rrench-Gothic, of the thirteenth or 
fourteenth century: tiie latter is said to have 
been " honourably mentioned " — which appears 
to Iiave been a latJier gratnitous compliment. 

jSadpiwe—Tbtt most memorable work in this 
ection — and a very fine work it is, worthy to 
akB a foremost place in perpetuating the bodily 
ernblance of a great man — is the Thomas Carlyle 
tj Hr, Boebm. Of this our pages have already 
)orae record : also of the Dead Leaader and the 
^^aioeophy of Mr. Armstead. Three important 
rorks of the late Mr. Foley are included in the 
rxhihition, all of them well worthy of Ma fame. 
The late Sir Sergamin Zee Ouirmeu, Sort., M.P., 
ixecated in bronxe for St. Patrick* Cathedral, 
ZhibUn, a robed and seated figure, is 'an honest 
Lnd strong work, though not of a very interesting 
aoA. Stoneaall Jaciton, brotaa, presented by 
'riends in Great Britain to 'Ftrgima, has a grand 
barleea fiice, and a pose which matches with that. 
rhe. Prince Contort, marble, executed for the Uni- 
lerMty of Cambridge, is one of the few offices of 
Jiis personage, mach belauded in words, and much 
relied 1^ chisela, that we can look at with gratifi- 
aition,— ve^ dinifiedj without becoming pre- 
:eiitioo8. The Prince is naturally represented in 
lis robes as Chancellor of the University. 

The lone of Mr, T, MacLean should go far to- 



wards eetablishing the reputation of its author, 
as not only a rinng but a nsen man. The Orecian 
maiden is seated with umple and easy grace ', 
weU-seated, so as to be comfortable herself, and 
not morel;? daintily posed for other [»ople to look 
She is reading from a tablet in her hand, 
ad on her knee. With her finely moulded 
and simple coifiiire, she givea one the idea of 
liet yet superior nature — one to whom the 
I have been kind, and who shall be loved by 
men. This figure looks agreeable and compoHsa 
well from all points of view— a very important 
merit, and one which teats the sculptor's mettJe. 
Two smaller works in marble by the same artist 
are also pleasant. La Fleur dee Outmpe, a female 
figure with watei^lilies at her feet^ might perhaps 
be regarded as embodying aquatic or wateraide 
vegetation, rather than (hat of the meadows. The 
JWidtn^ of Moses is elegant ; but here a certun 
greater severity of treatment, poportionato to its 
subject, might have been deeirabla. The terra- 
cotta head of Miu Florence Schiitt has nncommon 
purity and tastefulness. 

The sculptural collection, although not of any 
exceptional value, contains various other works of 
considerable merit — especially the following. — E. 
Davis, The Swing, alto-rilievo, pret^ and attrac- 
tive. Tinworth, Terra-cottat, representing several 
teenesfrom the Oospels, the figures being arranged, 
without much refinement of style, in tiers one be- 
hind the other. Some of these groups are well 
invented and vigorously expressed ; mcve particu' 
larty the Selease of Barnbbas, in which the male- 
factor is represented on one side, with his con- 
gratulators and Christ on the other, each descend- 
ing the stairs, with Pilate standing in the middle. 
A. Bruce Joy, Fartaken, an unwedded mother 
who, in the agony of her shame, has stabbed 
her infant — energetic in emotion and action. 
Summers, JJyytcBut and Sypermaestra, marble, 
a striking group of a defiant man and clinging 
woman. Laizarini, Innocence, marble, a girl with 
a nestling. Simonds, Cupid aTtd Panther, marble, 
with the motto " The course of true love never 
did run smooth." His is a work of much talent : 
Cupid is foiled as yet in attempting to back the 
panther, which is half-ferociouB, half-fawning. 
Barxag-hi, A Bit of Vanity, marble, a girl of about 
twelve years of age glancing backmrds at the 
train of her dreea. Percival Ball, " If I forgtt 
Thee, Jerusalem," marble, a recumbent female 
figure, forcible in expression. Boacoe Mullins, 
Divided Affection, marble, a little ^1 with a bird 
and a young cat. T. E. Harrison, Dionysoi, 
boldly designed, under the influence of Michel 
Anguo's great style — a remarkable example. 
Bicneton, The BrtJcen Pitcher, tarra-cotta, expres- 
sive and promising. J. W. Good, Quiat to ride 
and drive, bronie group, spiritedly composed. 
Monteverde, Xe Qfnis ae Franklin, marble ; a 
bizarre work, in whose s^bolism the lightning- 
conductor plays a leading part. Durhun, Bev. 
John Barlow, posthtmunu oast. Dalou, J. E. 
Hodgson, A.ILA., terra-cotta, excellent. OaJ- 
lori, Mrs. CoOard Drake, a litue figure in tem- 
cotta, dressy, but clever in ita way. 

Here at length we finiah with the Boyal Aca- 
demy Exhibition of 1875: having said next to 
nothing about the works which appear to de bad, 
but applying ourselves to the lees unpleasant role 
of discussiiiK the productions of able leading ar- 
tists, and caUiiig attention to meritorious examples 
by others whose repute with the public yet re- 
mains to be established. It must not be supposed 
however, from the paucity of censorious remarks, 
that we rat« the exhibition very high: on the 
contrary, its general calibre is decidedly me- 
diocre. Low aims, and superficial work ; soper- 
ficial, though very frequently clever. In on 
the plays of the Jacobean dramatist Geoige 
man. The Revenge of Butty d'Ambois, we find a 
few lines which members, sssociates, aiid exhibi- 
tors, of the Royal Academy, would do well to lay 
to heart, representing as they do only too faith- 



fnlly the ideal, ^ms, and methods, of many of our 

artistic practitioners : — 

Since good arts &il, cratU and d«c«it( are nsed. 

Men ignorant are idla : idle men 

Most practise what they most may do with ease, — 

Fashion end favour ; .ail thair studies timing 

At getting money." 
Chapman's speaker adds — 

" Which no wise man ew 

Fed bis dsiiras with." 
We will not say that the artista of the present 
day may not allowably be "wise in their jnnera- 
tion," and make moner. Let them sell their 
works at such prices as they con command : only 
let them determine that those works shall first 
of all be good, and done for the sake of being 
good rather than for that of thur ^aoney equiva- 
lent. With this proviso, we shall congratolate 
them when they interchange sterling art for ster- 
ling coin. W. M. KossBrn. 



XBITIBH ABCKASOLOOma IK BOMK 

Teh British and American Archaeological Society 
in ;Bome closed its proceedings for the present 
season somewhat earlier than usual ; namely, at 
the end of April. As to increase of membera, 
finajwial circumslances, ftc, report may be favour- 
able ; and on the whole it may he stated that this 
society continues to thrive, receiving encourage- 
ment with guantntees of future successes and 
support. Durinr the last winter and spring the 
number of memDers, vnth tickets admitting two 
persons, was thirty-two ; the femilies with lickete 
admitting five persons, sixteen ; the associates 
with monthly tickets for one person, five only. 
The system of admitting such associates by t&e 
month was set aside by decision of the committee 
in the last winter ; and henceforth only members 
for the entire season receive tickets, though in 
evwy case those who give lectures may invite 
Abends to join their audiences. As in former 
years, the Sociefy has kept up its method of 
supplying weekly lectures on Friday evenings, 
and afternoon conversazioni on MondaSfs, and has 

Xised excursions, usually to sites or monuments 
ed to in the previous lectures, at least twice a 
week,weatherpermittiiig; on wet days the resources 
of a vi»t to the Vatican, or other museums, being 
frequently adopted, and much enjoyed, in lieu of 
some moposed expedition to distant spota. Mr. 
J. H. Parker, acting Vice-President of the Society, 
has been, as indeed from the first year of its exist- 
ence, its principal supporisng column and most 
energetic collaborator. By him was given the final 
lecture of this season -, a r^tumi of the tcaoi and 
their results in tieasure-trove of whatever kind, 
during the preMUt year, in this city. The ample 
and valuable collactian of photographs illustrating 
the entire range of heathen and Christian antiqui- 
ties in and around Home, executed by Mr. Farkei's 
orders, are made the most efficient use of by that 
gentleman on occasion of bis discourses (lectures 
from MSS. they are not, but throughout im- 
promptu) on Friday evenings. He, moreover, 
itly avuls himself for further illustration 



uicofietu. .lhh ouier buujucui lthuuki ay inr. 

Parker during the past season were : Aqueducts 
(which he has specially appropriated), the tombs 
within the city walls, tne early arts in the Chris- 
tian cemeteries (orcatacombs), the fortifying vralls 
of Bome considered ss works of different epochs, 
and (in more than one instance) recent antiquarian 
discoveries. The tombs within the Roman walls 
were the theme of another lecture, written for 
the Society by a well-known Italian archaeologist, 
Signor L^ciani, and read by another gentleman 
(not for the first time), before nn approwng 
audience this season. Lanciani's interesting paper 
lost nothing from its analogy of subject-matter 
with Mr. Parker's discourse. During the paat 
season the Society had the benefit of the co- 



74 



THE ACADEMT. 



[Jdlt 17, 1875. 



opemtion and attendance o! its noble Preaident, 
Loid lUbot de Malaliide, who spoke Irequeatly on 
occuions of meetiog, witli each evidence of leam- 
iiw, fluency, ttnd aj^omh, is showed his familuTity 
witik his flubject, and his eipeiience in connexion 
with similai sodetiee. One lonn andweU worked- 
np lecture was eiven by him (Murch 5) on " The 
Sack of Roma bj the Troopa of Bourbon" — more 
indeed than that title promned — for he paned in 
review the meceding sieges and sncka from which 
thia much ^fiicted city lias Bnffared, dwelling on 
the iujuriee done in the range of monnmentB and 
art. 

There has been hitherto a defidenc; of ocigiaal 
lectures, Eeveial having been written foe the 
Society in Italian, aod raad in Rngliah translation, 
comparatdvelT few members of the Sodety coming 
forward witL their own papers to read, at the 
eTomng meetingB ; but in the late season two 
gentleoiea were heard for the first time in the 
Loturer's chair, and in each instance proved their 
abilities and knowledge, and their careful study of 
the matter undertaken. Hr.F.Richols (oneoftheee 
gentlemen, and brother \a the late Mr. J. Qoueh 
Nichols, whose name is distinguished) gave with- 
out MSS. an dahorate discourse— flvidently the 
reenlt of much investigation and cloBsical studies 
tbomiKhly pursued — on "The Buildings on the 
Oapt^ne Hill," illustrated by good drawings and 
plans, his own performances. He argned to sm>- 
port the coBclusiou that the great temple of the 
Oapitoline Zeus was situated on the Taipeiao 
Rock — the Bouth-weetem, not on the north oaatwn 
summit of that hiU wh^re the Ara Ooeli chun^ 
and convent now stand. Mr. Lane OonoUy (an 
artist long resident in Rome, and whose lady wso 
b a gifted artist) was heard for the first time in 
the Society's lecturing cluur, on April 16— hia 
subject " Andent and Modern Fresco Fainting." 
This lecture comprised a vast field, Buflident 
indeed for several such tre«tisse, as Mr. OonoUy 
pasted in review, with accuracy and good taate, 
the enlare historjand chief productions ottteaaa art 
from its dawn in Oraece till the penod of Bomeni- 
chino and the Oaracci. I may (retroepectavBly). 
mention his lady's admirable lecture, though not 
givm this season, on miniature and iUnmmative 
art, illustrated by her own beaatifally-flnished 
water-colour copies from the predous codices in 
Italian collections, the Vatican and others. 

Mr . Parker's last appeal on behalf of the fund 
for leavi, in the name and on account of 
the Society, has met with a response couched in 
Uberal donations during late months. The nodei- 
tahings carried on by bis orders have been worthy 
of note — e.g., the works for laying open the buried 
ruins of a great palace near the southern horA of 
the Antonine Thermae. Others I have men- 
tioned in former communications. 

To the above report of suhjecta brought before 
the Archaeological Society's attention this season, 
I should add uie Oolosseum, a primary one, for it 
was on this that the opeuing lecture of the season, 
at the beginning of December, was given by Mr. 
J. H. Parker, who indeed thrice treated of the 
same subject with ^>ecial reference to the recent 
discoveries of long- buried ruina, on two occasions 
repeating the substance of his discourses when the 
Sodety visited, under his guidance, the great 
amphitheatre now invested with new interest, and 

? resenting new matter fur antiquarian studies. Mr. 
'arker's explanation of the ruins in detail was 
disputed, as to some of his theories, by more than 
one manber of the society at the conversarione. 
So also were certain views maintained by him re- 
specting the Christian cemeteries and their primi- 
tive coDtenta, as to which Lord Talbot, then in 
the president's chair, differed from the able lecturer. 
Thereccutly exhumed statues were mentioned and 
critidsed at the nftcmoou conversazione more than 
once ; and at one of those meetings was read a 
paper on the museum founded by the Jesuit 
Father Eircher, in the Collegio Romano, now 
thrown open to the public, wliich museum the 
Society viMt«d twice under guidance. Among 



lectures written for the Society in Italian, and 
read from English versions this season, were the 
" Thermae of Antoninus," by Signer Lanciani ; and 
" The Mediaeval Towers of Rome," by Signor Pel- 
legrini. Some papers on the Sculptures in the Vati- 
can, the Oapitoline, and Lateran Museums, also on 
thoee in the Ludovisi Villa, were read on successive 
Friday evenings by vour correspondent, The So- 
dety's library, mostly formed oy donations, has 
developed into some importance, and lately by 
means both of purchase and presents of boolu 
worth having. "Two deurahle objects have been 
aimed at by the Society this season, and in each 
instance through letters addressed by its secretary 
tc those in office: tha alteration for the public 
benefit of the hours of admission into the Capitoline 
Museum; also the accomplishment of works de- 
clared to be in contemplation more than a year 
ago, for re-opening the great (anciently the sole) 
entrance to the Mausoleum of Hadrian, that 
arched portal opoositethe St. An^lo bridge which 
baa been closed ever since thjs imperial tomb 
served as a fortress for the garrisons of pontifical 
government. The new authorities maintain that 
edifice rather as a monument than a castle \ but I 
am sorry to add that the antique portal still re- 
mains walled up, and bnt little of ttie building of 
Hadrian can be seen in its gloomy interior. 

G: I. Heuaitb. 



iXt SAW. 



Hh. W. R J. Boffbt's collection — sold by 
Christie, Manson and Woods at the end of last 
week — was extremely miscellaneous, and by no 
means of the highest artblic interest. The only 
works worth mentioning in any detail are the 
few reserved for the end of Saturday's aale. Mr. 
Leighton's Aetata sold for 233/. lOa^ and was the 
onlyfigure-eubiect of hi^ aim. The landscapee 
byU.W. B. J)avis, a!r,A., worthUy attracted 
attention, ji. Summer jijiemoon — cattle in sun- 
shine—by this paintsr, fetched eSW, A Panic 
— the picture of wild cattle— was sdd for 488i. 
6i. It, bad been, through mistake, described 
in the catalogue as the well-known work ei- 
hiHted at the Academy. It is, in truth, we 
believe, a replica, very much smaller, of the same : 
the great picture being the property of Mr. Mor- 
rison, of Oarlton House Terrace. The OUtiimle 
Man, by E. 0. Barnes, realised 2431. 12s. ; £n- 
caed, hy W. F. Teames, A.R.A., 1201. Bs. ; and 
The SearUt Letter, by the same painter, 147/. 
The most " important ' work was the Saion (T Or, 
Sombowg, by Mr. Frith, exhibited in the Royal 
Academy last year. It was knocked down for 
1,&9K., which we understand to be a much 
smaller sum than that orisinallj paid for it. 

Monday's sale included a good many sketches, 
announced as the work of John Sdl Cotman — 
bat among the moat entirely insignificant, not to 
•ay worthless, productions it would have been 
possible to assign to a great artist. Some ela- 
borat« drawings by Paul Sandby were offered for 
sale : one of t£e best of which, Etmt OuiUge from 
the Thames, fell to the Lord Mayor's bid of 
26/. 4«, 

But the interest in Monday's sale was practically 
confined to the engravings after Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, some of which mere both rare and fine. 
The,C7lenifii' Heads — the subject of the picture in 
the National Gallery — a proof before fetters, of 
Simon's Bngraving, fell, together with a print of 
the same, to Mr. Agnew for 34i. 13«. Mrs. Mairu, 
engraved by J. R. Smith, a proof before letters, 
was bought by Mrs. ND8eda,for27i. 17<. Gd. Lady 
Caroline Moalngae — otherwise called "Winter" 
— by J.R. Smith, described as a brilliant and rare 
proof, was bought by Mr. .■ignew for COi. 6«. A 
choice proof of Nrlty O'Brtm — very rare— was 
bought by Mrs. Noseda for 71/. 8». A rare proof 
before letters of Valentine Green's Grwiteti of 
Ayletford was bought for 701. 7$. (Ourrie). An'd 
for the same great engraver's proof of Qeorgiima, 



I. was paid by 31ra. 

On Thursday, the remaining wodis of Comeliiut 
Varley were to be sold, and to-day what was lelt 
in the studio of Frederick Walker. 



NOTES A2ID NEWS. 

Wh have received iVom the Livwpool Dry 
Plate Co^any a brochure entitled Mmy Man 
hit ami PiatBffrofher, which daacribes the latest 
improvement in aiinplifiaBtion of photograi^ic 
practice. The improvement conmsts m the fan^»- 
tion of a coUodion emulsion oontahriog bromids 
of silver, which when washed frtm all ita aolaUe 
demraita is rediseolviad in alcohol and ether aitd 
amply poured over a glaaa plate, and aUowed to 
dry, when it m imif for use— no aqueous solu- 
tion or washing of the plate bung neoeaswy. The 
Aretic Expedition carried out 300 ounces of Hub 
preparation, which saams pecsliarly fitted for 

working in '— '- 

solutioi)s are 

Is the market place st Keswick stands the town 
hall and attached to it is a small tower containino' 
a clock and bell. The guide books tell us that 
this bell once hung in a building which stood on 
Lord's Island in Derwentwater, and some of 
them go on to add that it is a relic of the 
eleventh century. A dated bell of pr^Normui 
time would be a most Buipiising cariosity, more 
espedaUy if, as in this case, the date were to tum 
out to be in Arabic numerals. There is, however, 
no small excuse for the popular belief as to the 
antiquity of this bell, for it is inscribed in cl««r 
characters vhich no one who sees can &il to read, 

BO HS 1001 
The letters and figures are of a distinctly seven- 
teenth century character. There cannot be much 
doubt therefore that the date should read dthtt 
1601 or 1661, more probably the latter. Thoae 
persona who have examined our old bells know 
now veiy commonly we find mistake in spelling, 
letters and ornaments turned upside down, aod 
words or jjarta of words omitted. The workmen 
employed in bell-casting must have been for the 
moat part illiterate persona. It is pretty certain 
that m this case they used the wrong figure- 
stamps, and thus added six hundred yeaia to tite 
date of their work. 

The death is reported etom Vienna of tke 
painter Christian Ruben on July 9, after a loi» 
and paJnfiil iUneee. Ruben is best knovm to the 
pubbo as tha punter of a picture entitled Am 
Marut, which being tender and graceful in feeling, 
and happily reproduced, has been extremely popu- 
lar ever since it first appeared at the Huoioh 
Exhibition in 183& Ruben, who had studied 
undar Cornelius «ver sisee 1822, waa a succenfol 
artist in 1B41, when he was called to Prague to 
reform the Art Institute in that dty, a task for 
which he showed himaelf well fitted. After 
eleven years of this work, however, Rubea 
migrated to Vienna, there to undertake a diiectot^- 
ship of the Academy of Arts in the Austriaa 
capital This post he heU for twenty yeara, st 
the end of which time he retired, leaving a school 
of rising arliBte behind him as witnesses to his 
zeal and industry. This excellent painter and 
true lover of art was bom in 1805 at Trier, aud 
was, therefore, in his seventy-first year at the time 
of his lamented decease. 

Thb Jhmdee Advertiter publishes an it«m of 
some interest to numiamatolcgiats. Havii^ pre- 
mised that money was onoe coined at Uundae, 
this journal sUtes that the rarest specimen known 
of the local mint is a unique silver hnli^jenny of 
King Robert II. in very good preservation. It is 
the only one of that reign known to be in exist- 
ence, and is, further, tbe only still existing regal 
halfpenny coined at Dundee in any reign. The 
coin is not much Uagei than a hemitf scale, and 
only weighs seven gruns. Chi the obverse is « 



JtUT 17, 1878.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



75 



ronle of the king, and BCeptre m Iront, witn tbe 
ffend " Ra1>eTtiiB Rex," and on the rerene a cribs, 
ith mullets in qnarteis, and tbe leeend " Vilk 
tvadea." This rare halfpHmj ie in tbe vakwble 
dleotiui af John Lonue, Esq^ Eirkcaldj. 
Thb OpMtone aimouiices the diicoverj nt 
mipeii on Jvlj S of a qnantit; of pii]remed 
oooBn taUets nmtMWUg writing. Tbe direetor- 
menl of tba exoantioni, OaiiirTwilitinw 
ioralli, faa^ gtme to PoBpeii to •apmhrtand tb« 
oorerj of tbe tftUeta, iiart at wkioh (till laniftUi 
)low tba aoil. It b said tbat the only tablata of 
la kind hitberto diaooverad are thoae found in 
le Fodinae aurariae of Hungirr, and publirtted 
f Uasamiuin, the authenticity ai which baa been 
le subject of coniidflmble dispute. 

Tee Fine Axt« Loan Exhibition at Dreadeo, 
ihich is to remain open till the end of Augiut, 
ppears from the report of tbe Gterman papen to 
e one of the mogt sueceasfol of ita kind. The 
[ing of Saxonj baa enriched tbe preaoct ezbibi- 
.on with numaroua artaclee belonging to tbe 9tat« 
nd family preeiota, among which none vn 
wn curious tban the hunting and tailetta aat- 
icee of tbe EUectOT AugnstuH the Fint of Saxony, 
'bo died in 1566. Tbaae include ricblv obased 
nd damBBcened razora, licivea, combs, bniahea, 
EC., lemexkable for higb finiah, elaborate orna- 
oentation, and originality of dewgn. The 
' Kurlander" Palace, in which tbe exhibi- 
ion baa been held, ia not witbont interait Tbe 
lall of mirrotB, decoimted by CaaonoTs, containa 
nine of the moet delicate uid chatacteriatic 
ipecintens of tbe Bococo age to be found in 
jermany, and has, moieovei, tbe aenaational re- 
lutation of having been made tbe Bcene of tbe 
harlatan Scbroefier'a assumed powers of spirit- 
aising in the summer of 1774. 

A BULWAT has lately been opened between 
lome and Orrieto which will no doubt have tbe 
«eult of talnng many tourista and riaiton, espe- 
nally atudenta of art, to that intarating me- 
liaeral city. It U to be hoped in the modania^ 
ion that a lailway ia almost son to bring wil^ it 
ibat ewe wbicb will be taken to praaerTa the an- 
3snt feature! of the Utj. The &(ads of the 
athedral has lately been Tsatored, but this waa a 
tecessar; work of preaervation and has bean dolie 
nth great care and judgment. 

A HOUOe&APH upon Maaacoo untied Mtmtooio 
f den .Florentinike Malerkmut paa kani Tid haa 
itely been published in Oopenhagen by the Danish 
It critic, Frederik G. Eundtzon, who haa devoted 
oanj years to a searching study of the works of 
he eaily Italian master and his contemporariea. 
Fbe Kunttlronik promises a Gennan tnsslotion 
)f the work vary soon. 

In tbe competitiim that UxHi place a short tuns 
go for the j miniinf of the curiam of the Dreaden 
Aentie, it wasProfeaBor Ferdinand Keller of 
Lailaruiie, and not Hans Makart, as waagenerally 
oppeaed, who (iarried off tbe palm. Ferdinand 
i«Uer,wbo gained great distinction as tbe painter 
f Nero at the Vienna World Exhibition, baa 
lany characteiistios in cimunon with Makart ; 
at, although these two artists mav be said to 
aint, as a German critic expresses It, " from the 
une palette," they agrees very different tbougbtt 
nth their coJouib. Keller pasead a great portion 
f hi» early life amid the magnificent scenery of 
lie river Amazon in Seath America, and gaanad 
1 the primaeval forests a knowledge and love of 
ri^cal natuie tbat are eonatantly aj^nient in hia 
wrke. He ia now profeesor of anatomy and 
gure-diBwing in tbe art scboola of bis native 

The German inhalritante of Milan, in sxpee- 
ition of tiie proposed virit of tlK German 



eMgn a, medal to be presented to tbe Emperor on 
hat oecadon. Speluzzi's design is a flat disk of 
ilver divided into several compartments, in the 



middle one of which ia represented a Victory lean- 
ing on a shield, with the sun and stars of greater 
magnitude in the bad^ronnd. On tiie obverse of 
the medal are four of tbe principal buildiuga of 
Miiau, the Gathedi«l, the Arch of Sempione, the 
ancient Uoepitnl, and the Gertosa, near Pavia. 
Tbe words Sapientia, Fortitude, Persevwantia, 
and Munifioentia, are eogreved in gold on the 
outer circle, as well as figures repreeenting 
Minerva, Mors, ^lercurr. and Cerea, with their 
respective attributee. The whole is sfdd to be 
very elliMtive in deaign. 

Thb Archaeological Gongresa of France will 
bold ita fony-aecond session this yt»x at Oh&lons- 
SBt^Mama, mder tbe direction of tbe Soci^t^ 
Flwifaise d'Arehfologie. The session will open 
OB Monday, August ^3, in the grand salon of tbe 
Hdtal de Ville, and will dose on Saturday tbe 
38lJi. Eicursione will be made to all tbe moat 
intereating monuments in the town Mid nei^boui' 

TsK Pope haa created M. Gaillard, who recentiy 
executed a fioa portrait of the Holy Father, a 
chevalier of the order of St. Gregory the Great. 

. Thi 0«aMt dtt Bttatx-Artt opens with a second 
artiele on the Salon by Anattue de Montaiglon, 
illustrated by numerous engravings frem artists' 
sketchea for their picture, and a very fine etching 
far Uopold Flameng from Bonnst's portrait of 
Mdme. Pasca. Among the sketches the most in- 
temstiDg is a pen-and-inlE drawing by Alma 
TademA of bis well-known Picttire OaUery, ex- 



moHdii, Tbe French critic is aomewhat severe 
on the style of art of this " hftlf-Elnglish Dutcb- 

bis ardiaeological lore. A small statue in bronze 
of Louis XV. standing on a shield, supported by 
four warriors, which by some accident or other 
«Maped the deebnction that fell upon almost aU 

tiiMi, ia daacribed and eommentad upon by Louis 
Oounjad, lAo prorea it to have been executed 
b^ J. B. Lemoyne, a FVench sculptor of the 
eighteenth eiutury, and to h-ive been originally 
deaigoed for a monument that was to liave been 
set ap in ooe of the pnblic places of Rouen. The 
mcnnauHt itaslf waa neror meoted, but Louis XV. 
bad tbe model for it eaat in bmiie, and this, 
o><ring to ita anall Bse probaUy, was overlooked 
in the fniy of tbe Bevolntion, uid Nmaios in the 
Louvre to iJie present day, although ita history 
has not hitherto been known. Some other in- 
teieatii^ particulaie rwarding tbe fate of works 
of art onnng tbe first I^nch Revolution are also 
giVBS in this Mtiele. In the other articles of the 
aamber, M. O. Rayet flniriies bis learned account 
of the statuettae foond at Toaagia, and now in the 
Lonvre. M. Louis Gonse eontmtMS his study of 
coBtenuKwarT engravers, giving an aeoount of the 
admirable plates in Jules Jacquemart'a Hitloire 
de la Forcdaine ; and M. Alfred Daicel at last 
finiahea the long history of tbe Ooatume Exhibi- 
tion of the Onion Centrals that baa occupied tbe 
OoMffo for so many months. A dalieate etching 
by Jaaqdemart from a piotuie by Ibissoniar of a 
man readmg by a window, in tbe Saennondt eol- 
leotioD, ados matadally to the utiatic value of a 
very riah aamber. 

iM the Portfolio for thia month Mr. P. G. 
Hamerton continues his biography and criticism 
of Ettf, telling asHcinlty tbe alary of hie foreign 
travels in 1816, wbiob, as be truly saya, appears to 
OS of tbe present time " like a fragment of ancient 
histoiy.'' Tbe poor English artiat, wbo was so 
entirely national in bis Mates and habits that he 
coold not go abroad without taking with him hia 
beloved teapot, two kettlee, sugar and tea to laat 
a twslvemontfa, suffered much fiom the change 
tliat continental customs naturally effected in bis 
re<irulated mode of life. At Florence be became 
so depressed tbat be felt " uneqnal to the task of 
g>3ing to Rome and Naples," and complaining of 



the " gloom " of fair Floiwce, left it after a four 
days' visit and set olf homewuds with the neateat 
impntience, crossing the Channel in a French 
vrasel, and "travelling to London in a Deal coach 
ivith BHntimenta of love for every brick in tbe 
Engliah meUopolis." Tbe " Teohnioal Notts" 
deal with the method of Mr. G. A. Suxej. Theae 
tacbnical notea add considerably to the value of 
tbe Port/olio this year. The olhei articles of the 
number are— a thoughtful essay on " Some Charac- 
teristics of Artistic Movements," by G. A. Sirocoi; 
a review of W. B. Scott^ poems ; a biographical 
sketch of Rosa Bonbeor with a GoupU photo- 
^vnre from a study of sheep ; and a good etch- 
ing, by Obattock, of the National Gallery idctara 
by Old Crome— C%W Pieidt,fi{oru>icK 



eatablishment relating to a period of more than 
two centuries was completed last year. A detuled 
account of them, by Mr. Joseph Redington, au 
assistant keeper of the Public Records, is printed 
in the appendix to this reprat. The examination 
was undertaken with a view to their speedy trans- 
ier to tbe Record Office, but this receptacle for 
our national muniments has not yet been able to 
find room for them. Among the eerUer volumes 
of this series is one marked " A Booke for the 
Dies of Gold, Silver, &&, 10/B and liiT7," which 
coolains some curious entries, such aa " Diea for 
the healing piece with tbe Angell," and " I)i«e for 
the healing piece with the Shipp," which eridentiy 
refer to the practice of touching for the Kinj; s 
evil. There are many accountbooks relating to 
the great re-ooinage of 16130-97, containing full 
particulara of tbe qoantity of metal re-ni^lted and 
re-coined at tbe provincial mints of Bristol, Chse- 
ter, Exeter, Norwich, and York. At thia time 
Newton (not yet Sir Isaac) was Warden of the 
Mint, and thera is a letter from him, dated June 21, 
16i)r, to hia deputy at Chester, calling attention to 
some information which had reached him '■ of 
some fowle Play, either among the Tellers or in 
the Melting House, or both, whcoeby the Honey 



strance, dated July 30, 1697, waa addreand to 
Mr. Thomas Clarke, the Depu^ Master, by hia 
two colleagues, chaining him with having treated 
them with " contempt and scorn," to whidi Clarke 
replied, " I have treated neither of you with con- 
tempt and scome, not even when one of you did 
flpitt in my face in the pnblique office." Newton 
and tbe then Master, Thomas Neale, seem to have 
done their best to pacify the disputanla. 

" Wa are much coDoarnsd," they write on one ocea- 
aion, " to hear of y continn'd quarrels aoionj;st you 
at tbe Mint. . . . and are resolmd to some and haar 
balb sidas oarselvH. . . . Till we coma, let then bs 
no further qoarfelliag, but let the publick busioeBs be 
penceably carry"d on as it ought to be ; for the Mint 
will uot allow of the drawing of swords tiad assault- 
ing HDj, nor ought andi language w« hwr has besn 
be used any mute amongst you." 
Another of these books containa tbs accounts of 
the re-coinage of a large quantity of old "ham- 
mered " gold coin of the reigns of James I., 
Charles L, and Charles II., wbicb had up to 17;i3 
been current under the name of "hroiij pieces." 
These coins were received under proclaraatiou at 
the Mint, at the high rate of 41. U. per ounce ; 
and the transactions connected with their recep- 
tion and re-coinage extended Irom I'tbruary, 173;l, 
to July, 1734. The rudely-bshioned '' hammered " 
money was in this way finally withdrawn from 
circulation. 

M. W. TiBSENHACSEX, the weU-taiown Oriental 
archaeologist, haa recently coutributeil two very 
important articles to the Sevue de la Jftimis- 
maiiquti Beige, in which he describes IHl Arabic 
coins hitherto unpublished or little known. Ajnong 
these are many very considerable additions to our 
knowled^ of the coinage and biatnrt' of the li^ael ) 
perbapH the most important ia thi; discovery of a 
coin of the Beni-'Ommarnh, a dynasty as yet un- 
known to numismatists. 



76 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jdlt 17, 1B75. 



THE 8TAOB. 

On Actors and the Art of Acting. By George 
Heniy Lewee. (London : Smith, Elder it 
Co., 1875.) 
Tebke are gathered together, in the little 
Tolnme before as — which Mr. Lewes qnite 
modestly and accurately deaoribea as a 
" trifle " — a dozen or aizteen papers contri- 
buted at different times, but chiefiy some 
eight or ten years ago, to the periodical 
press. I recognise some that appeared in 
the Pall MaB Oaxettn in its earliest days, 
bat the eporces from which Mr. Lewes has 
generally drawn this Teprint are not stated 
in the Tolnme. That, however, is of little 
moment. The book must stand npon its own 
merits. Almost any one of the essays would 
have snfficed to prove that Mr. Lewes was a 
competent theatrical critic, and as far as Mr. 
Lewes is personally concerned, the whole 
Tolmne proves little more. 

The author has always been deten-ed from 
repnbhshing articles written for a temporary 
pnrpoae,and the reasons which have deterred 
him have not tost their force; "and if," says 
he, " I here weave together several detached 
papers into a small volame, it is becanse a 
temporary purpose may again be served, 
now a change seems coming over the state 
of the stage." There appears, however, 
to have been but little of " weaving to- 
gether : " mnch of putting merely side 
by side. There is little sequence in 
the book, and there is naturally more 
of repetition than would have been likely to 
be fonnd in a book written as a whole. The 
volume is of course interesting and sug- 
gestive to those who care really for the art 
of acting ; but had the matter been greatly 
re-written and re-cast — bad Mr. Lewes be- 
stowed more care and work on iis republi- 
cation — it would have gained in valne. For 
very mnch of what he wrote eight years ago 
and has allowed to remain has ceased to 
have meaning for us. Sometimes he has 
perceived this, and has added a footnote 
modifying some general statement of eight 
years since by the light of present experi- 
ence, as when reference ts made by him to 
&cts which would have seemed incredible 
eight years ago — the performance of Hamlet 
for 200 nights, and of The School for Scan- 
dal for 3O0 nights — bni often a general 
statement or comment not at all in ac- 
cordance with present circumstances has 
been allowed to remain ; as, when he ex- 
claims " Fancy a comedy in blank verse at 
the Haymarket ! " and I^;ain as when he 
avers "Mdme. Plessy is ^e most musical, 
the most measared, the most incisive speaker 
(whether of prose or verse) now on the 
stage," and adds, "Got, Sanson, andBegnier 
ue great actors because they represent types, 
and the types are rect^^is^ as true." Most 
people, it is true, may be supposed to be 
aware that of the thrae last-named actors 
only one now remains upon the stage. 
Most may be aware also, tl^t admirable as 
is the art of Mdme. Amould Plessy, a 
" speaker " more " musical " has certainly 
ariten in the parson of Mdlle. Sarah Bern- 
hardt. Bnt in a book pnbliahed to-day, 
the changed conditions of the st^e should 
be recognised. The long article called " The 
Drama m Paiia, 1865," is open to the same 



sort of objection. Its matter is a past thing : 
its allusions difficult to recall in our day ; its 

Kint of view naturally wrong for ns at this 
ur. And from all this we are forced to 
think either that Mr. Lewes's volume should 
have been given to us eight years ago, when 
the "temporary purpose," if it was that of 
influencing the stage or the pubhc, would 
have been atitl bettor served than now ; or, 
failing that, that it shonld have been much 
recast, for issue to readers at the present 

Does it then follow that the book is with- 
out valne, and is to he classed for practical 
purposes, with industrious efforts of " book- 
making " ? Certainly not. If the chapter 
called " Foreign Actors on our Stage," deal- 
ing with the successes of Ristori, Fechter 
and Mdlle. Stella Colas, and the chapters on 
the drama in Paris and the drama in Ger- 
many, are comparatively useless, the earlier 
chapters in the volume have something of 
hbtorical interest and importance : the pages 
on the Keans,Macreadyand the elder Farrea 
may be read with interest by playgoers and 
with profit by actors. It has been Mr. 
Lewes's privilege to record here impreesions 
made on him and his contemporaries in 
chosen momente, by chosen men. The cha- 
racter of Macready's talent, of Edmund 
Kean's genius, of Farren's charm, is dis- 
cussed close by the side of other themes aa 
worthy — the worthiest the st^e presents. 
For this concentration of criticism upon 
worthy objects — which the necessities of the 
day make impossible in jonmalism — we may 
go, with great pleasure, to Mr. Lewes's book. 
In this respect, his best essays, as mere 
pleasant reading, are, so to say, the cream of 
certain old journalism, on this especial snb- 

C' — Time having made it possible for the 
k to dispense, as the journal could not 
do, with the skim-milk it must have been 
somebody's business to provide. And our 
only quarrel with this volume is that some 
of the skim-milk remains. 

A quotation from an excellent paper on 
Edmund Kean — a paper excellent at least in 
literary form and fairly accordant, we sup- 
pose, with most of sonnd opinion in its 
judgment on the actor's art— a quotation 
&om this will enable us not only to pre- 
sent some characteristics of Kean's acting 
to the reader's eye, but quoting it before 
another passage culled elsewhere, to bring 
prominently forward &om the mass of the 
book a theory on which Mr. Lewes strongly 
insists. This is part of what he says of 

" KesD waa a conaumniato msster of pasaioimte 
expie«doD. People ^nernlly spoke of him ns a 
type of the ' unpulsiva actor.' But if by this 
tney meant one who abandoned himself to the 
impulse of the moment, without forethought of 
pre-ananged effect, nothing could be wider from 
the mark. He was an artiat, and in art all effects 
ore n^;ulHted. The original suggestioD may he, 
and seneniUy is, sudden and unprepsred — ' iii- 
Bpired' as we say: but the alert intellect rectw- 
maea its tnith, aeizea on it, re^latea it. With- 
out nice calculation no proportion could he pre- 
aerved: we ahould have a work of fitful impulse: 
not a work of enduring art Keen vigilantly and 
patiently relieaiaed every detul, trying the tones 
until his ear wa« satisfied ; and having once ref- 
lated these, he never changed them." 

So it was that, as Mr. Lewes adds, when 



Eean was sober enough to be able to stan J 
and speak he played his part with the pr e\ 
oision with which a good singer will aiug al 
song. One who has acted repeatedly vvitH 
Eean has said that, when the tragedian vra^ 
rehearsing on a new stage, he accoratelj 
counted the number of steps he had to takci 
before reaching a certain spot, or befcve 
uttering a certain word. This was the m^j 
chanism of his art, and he knew its neces- 
sity. But possibly Mr. Lewes in his firm 
beUef of the need for absolutely pre-ar- 
ranged effocte pays too little attention to the i 
difference that does exist betweenactors who ' 
play upon impulse and actors who do not. 
He is right nndonhtedly in disabusing a 
portion of the public of the foolish, notion 
that any actor who can be called an artisf^ 
can leave to the impulse of the moment tb& 
effect he will produce ; but remembering (rf 
Edmnnd Kean that the voice on some nights 
would be nioro irresistibly touching' in 
" Bnt, oh ! the pity of it, lago " — or mora 
mnsioally forlorn in " Othello's occupation's 
gone " — or more terrible in " Blood, lago ; . 
blood, blood" — one may see that the popu- 
lar error has its fonndation in fact, and one 
may note, as Mr. Lewes hardly sufficiently 
notes, the varying degrees in which accom- 
phshed actors, all with pre-arranged effects, 
allow these effects to be modified or exalted 
by the feehng of the moment — by spirits, 
health, and I know not what other condi- 

In one of his earlier pages the author tells, 
under all reserve, the story of Macready's 
lashing himself into wild fiuy as Shylock by 
shaking a ladder behind the scenes— owing 
to the actor's difficulty of " striking twelve 
to begin with " — and the story of the comic 
Listen cursing and splnttoring to himself, 
while Vestris looked with amusement upon 
that preparation. These stories suggest onr 
second qnotetiou, in which the author dis- 
cusses how &r the actor feels the emotion ho 
expresses : — 

" When we hear of Macready or Listen Isahing 
themselvea into a fury behind the scenee, in oiia 
to come on the etnge suSidentl; excited te gire 
a truthful repreaentation of the agitation of anger, 
the natural mfeience is that these srtiets reci^ 
nised the truth of the popular notion whi^ 
assumes that the acter Teolly feels what he ex- 
preMee. But this inference seems contradicted by 
experience. Not onlv ia it notorious that the 
acter IB feigning, and that if he really felt what 
ha feigna he would he unable to withaland the 
wear and tear of such emotion repeated night 
after night ; but it is indiaputable to those who 
know anything of Art, that the mere presence of 
genuine emotion would be such a dieturbooce of 
the intellectual equilibrium asentirriy to fruatiste 
artistic expreeaion. Talma teld M. Barriire that 
he was once ouried awsyby the truth and beauty 
of the actresB phtying with hun, till she recalled 
him by a whisper ; ' Take care, Talma, tou are 
moved 1 ' on which he remaiked, ' C'eat qu'en eflet 
de l'4motion nut le trouble : la voix r^ate, la 
mtooire manque, lea geates soot faux, I'etTet eat 
d^tniit.' And there ia an ohaerration of Mold to a 
similar effect : ' Je ne auia pss content de moi c« 
aoir: je ne suia paa TeatS mon maitie: j'Atsia tarap 
vivement dana la situation: j'^tois leperaonnwe 
meme, je n'dtais plus I'acteui qui le joue. Jai 
6t& vrai comma je le serais chez moi ; pour I'op- 
tiqoe du thS&tre il faut I'Stre autrament. ' " 

It is necessary then not to feel, but to 
have felt. The actor, like the writer, mast 
fall back here and again on past emotions, 



JntT 17. 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



77 



■ot vivid enongh to be disturbing. " I Iiaye 
srffcred cmsl losses," said TaJma — whom 
tgun Mr. Xiewes cites in pa^s probably the 
aofit intereetiiig of bis little Tolmne — "I 
have snATeFod cruel losses." But after the 
first boiu-B of sorrow, added he, he found 
himself involuntarily turning his gaze in- 
nrds — the actor was asGonaciously study- 
ing the mail, and oatohing nature in the 
trick. " Je faisais on retonr snr mes souf- 
franccs " — an artist by that act as mncb as 
by more visible achievemeuts. 

Frederick Wediiobe. 



STAOH A'OTES. 
The ttefttrical season is destined to be notable 
for ib early collapse, hb wall as for the scanty 
■tiditicHis to the stock of stage literature which it 
hu fumiehed. Looldnc round, we find that by 
the middle of Jnly the Hajioarket ia reljing for 
such attractivsQeee as it may have upon the past 
faccesaes of the Court — Mr. Edj^r Bruce having 
iwproduced Alone and the Wedding March with a 
cast not stroi^ enough to call for much criticiem. 
We find the Lyceum closed, though in this case 
the theatre close* after a brilliant aaaBOD. We 
find tha St. James's closed, the Princess's closed, 
the G\obe closing to-night, the Criterion resting 
on the old surcess of Madame Angot, the Prince 
(it Wales's on an old comedy, Monfy, and the 
Olympic on in old realistic drama, Tkt Ticket-of- 
Leave XaH. Mr. Byron's efforts at the Vanda- 
rille and Oie Strand appear still potent to draw 
the Town, and at the Adelphi the real coach is 
.'tarted everf evening with Nicholas Niekleby on 
his way to Tarkshire. Beyond this, there is little 
to note, and of this there is Uttle to note with 



0:iB theatre opens to-night. The Queen's in- 
ntea ua to witness again tha drama of Chmcarty : 
this time with Mr. Oeoige Rignuld and Miss 
Helen Barry as its hero and heroine. The aoason 
here will be of very brief duration, the play-bills 
announce. The piece is nevertheless of the kind 
for whioh the great theatre is fitted. 

On Saturday mominganawpiece was produced 
at the Olympic, or, to speak accurately, an adapta- 
tbn of a puy hy M. d'Ennery and M. Edouard 
Plonvier. It was produced on the occauon of a 
benefit, and in ita now form did not bid fcir to 
eneroas the prolonged attention of the London 
pSilJc. MM. d'Ennery and Plouvier are both 
adepta, in thwr way, and it would be difficult to 
entuely root out popular interest in some of their 
best work, but more effective presentation than 
that given at the Olympic mtamie would seem to 
be Deoeeaaiy if the phy ia to make a mark in 
Engluid. The old man — hero of Le Cmtmaire 
■nd of its English version, A Hundred Yeart Old 
—was played by Mr. OdeU. Mr. G, W. Anson 
gave muked character to a smaller part, while 
two women's parts were played by Miss Nelly 
Uanis and Miss Louise Willea. The last-named 
lady is new to London, hut we understand her 
to have found favour in some great provincial 

SioBOR Saivifi repeated on Monday his per- 
formance of the Olaitiaior at Dmry Lane. His 
final BppearBoc#— delayed for a while — was to take 
place last evening, in Othello. 

Tbb theatrical profession is .g[iving its services, 
and theatre-goeTB their money, m aid of the suf- 
ferers by the French inundations. The perform- 
ance of' Thursday week at the Lyceum seems to 
hav e boon tolerably productive— the Paris Figaro 
stathig that about SOW. is realiaed. This sum, if 
we are rightly informed, is about double the 
amonnt that can be taken at a single performance 
at the ordinary prices of this theatre, but then the 
prieea for admission on the occamon of the special 
performance were extraordinarily high — the stalls 



were a couple of guineaa. The programme, be it 
Slid, was well carried out; MM. Capoul and 
Jolly, and Mdmea. Baphael and Pauline Luigini 
havmg duly appeared in op^M boufie ; Mdme. 
NHsaon and other great singers gave a little con- 
cert ; Mdlle. Delaporte and me Bilhauts did 
their part in comedy; Mdlles. Damain and 
Oamille in tha veises of M. de Bomier — JWit- 
ToaloTise. But this perfonnance was by no means 
the last for the charitable purpose named above. 
A morning representation at tha Oaiety on Satut^ 
day was given for the same object, and on Wed- 
nesday, at Drury Lane, a large gathering was 
auDOUDced, and representations of parts of very 
popular and well-known pieces, by many of our 
Deal English actors. 

The production of X^o, the new drama for the 
GymnaBe Theatre, has been postponed on account 
of the illness of Mdlle. Tallandiera, who had 
undertaken the princapal part. Mention is made 
of the possible engagement of this actress next 
year at the Tb^tre Fran^ais, where she would 
appear for the first time as Andromaque. Mdlle. 
lallandiera, it mav be remembered, is an actiess 
who was discovered by Dumas, taught something 
by Regnier, and engaged on the recommendation 
of theee two by M. Montigny, of the Gymnaae — 
at which theatre if she has by no moans* merited 
the success of its most famous artists, she haa at 
all events given to the perforraancea an interest 
which Mdme. Fromentin could not impart. And 
for a while, it may be recoUected, the Oymnase 
was so unfortunate as to have Mdme. Fromentin 
for its loading lady. 

Tbb Theatre de Cluny, in the heart of the 
Latin quarter, has probably done wisely in bring- 
ing forward Le Paya Latin of Henri Miirger, 
though the drama seems less efiactive than the 
story. The sto^ loo was written under difficul- 
ties. The Vie de . 
the gates of the Sevue det Deux 
the Pat/s Laiin in hand he passed through them. 
Not, however, says M. Vitu, without trouble. It 
was necessary, they told him — as they have since 
told aapiiants to the honouia of Buioz — to 
take the tone of the Review, and that is why 
the grisettes were sometimes wont to be sacrificed 
to women of good society. And Miirger, it is 
added, suffered much fiom the corrections imposed 
on him in tha Xeinief and yet managed to come 
well out of a difficult task. M. Vitu gives to Le 
Payt Latm the first place among the works of 
Henri Miuyer, while otheis assign it the second. 
But the Fib de Bohme—M it is that with which 
one is inclined to compare it — is, as must be re- 
membered, hardly a complete thing, having been 
written with little plan, in obedience to tha oecea- 
sities of the day. M, Vitu, however, and othets 
of the admirers of the Pay» Latin go further than 
to say that it is the best work of Miirger. Let 
Vitu speak for the rest : — 

"Suppress ths title, irhich is academical, and iu' 
oecarate, too. aiaee it aniioiiiicea a pictare -which ia 
never painted ; remove altogether the end, vhich 
recalls, without rhyme or reason, thnt of the Danw 
am Camiliat ; stop the book at the delicious moment 
when tho sinning Toman, now recdlled to good things, 
IE flret smitten wit,h the Ioyb of Claude ; call the book 
MarieUe, and jou will have chtiatened aright OQe of 
the chffa iTauvrfs of French litomCure in our centoiy. 
Mariotte is auptrior to Mnnon Lescaut . . . Le Page 
LaliH, of Henry Miirger, is a sharp and dose sta^, 
in which a powerful writer revaala himselif to us fm 
the Gnit time with a master's brilliance and dedsivs- 

And then, alas I it haa to be admitted that the 
play ia not to be named in the same breath with 
the novel, and that its performance is not worthy 
of criticism. But we have said that M. Vitus 
opinion of tha novel is not one that is universally 
accepted. Put it against M.'.Cldment Gaisguel's, 
end it appears a Bohemian opinion, while that of 
the academic writer in the Orleanist print takes, 
' as Hiirger himself was told to take, the " tone of 
the Review." And all that aeems good to one 



critic seems bad to anothea*. "Miirger," writes 
M, Oaiaguel— 

" Miirger perhaps lacked eonfideoco in himaolf. 
Having obtained a notorious and unexpected succeas 
with hii Vie deBahlme, it seems that ha could hardly 
venture quits to quit the groond on which he bad 
gained hu firsc battle, and that, voluntarily, he hod 
imprisoned himself there, nevertheless, aa he said 
himself, ' Le Pays Latin n'est pas un pays oft Ton 
rests ; c'est un paya qua Ton tiavarse, oi on huue 
parfois de louchans Bouvenirs, mais o& on ne revient 
pas.' That is not only true for the atadent; it is 
true fur the poet. The mine to be worked there ia 
□ot a rich one. The artist finding in that Bohemian 
life a prettj BUbjsct for a picture, lakes it — and passes 
on. Jost so, in passing, Alfred de MnsseC took the 
subject of Fridiric et Bemerette — one of the prettiest 

Furthermore, it is ingenionsly contended that 
Miirger, tired and disgusted with the manners and 
life which he had made it a speciality to paint, 
put his own sentiments into the mouth of Edouard, 
the hero of the Payi Latin. " You wrong your- 
self," says Edouard, to the young girl Manette, 



saying that you are like the creatures that 
'ound you. Don't heheve in their apparent 
tty. You fancy they amuse themselves — in 



surround 
gai; 



reality they work, for their pleasurea have become 
to them necessities of life. Not one of them who 
can think without ashudder, of to-morrow. EUei 
ne te donnent menu plvs — eOn te latstent prendre." 
Why then did not the author leave suhjecta of 
which he was heartily weary P Because he knew 
them BO well, and was afiaid^ says M. Caraguel, 
to wade boldly out of bis familiar marshes towards 
the open sea. 

Thb French Government has purchased, for the 
Luxembourg, Bonnat's portrait of Mdme. Pasca — 
the most noted theatrical portrait in the Salon of 
1875. 



Hiraio. 

ADAM'S "POSntLOH DB tOBSJTOEATT." 

Op the numerous comic operas written by Adolphe 
Adam, Le Poalillon de Lmgjumeau, penormeo at 
the Gaiety Theatre last Saturday, ia generally 
conudered the masterpece. First produced at 
the Op£ra Comique in Paris on October 13, 1836, 
it has ever since retained poaaession of the stage, 
and at the present time ia performed quite as fre- 

Juently, if cot more ao, in Germany as in Fiance, 
to great popularity is probably due eijually to its 
charming and sparkhng muaic and to its excellent 
and most amusing libretto. It is perhaps hardly 
too much to call it the drollest of the comic operas 
which the French company at th6 Gaiety have 
brought to a hearing, though the drollery arises 
rather from the delineation of the chaiacters than 
from the intrinsic nature of the plot. As the 
opera, though often given on the Continent, has 
very seldom been heard ii> this country, some 
account of the libretto may not be unacceptable. 

In the first act Chapelou, the postilion of Long- 
jumeau, has just been married to Madelaine, and 
after the ceremony they return to the inn, where 
Chapelou lives. Here the Marquis da Corey, the 
master of the king's revels, arrives, a wheel of his 
carriage having broken, and Byu, a wheelwright, 
and a rejected suitor of Madelame's, is enga^d to 
mend it. The Marquis is on the search for singeiH 
for the Royal Opera, and hearing Cha^ou sing is 
so delighted wiuk him that he detemunea to take 
him away. After much difficulty he aucceeda by 
magnificent promiaea in inducing him to desert his 
bride, and he drives away with him. 

Betwew the first and second acts ten years have 
ilapsed, and Chapelou, under the name of Saint- 



Phar, has become the pi 



■IS 



singer at the opers. 



her, and though she despises him thoroughly, she 
resolves to m^ use of him to punish her &ttnless 
husband. The Marquis haa assembled the opera- 
lingers in her bouse to perform a piece he haa 



78 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jolt 17, 1875. 



writtai in lur hoaour. Tliej at fint refoBa, 
aU«ciiig that the; ara OTerworked, and pieteDding 
to MTe bad colda. Saint-Phar, however, on 
Tiliiiiij. n wboM hoiue the; are, penuades tiiem 
to nng, •« be ia eBamoitrod of Hdme. lAtonr b«- 
CMise of ber likenees to his deserted wife. At 
the eloee of the eDtertainmeiit, she expreeses her 
leMdineBB to many him, to the great diiffiist of 
the HatquiB. 

Jn the third act we find Saint>'PliBr i«solved to 
go tbroogh a mock ceKmonj of mamsM 'with 
Atlnie. IdtoDT, for which pnipose he calls in the 
ud of S^u, who has become the leader of the 
cbonia, under the name of Aldudor, and who 
oudertakea to dieaa up one of the opera choms aa 
a phe»t to perfoim the marriage rites. Saint-Phar 
in however overreached bj Mdme. Latour, who 
loii^^ a real piieet and has him married in aanieat 
for the aecond time. On discovering the real 
etate of the oaae Saiut-Phar is in despair, eject- 
ing to be handed for bigat^. -Ultiniatelf, now- 
evtt, Udme. £atour, aUat Madelaire, explains the 
deo^ition ahe has practised, and with her fotgive- 
naw of bei touant husband all ends happily. 

Ajdam'a music to liua libretto is charming 
thpougbout. In piquant and ear^atching melo~ 
diea the aoore maj rank with thoae of Aubet, 
while the inatrumentation is moit refined, and 
abonoding in exoellent effects. Padbi^ on the 
whole Ajdam is most suoceasiul in the more 
purely Bomic portdoos of the worit. It is difficult 
to iaagJTw anything droller in music than Um 
Bomance in the second act (supposed to be the 
composition of the MEUiquis) " Aasis au med d'un 
hetre,"or Biju's Bonir in the same act'^Oui, dea 
chorietea du th^tre, or the trio in the third act 
" Pendu, pendu I " while other porta of the music 
are distinguished h^ grace and elegance. ITieie 
is hardi; that individualitj about it which would 
lead one on hearinp it to say " That is Adam I " 
as one might in tne case of Rossini or Auber ; 
but there ara no plaGfiarisms, and f^om the bej^in- 
ning to the end of the score thera is one smes of 
evBi^fiowiug and always attractive melodies. 

With re^rd to the performance, too high pnuee 
can scarcely be given to iL As Madehdne Mdlle, 
Albart sang and aoted with all her usual charm, 
leaving indeed little or nothing to desire. The 
put of Ohapelou was announced to be taken by 
sL Toumi^, but as that gentleman was snfiering 
from a return of the malady which has already 
more than once canaed him to disappoint his 
heatsrs, Us place was taken 1^ M. Herbert in a 
minuw which left no cause to regret the sub- 
stitution. Both as a singer and an actor this 
fientleman was completely successfiil, his moat 
noticeable perfonnancas tmog the Postilion's 
Song in the first act, and the burlesque Bonuuioe 
(abwdy alluded to) in the second. M. Sujol, 



see so excellent an artist as U. Joinnisae in 
a part so worthy of Ms ability as that of 
B^u. It is characteristic of the self'SacrijBdng 
spirit of this French company that M. Joimusae, 
who is certainly one of their beat actors, should 
have undertaken such secondary characters as 
Uatheo in JKi Diavolo and the Pastor in the 
Dra^ow de Viiiari. In the Foitilion he had a 
better chance, and he certainly made the most of 
iL Anything richer and more amusing than his 
peEforoumca wroughout, and perhaps more espe- 
cially his siogiog of his sons:, " OuL dea choristea 
du theatre " cannot be imagined. The subordinate 
parte of Rose and Bourdon were most efficiently 
given by Mdme. Qayda and M. Vandamme, anil 
the chorus, orchestra, and mtM-tn-K^ne wei« as 
excellent as they always are at these perform- 
ances. 

To-nigbt the season finishes. We hope next 
week to give a short review of the excellent series 
of performances now, unfortunately, to be brought 
to a close. I^^obitgzeb Pboitx. 



Th£ National Music Meetdngi at tbe Crystal 
Palace were brouf^t to a cloae on Saturdajr last 
by a concert in which the various prize-winners 
took part. Tbe average of excellence of tbe com- 
petitors has been, on the whole, in advance of that 
of previous meetings, and the auceeasful candi- 
dates have not only shown good natural ability, 
but have given evidence of much careful training 
and earnest study. In fiilfiiniwit of last week's 
promise, we give the list of those to whom on 
Satwiay priies were given by Hdme. Lind-Oold- 
sohmidt ;— Miae Agnes Larkcom (1st soioano prize), 
Mies Carrina (3nd ditto). Miss Annie Butterworui 
and Mias Emma Reimai (1st and 2nd contralto 
prizes), Messrs. G. Sylvester and I*wrenoe Fryer 
(1st and 2nd t«nor prizes), Mr. Edward Wharton 
(lat basa), and Messrs. Frank Thomas and Henry 
Cross, who were bracketed as equal for the second 
bass priie. In addition, the orass band of the 
Oarrow Works, Norwich (Messrs. Colman's), were 
successful in the competition against the bands of 
the First Tower Hamlets Volunteers and the 
^larylebone School, Southall, and the Liverpool 
Kepresentative Choir, conducted by Mr. James 
Sanders, was adjudged superior to the South 
London Ohoir (conductor, Mr. Venablee), which 
last rec^ved special commendation. The victory 
of the Lwerpool singers will surprise nobody who 
was present at the musical festival held in that 
town last autumn, when tbe choral performances, 
as noted at the tiuw in these columns, were of 
exceptional meriL 

A PtTBUO meeting, convened 1^ the Lord 
Mayor, was held yesterday week at the Mansion 
House to promise Uie establishment of scholflrsliips 
in connexion with the proposed national training- 
school for music at South KenMngton. The 
Masters of several of the City companies took 
part in tbe proceedings. Though it would be 
premature at present to offer any opinion as to the 
proposed institution, saeiog that nothing ia as yet 
known as to tbe plans to be adopted or the pro- 
fessors to be irapointed, it may fairly be ashed, 
is such a scbool required at all ? ^'e have al- 
ready a Royal Academy of Music, which may 
fitiily claim to be considered " National," whicn 
does thoroughly honest work, and turns out mn- 
sidans of whom, as a whole, we have certainly 
no cause to be ashamed ; and we cannot but 
think that it would be much more serviceable to 
art in this country to strengthen the bands of the 
Academy, which has done nothing to forfeit 
public confidence, than to start a rival institu- 

Wiw v of our readers will remsnbar that Mr. 
Carl Rosa had anmiged to sive a series of ope- 
ratic performaniKe in T^ gi'"" in the spring of 
last year. This enterprise was, however, not then 
earned out, owing to the lamented death of bis 
wife — tbe late Mtbue. Parepa-Roes. Though post- 
poned, it has not been abandoned ; and now, aft«r 
having given a succaaaful series of performances 
in the principal towns of the provinces, Mr. Roaa 
announcea a short series to be given at the Prin- 
cess's Theatre, to commence on September 11. 
Though the operas will be performed in En^liBh, 
the impresario (we think most wisely) will not 
confine himself to works by native composers. 
The most interesting work announced, for musi- 
cians at least, will be Oherubini's Water Carrier, 
better known by its French name of Lei Deux 
joamfet. Mozart's Figaro, Balfe's B<Aemian Oirl 
and Siefft (^ XochelU, and a new open by Cagnoni, 
are also promised. The orchestra ia to number 
fortr performers — quite sufficient for a house of 
moderate size— and will include many of our best 
I, while Miss Eose Heraee and Mr. Santley 
be among the leading membere of the com^ 
pany. We wish Mr. Rosa's scheme every 
success. 

Herr Orto PEiwroBB, a very promising young 
violinist, and a pupil of Joachim, gave a concert 
at Willis's Rooms on the 8th inat. Herr Peinigor 
plays not only with correct execntion, but with 



SS" 



true musical feeling, and is likely'to take a p^ 
place among the peobrmera on his difficult insn- 

Tbk laat concert of the Welsh Choral Unig 
for the present Benson took place on Mandii 
evening last at St. James's Hall. 

Teib afternoon the Chevalier de FartiJ 
Ooelhowill give a concert at Willis's Roonuu 
introduce hie newly-ioviented instruineDt, t^ 
" Copophone,'' which, from tbe engraving on 

the musical giat 

The latest accounts from Bayrauth Btstetlu:| 
the new theatre is now completed with tbeeici^' 
tion of some of the internal fittings and iixfo- 
tions. The first rehearaala for next year's p:- 
formanoes have already be^;;un, and the' retaear^ 
with full orchestra are arranged to lake place int 
August 1 to IB. In order to accommud&te u 
nnmerona visitors expected next summer, it if p 
posed to Bi«ct a grand hotel, making up 600 bea 
The cost is estimated at 220,000 floriof, sl 



A BBW BociBty has been established at BnuBek 
under the name of " Soci^t^ pour la Propajfitki: 
du SyatSme de Notation simplifite par la Cksiii- 
cation Num^que des Octaves selon In Tlvor^e 
du BiapBson," which has for its object tiie iDiii> 
duction of a new and simplified notation, diu; 
away with all clets except that of C. Uoxiti 
open to improvement the present notstiou naik 
it is impossible that any new one, even if bene 
and dmpler, can replace it, because of thii eftf- 
mous quantity of music already in existenx. I: 
is absurd to suppose that this can all be i^ 
duced ia any new notation, and until it ia, i' 
present must be adhered to. 



T&SLX OT OOBTSHTS. 

BUCKLlHD'e Loo-Bora of a FISBIBIUS AND 2"'^'^ 

ai>7. by Um Bel. James I>AVUi . . , ■ 'ti 
UAaHCaHbn axd Uoiuui'8 Tobii Hobthibn Lun 

BmRiBt. bf B. W. Ooaai M 

FuRLsrs HuniBY OF nu Wkuo or Eekt, bj C. 

Trice Kartqi s 

Um OoBBK'i Hops op the Bchab Race, Iij Dr. 

A. BtniXE i 

KaxMER'n HiffTonr or Citiueattoh undiq ^n 

KhaUrbb, bf S. L. Poole " 

Two Hakdbooks to MfmwAT, bj i, J. CBoanr . * 

'be ute Vtow. Oajbrb, b; FiqI. T. Z. Cum 
. Vemetlui Tow or Botts HsauaH Afhuis, Eii J. 

J. CiHTWiaqHT M 

Tew Zonx LBrrKR, by Uaa J. L, OmWH ■ •* 



' Maarr at CoUmo; >ij 
Prolooaor J. P. lUhnffy; mt MarllKirowjh arm, 
by ProtcHor K. S. Muk^s . . . . C^ 

APPODiTHBK™ BOtt NnT Weee *• 

Bicia'rt Ureee iKBCBipnaHs vbdii the Bbihsh 
MnaKOH. by tbs Bar. i. Woedbtobth . . ■ ^ 

Kew EornoK of Lb. Uhe'u DicnOEiitv or AniS l>I 
O. P. Koun-ELL . * 

SciEBCE KOTKS (AOTTIOSOMT, PmLOUXIT) . ■ - " 

UarnxoB or BociEnaB . . . . - ■ " 

Aht in Pabib. by Pa. Burtt " 

The Boial Acadehi ExmBtnox (Rul KolicvJ, bf 

W. U. BoaEBTTi " 

BUTUII AnCHAEOLDSISn El BoiiE, by C. I. Hbea.''- i' 

NoTH AHD Hews . ■ ■' 

Leivks's Os Actobb AKn the Aitr or Acnsc, W 

Fhkdebick WKDMoas • ^ 

Staoe Notw " 

AriAii'H " PosnuaK ds liOHOJDHBAr/' by Bbbseos 



July 24, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



79 



SATVBDAY, JULY 24, 1876. 
No. 168, Now Series. 



Ths Editob eaimot underlaie to return, or 
to eorreapond mtK the vrriter* of, reeded 

B ii partievlarlij requested that ali bueMeee 
lellen regarding the lupfly of the paper, 
^., may be addretied to the Publibhxb, 
and not to tha Editok. 



LITERATURE. 
The Papers of a Oriiic. Selected from the 
Writings of the late CbarleB Wentworth 
Dilkfi. With a Biographical Sketch by 
his GraiidBOQ, Sir Charles Wentworth 
Mke, Bart., ILP., Author of "Greater 
Britain " and of " The Fall of Prince 
Fiorestan of Monaco," In Two Volumes. 
(London : John Uurray, 1875.) 
Mr. DmsB loved literatnre, and did not 
covet &me. ETeiything he pablished ap- 
peared anonymonslj, and even in private he 
Beldom, and perhaps never, alluded to hiB 
own prodnctibnB unless for some practical 
end. In this reserve there was no affected 
mTsterj-, for, when the occasion required it, 
he was singnlarlj frank and precise ; bnt he 
was sileDt merely becaase he was not an 
(^Dtist in his work, and was accustomed to 
giuk his own personality in his snbject. 
The coneeqnence was that little was known 
of him by the pnblio while be lived, and his 
many intimate friends among men of letters 
were hardly aware of the extent and variety 
of his laboars. The selections from bis 
printed papers which his grandson has now 
bnmght together, and the " Bic^raphical 
Sketch " with which he has preiaced them, 
will for the first time enable the generality 
of readers to form a clear idea of the 
writings and character of a remarkable per- 
son, who has rendered signal and lasting 
services to litsratnre. The relation between 
the charactei:' of the man and the writings 
of the aothor was more than ordinarily close 
in Mr. Dilke, and the " Sketch " and the 
" Pipers " aid each other. Sir Charles 
Mke has given the ontline of his grand- 
father's life with the truthful simplicity 
wbich befitted the original, free from the 
shghtest tonch of exaggeration ; and no one 
can read the narrative without the con- 
EcionsneHS that he has received as honest an 
impression of Mr, Dilke as language could 
convey, 

Charles Wentworth Dilke was born De- 
cember 8, 1789, of a good femily in an 
heraldic, and doubtless in a higher, sense. 
His father and grand&ther were in the civil 
service of the Crown, which decided his 
own profession, and he was put at an early 
age into the Navy Pay Office. His leisure 
he gave to antiquities and literature. He 
studied minutely the whole Elizabethan 
drama, of whicb he had a nice understand- 
ing, and at abont twenty-five he edited a 
contiiination of Dodsley's OH Flays. He 
became a steady contributor to reviews and 
magazines, and was among the regular 
writers in the well-known London Magazine 
and B^mpe^iw Seoiew. He formed inti- 



maciea with young men of like promise, and 
espeoially with Keats, Procter, and Thomas 
Hood, which is not an un&ithfnl indication 
of the prevailing bent of his mind in the 
first part of his manhood. The " Papers " 
collected by Sir Charles Dilke were much 
later productions, and they are entirely de- 
voted to biographical and historical re- 
searches. In earlier life Mr. Dilke's tastes 
appear to have inclined him to the study 
and criticism of great authors, which was 
the beat beginning. Few would suspect in 
reading his articles on Junius that he had a 
keen relish for high imaginative poetry, 
that he not only enjoyed but understood the 
fine arts, that he Inruriated in the beauties 
of nature, and that it was part of his habi- 
tual employment to trace with loving grati- 
tude the goodness and harmonies which per- 
vade creation. 

Such woe the main current of Mr. Dilke's 
intellectual life up to 1830, when he acquired 
the complete control of the Athenaeum. He 
combined in a peculiar degree the qualities 
which are needed in the manager and editor 
of a literary jonmal. He was just turned 
forty with his judgment matured, and his 
physical powers unimpaired. His official 
liJfe had made him an excellent financier, and 
methodically eiaot in all his arrangementa 
and correspondence. He hod the diversified 
tastes and sympathies which are essential to 
the hearty countenance in due proportion of 
the multifarious branches of knowledge to 
be difioussed. He had a mind which could 
only be satisfied with scrupulous accuracy, 
and by bis vigilance he enforced it upon all 
his contributors. He bad unbounded in- 
dustry, and a capacity for sustaining pro- 
longed toil — a capacity tasked to the utmost 
by the circumstance that the journal did not 
pay when he took it in hand, and that with 
comparatively slender resources he had to 
effect by his personal exertions the improve- 
mentq which converted it from a loss into a 
revenue. But rarer and more important 
than all was the judicial eqnity which he re- 
solved should distinguish the criticisms of 
his journal. When he assumed the editor- 
ship he made it a rule not to go into society 
lest hie acquaintance with authors should 
hamper his independence, or embarrass him 
in the exercise of his editorial functions. 
He was to the last degree pnnctilious in not 
allowing anyone to crifciciso a book who had 
the smallest motive to deviate from impar- 
tiality, being thoroughly resolved that the 
malice of envy and rivalry, the adulation of 
friendship, and the pofi's of mercenaries 
should never with his connivance find a vent 
In the Aihenaeum. A member of his staff, 
Mr. J. H, Reynolds, wished to review a par- 
ticular work, and Mr. Dilke asked him 
whether he was not acquainted with author 
or bookseller. "I alas! know author and 
bookseller," replied Mr. Reynolds, who sent 
back the work that Mr. Dilke,' as he said 
pettishly, " might consign it to some inde- 
pendent hand, according to his religious 
custom." Everything which conid be con- 
stmed into a fiivoor was declined. He 
would not accept any book which an author 
sent to him personally, nor a duplicate copy 
sent to the office of the Alkenaeum, nor 
would he ask for a book which had not 
been Bont^ and waa too important to be 



left nuuoticed. " Favour and independ- 
ence are iacompatible," he wrote in 1842 
to his Paris correspondent, who had ob- 
tained from French publishers some early 
sheets of new books for review. Mr. Dilke 
pointed out to him that having accepted 
the advance sheets he could not condemn 
the works, and added the decisive comment, 
" What thenis the valneof your criticism ? " 
Integrity, courage, and firmness were never 
carried further by any editor. 

Mr. Dilke retired from the mauagoment 
of the At}i,eiMeiim in 1846, and the papers 
collected in the present volume are tho 
fruits of his studies when he was released 
from his editorial duties, and bod once 
again leisure for independent enquiry. Thou- 
sands of articles which seemed more attrac- 
tive in their hour have passed into oblivion, 
while Mr. Dilke's papers continneto be con- 
sulted, and his name will always be asso- 
ciated with the subjects of which theytreat- 
They owe the distinction to the originality 
of the matter, and the recondite research by 
which this matter waa obtained. His road 
lay along beaten tracks, aad the keen vision 
and indefatigable perseverance of the new 
explorer detected things which had been 
hidden from all his iffedecessors. Those 
who care solely for truth soon discover with 
how much laxity the majority talk and 
write. In common with many other men, 
Mr. Dilke had early learned to read with a 
scrutinising eye. But what was peculiar to 
him was the extent to which he pursued his 
investigations. Once embarked in an en- 
quiry he would leave nothing to inference 
which was capable of verification, and would 
literally hunt the kingdom for the books, 
pamphlets, newspapers, and documents 
whicn were requisite to perfect his re- 
searches. The extreme rigour with which 
he guarded the independence of the Athen- 
aeum was the counterpart of the riffour with 
which ho examined into facts. Nicety and 
completeness were the habit of bis mind. 
In the one cose be would not leave a crevice 
open to favouritism, ajid iu the other case 
to error. It might appear, perhaps, to some 
persons from the general tenour of these 
volumes that a love of contradiction, a prido 
iu dissenting from received views, was also 
a characteristic of his nature. "If," saya 
Sir Thomas Browne, " Cardan calls a parrot 
a beautiful bird, Scaliger will set his wits to. 
work to prove it a deformed animal." But 
this was not the disposition of Mr. Dilke,, 
who had a passion tor truth, and not for 
paradox, and if the "Papers" wear any 
aspect of the kind it is becanse he only 
wrote upon a subject when there were errors, 
to correct, and new information to be com- 
municated to the world. 

The " Papers " consist of two portions — 
those on Pope which fill the first volume, 
and those on Junius and other political 
characters which fill the Becoud. The articlcii. 
on Junius, of which the first appeared in 
July 1848, were commenced the earliest, 
and grew out of a syst«matic study of the 
reign of George TH. It would ba idle to say 
a word upon the vexed question of who was 
Junius, as the subject — digmit vindice jwdus 
— will be treated at large in the Acadbmt 
by the luminoas judicial mind of Lord Chief 
Justice Cockbom. The new and veiy im- 



80 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JPLT Qi, 1875. 



portaui evidence which has been adduced 
Bince Mr, Dilke's death wonld of itaelf re- 
qnire that the cause shoald be re-tried. Bnt 
whatever may be the nltimato verdict, the 
value of Mr. Dilke's contributions to the 
enquiry is not affected by his conviction that 
Francis was not the man. A quantity of 
assertions had been imported into the dia< 
citssion which rested more or less upon an 
imaginary basis, and some of the Sctitious 
assumptions hod come to rank among the 
axioms of the controversy. Mr. Dilke, with 
his usual vigilance, subjected the then ex- 
isting evidence to hia own stringent tests, 
and besides reducing the evidence to its tme 
proportions, his rigid method became the 
standard for other investigators, and the 
argument has since been conducted with an 
exactness nnknown before. No cl^m conld 
be satisfactorily established nntil the spnrious 
testimony had been separated from the 
genuine; and if we reject Mr. Dilke's dednc- 
tions, the importance and novelty of his re- 
searches remain untouched. 

The articles on Pope originated in the 
accident which pnt Mr. DUke in possession 
of the Caryll papers. IVom the year 1710 
to 1735 Pope had been the correspondent of 
the Roman Catholic squire, John Caryll, 
who died in April, 1736. The poet in 1726 
and subsequent years had been busy in 
getting back his letters from various cor- 
respondents, and he applied, among others, 
to Mr. Caryll, who, before he retomed the 
originals, had them copied into a book, 
which ia now deposited, with the rest of 
tiie Catyll papers, in the British Museum, 
in obedienco to the dying injunctions of Mr. 
Dilke. 

In 1735 Cnrll published a volume of 
Pope's correapondenee, of which the copies 
had been sold to him ready printed, and 
which Pope indignantly denounced as sur- 
reptitious. In 1737 Pope published on edi- 
tion of his own, which was a reprint, with 
some additions and onussibns, of the sorrep- 
titious volume. In his preface he said of 
the letters, that " all having been written in 
the openness of friendship, ore a proof what 
were hia real sentiments m they flowed warm 
from the heart, and fresh from the occasion, 
without the least thought that ever the 
world should be witness to them," and he 
appealed to the " very carelessness " con. 
spicuous in such artless effosions as a mark 
to distingaish his genuine letters from Bome 
" counterfeit " epistles which he affirmed 
had been imputed to Kim, In spite of the 
pains he had taken to recover and destroy 
the original letters, several escaped destruc- 
tion, and in eveiy instance it appeared that 
the published letters had been sedulously 
revised for the press, and differed largely 
from the letters which had been sent to his 
correapon dents. TTib printed letters, in short, 
were the careful compositions of an author, 
and the " very careleasnoss " which was to 
distingaish tho genuine letters from the 
spnrious was a pretence to enhance the 
abilities of tho writer. Thns much had 
been established before Mr. Dilke's investi. 
gations commenced. Tho correspondence 
of Pope with Caryll disclosed a more start- 
hng &ct which had never been suspected. 
From selected bits of his letters to the 
Sussex squire. Pope hod compiled new 



letters which he represented in his printed 
volume to have been addressed to Wycherley, 
Addison, Blount, and Congreve. The letters, 
" warm from the heart, and fresh from the 
occasion, without the least thought that the 
worid should be witness to them," were an 
artificial manufacture got np expressly for 
publication, and that he might derive some 
lustre from the celebrity of his correspond- 
ents, he sank the obscure Sussex squire and 
boldly falsified "occasion," names, and 



The use to which Pope had put his letters 
to Caryll was visible at a glance, and no 
ability was required to detect the fraud. It 
was mr otherwise vrith the enqniry into the 
origin of the volume of letters which came out 
in 17S5, and which Pope had repeatedly de- 
clared to be surreptitious. His vehement out. 
cries against the grievous wrong that hod been 
done him, and his pertinacious efforts to 
fasten the guilt upon Curll, did not keep 
numbers of his contemporaries fiwrn behev- 
ing that it was he himself who prepared 
and printed the volume, and Johnson was 
among the persons who shared this oonvic- 
tion. Still the accusation only rested upon 
loose presumptions, and editors and bio- 
graphera had not passed beyond the obvious 
indications on the surface to search into the 
covert intricacies of the plot. Indeed, they 
probably supposed that no fresh evidence 
conld be had, and it must be confessed that Mr. 
Dilke found it in the comparison of editions 
which antecedently conld hardly have been 
expected to yield the least result, in books 
BO scarce that nobody but himself would have 
been at the pains to ^«cure them on the 
remote chance that they might possibly turn 
to account, and iu obscure indications of 
which the signifi/iance would only have been 
apparent to an investigator whose ooutenesa 
was equal to his patience. With his rare 
combination of skill and perseverance Mr. 
Dilke recovered the scattered pieces of the 
puzsle, fitted each into its place, and con- 
verted an unsatisfactory suspicion into am 
invincible demonstration. 

He gave a yet more remarkable proof of 
his penetration and ingenuity. The corre- 
spondence of Pope with Swift was pubhahed 
in 1741, when Swift was sinking into dotage. 
Again Pope exclainied against the hardship 
and injury, and this time he charged the 
act upon the stricken and defenceless Dean. 
Of all the many biographers and editors of 
Pope and Swifl, not one had tho faintest 
suspicion that the accusation was an impos- 
ture. Mr. Dilke alone liod the acnteness to 
perceive the truth. He established by the 
clearest circumstantial evidence that the 
accuser was once more the criminal, and that 
these letters, like the collection of 173^, 
hod been sent to the preaa by Pope. Since 
Mr. Dilke's death in ISSi the publication of 
Pope's correspondence with Lord Orreiy hafi 
disclosed tho details of the transaction, and 
it is surprising to see with what accuracy the 
sagacious critic had worked out the actual 
course of events from the scanty and latent 
indications at his command. His services 
did not stop here. The complete story of 
Pope's letters reveals a sustained elabora- 
tion of fraud, false accusations, and solemn 
untruths which, when followed through all 
its ramifications in the origliial documents. 



appears absolutely prodigious. The strange 
perverted idioBynaraay which made Pope's 
Ufa a tangled web of strat^em and deceit 
had involved almost everything connected 
with him and his works in mystery and con- 
fusion. Mr. Dilke's mi&nte and searching 
s^le of investigation supphed the first tmat- 
worthy cine to the labyrinth, and while he 
threaded the most important and intricate 
vrindingB himself, he showed those who may 
come after him the only way by which they 
can hope to continue the process with snc- 
cess. The qnalifioationB necessary for the 
task were so nniqne, that if Mr. Dilke hod 
not performed it we can hardly suppose that 
it would ever have been accomplished. fTor 
in the attempt to specify the merits of this 
admirable critic must we omit to mention 
the generosity witii which he opened his 
stores of knowledge, books, and papers to 
any friend who was engaged npon the 
identical topica he had undertaken to elnci- 
date. Eager for truth and not for credit, few 
men work for themselves with the same eor- 
nestneaa and steadiness with which be wonld 
work for a fellow-labonrer. The " lepers " 
republished by his grandson will secure him 
the reputation he did not seek, and hod hia 
literary discoveries been less important the 
compactness and unity of his truth-loving 
character, which are traced ont with kindred 
fideliiy in the " Biographical Sketch," would 
have been sufficient to confer lasting honour 
upon hia name. W. Elwdi, 

OERUAN SHAKKSPBASE SOCIETT. 

Jahrbuch der DeuiacJtsn HhakespeaTe-QeieU- 
sehaft. Zehnter JahrBani?. ("Weimai, 
1875.) 
Thb new volume of die Gertuac Shakespeare 
Society's Annual opens with the addrees 
delivered at the yearly meeting of 1874, — 
a discourse by Berr Julius Thiimmel on 
Children in Shakspere's plays. A reader 
who has not oonscionaly Invnght them to- 
gether from sundry places is hardly aware 
of the existence of this population of little 
people, who move to and fro, or gleam poet 
for a moment and then disappear, leaving a 
regret for gladness lost, in the world of 
Shakapere's imagination. I^ poot ftun 
hardly be said to have studied the nature of 
children for its own sake, with loving care 
such as we recognise in the writings of 
George Eliot. We get from Sbakspere no 
Eppie, no Tottie Peyser, no Msfgie or Tom 
Tulliver ; m.ore oflen the childish voioes aro 
heard - ajid rightly heard — as parts in com- 
plex harmonies, involved amid the la^er 
forces of the dramas. Yet while it is tme 
that these children of Shokspere are brought 
into being less for their own aakee than to 
minister in some way to the more important 
personages or to the total impression of the 
work, the sle^less dramatic instinot of the 
poet will not allow him even here to disre- 
gard diversities of character ; and of the 
sixteen boys and girls who form this little 
population, almost every one is a complete 
human being. Tbe gentle and passive 
Ariihar of King John, anperior by virtae of 
his freedom from greeds and frands to the 
adult perscoiB of the ploy, resembles as little 
OS possible the gallant Edwaa<d of HmiTy VI,, 
dealing oat quick, vindictivs qteeohes, an- 



Jin,T21,ia75.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



81 



tarrified by a oircle of cmel fork faces, 

imdl he Mis ander the daggers : — 

"0 IjiSiTe jQuag princel Lhj i^ioQua grandfather 

Doth live again in thee." 

In Bichanl UI. the orphaned children of 
Clarence are introdnced chiefly to add their 
parts to the tci^et of lamentation in the 
lyrical scene of the afflicted women — tears 
and cries of three generations mingling to- 
gether. But the murdered princes of the 
Tower are aharply-cnt and contrasted figures 
— Edward, the dignified, earnest, clear- 
seeiog boy, and his qnick-tongued, malapert 
brother, the pretty rogue, Bichard, Tonng 
Marcius is a Roman child, and child of 
Coriolanus — " o' my word the father's son " 
— mammocking, in a Coriolonna mood, the 
gilded butterfly, and afterwards for a brief 
period appearing, led by the majestic Vo- 
lumnia, to overwhelm and break his father's 
heart with the sudden swell of paternal 
pride and hope. Then, in the group made 
Qp of pages, there is Lucius, struggling 
dntifnlly against a boy's tyrannous need of 
sleep, that he may soothe with music his 
master, the conspirator who has strack 
Caesar bat cannot wake a sleeping child; 
there is the gamin of over-civilieed and 
over-senaualised Athens in Timon; there 
is the tiny humorist Moth, who mocks 
80 airily bis master's absurdity ; and yet 
again there is Sir John's page Kobin, 
the mannikin whom, for the fnn of the 
contrast. Prince H^ l has set to walk be- 
hind the fat knight, and whom, after 
loving him through tiree plays, Shakspere 
does to deatii in Henry V., when the dastard 
French at Agincourt " kill the poys and the 
luggage." May we not suppose that, amid 
fiercer purpoaea, a remerabranco of bis pet 
boy mingled with Henry's passion when 
the rage of battle flamed, and he ordered 
the throats of the prisoners to be cat ? 
William Page, who in the presence of blame- 
leas matrons stumbles on the unlucky geni- 
tive case ("vengeance of Jenny's case!"}, 
is, according to Herr Thiimmel, a correct 
little British Philistine ; while in Mamilins 
of Tlhe Winter's Tale, whose own solemnly- 
begun winter's tale, " There was a man " 

is never concluded, he discovers the women's 
favourite, spoilt darling of court ladies, the 
" Muttersohnchen." I^t, in the pretematn- 
rally wise son of Macduff we witness the 
premature and sad effort to find place among 
a boy's thoughts for the conceptions of 
traitor, of tyrant, and of murderer, which 
■will hardly be thought, yet which are in feet 
but too near and real. 

In the seventh JaJirluch Fraulein Clara 
Biller had given an account of the one con- 
tribution to Shakspero literature made by 
Spain during throe centuries — the transla. 
tion of RamJp.l, with critical observations 
by the poet Moratio, which appeared in the 
year 1708. A lady — Caroline Michaelis — 
contributes to the present volume a highly 
interesting article entitled "Hamlet in. 
Spain," Until about 1700 Spanish literature 
existed by virtue of its native force, and was 
essentially national and original. During 
more than a hunilred years after that date 
French ideas and tastes ruled supreme. 
Moratin was a Spaniard of the French 
Bchool, and presented Shakspere to hi' 
conntrymon in the same light '" ™^'" 



which 



Voltaire had presented him to France and 
to the world. He at once patronises and 
apologises for the barbarian English poet. 
But Moratin is dnller Uian Yoltoire ; when 
any moral commonplace is uttered, the 
translator comes forward to call attention 
to the CKcelleut teaching of Shakspere ; if a 
villain utter something villanous, Moratin 
is at hand to warn and reprove. He is 
careful to show how exceedingly out of 
place, how useless Shakspere's metaphors 
are, and points ont how much more simply 
things can be said. To put on record the 
very commonplace experience that women 
are weak, why resort to a mode of 
expression so false and childish as — ■ 
"Frailty, thy name is " woman " ? With 
snch criticism Spaniards remained content 
for someseventy years; if they read Sliakspere 
at all, they read him in the French versions of 
LetourneurandDucis ; if they heard Talma's 
pupil Isodoro Maiqnez declaim Shakspere 
on the stage, it was a Spanish Shakspere 
after Dncis. The patriots in London in 
later years professed a love of Byron, and in 
him they found the be-all and the end-all of 
English poetic genius. But since the year 
1870 the Galderon ingleg, the vate de Strai- 
ford has extended his realm, and conquered 
a new people ; Shakspere's name at least is 
in the mouths of all. In that year appeared 
the first volume of a complete translation, 
Ohraa de ShaJcspeare, vertion eaetellarta da 
Jaime Glark \ five volumes are now published. 
The work is prefaced by the Academician, 
Juan Talera. Don Jaime Clark (who bears 
a suspiciously English -looking name) is a 
maaterof both languages; and his ideas of a 
translator's duty are right and high. The 
Spanish follows the English in its variations 
&om prose to blank verse, and from blank 
verse to rhyme. The text of the Globe 
edition is the basis of the translation, and 
use has been made of the Cambridge Shake- 
speare and occasionally of the German 
translation by Schlegeland Tieck. No con- 
tribution of Spain to Shakspere literature 
approaches in importance this work of 
Clark ; but other tokens of awakening in- 
terest may be noted : (1) a translation of 
Hamht by G. MacPherson (C4diz, 1873) ; 
(2) a privately printed translation of Shak. 
spere by the Marques de Dos Hermanas, a 
native of Cuba residing at Madrid ; (3) 
finally, the drama of Samlet by the young 
poet Coello. 

Coello's Sandei has been received with 
eztravagant plaudits by Spanish playgoers 
and critics. It may be doubted whether the 
English reader will be equally carried away. 
Coello does not translate or recast the 
Elizabethan play ; he writes a new play, 
professedly in discipleship, and accepting a 
portion of bis materials from Shakspere. 
The starlit night on the platform at Elsinore, 
with its nipping and eager air, is too alien 
to the southern imagination te please a 
Spanish audience ; the play opens with 
Ophelia gathering flowers in her garden. 
After Polonius naa duly explained the 
situation, Prince Hamlet enters reading. 
His friend Horatio, who has become Polonius' 
son and brother of Opheba, has just returned 
victorious from the wars ; evening descends ; 
an amorous moonhght scene is followed by 
the appearance of the ghost, and Hamlet 



Etceeds without delay to pnt into execution 
pnrpoae of vengeance. But the weapons 
of the royal guard push him back ; and it is 
now that he assumes the disguise of mad- 
ness, feigning to imagine himself to be Sam- 
son, and laying hold of the pillars of the 
palace whict he threatens to shake to the 
ground. King Fengo is silent ; GunLilda, 
the Queen, weeps ; and the cnrtain falls on 
Act I. In the second Act the King's guilt 
is discovered by the device of engaging 
Polonius to read aloud in his presence the 
story of the poisoner, and Folonins himself is 
slain in much the same manner by which he 
perishes in Shakspere's play. But in the 
third and last Act variations from Shakspere 
become again conspicuous. To Horatio is 
confided by the Prince the secret of the 
King's guilt, and Horatio promises his aid 
to effect Hamlet's revenge, on one condition — 
that Hamlet in return shall aid liim to bring 
to death the murderer of hie father Polonius. 
The Prince's manner betrays that he is ac- 
quainted with this hidden enemy of Horatio, 
but he refuses to disclose the name, and an 
angry colloquy between the fidends is brought 
to an end by the entrance of the Queen to 
announce Ophelia's death. Hamlet has now 
lost the one object which made him care to 
live. He seas a way to accomplish hia 
revenge, and at the same time to satisfy his 
friend. Dropping a mortal poison into tha 
King's cup, while he sits at the funeral 
feast held m honour of Polonina, he satisfies 
the auspicious monarch by himaelf drinking 
half of the contents ; the King swallows 
what remains. Thus Hamlet has fulfilled 
his promise to Horatio, and slain the mnr- 
derer of Polonius as well as the murderer of 
his own father. Having confided his 
mother to Horatio's care, the dying Prinoe 
delivers to him the crown with the words, 
" Make the people happy ; you are beloved 
by them ; I go to Ophelia, who calls mo ! " 
Does the reader weep — or smile ? 

Dr. Schaaffhansen, who recovered for the 
University Library of Bonn a lost death- 
mask of Beethoven, publishes the results of 
a careful enquiry nmde with reference to the 
alleged death-mask of Sh^spere, found in 
the year 1849 in Mayence, by Ludwig 
Becker, and seen by many Englishmen 
while in the custody of Professor Owen. 
Like Mr. John S. Hart, who came from 
America to investigate the subject, and who 
published a very valuable study on the 
death-mask in Scribner's Monlhly for July 
1874, Dr. SchaafiLausen is a behcver in the 
mask. He adds a few facts of interest to 
those recorded by Mr. Hart. At the siege 
of Mayence in l^i'S the house containing the 
Kesselstadt collection was burnt, and in the 
absence of the proprietor several ai-tJcles were 
stolen; thus, the mask, said to have been for- 
meriy in the collection, may have disappeared. 
The most careful research has failed to dis- 
cover the name of the dealer from whom 
Beckerobtain0dthemaek;n(H-canDr.Schanff- 
hanaen add any confirmation to the conjec- 
ture that a member of the Kaaselstadt family- 
was in England in the reign of James 1. 
The appearance under the eyelids, explained 
by Hart aa the protrusion of the cornea re- 
sulting from the setting-in of decompcHiition, 
is attributed by Dr. SohaafThansen to the 
smearing of the eyelids with grease, or their 



82 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 2^ 1875. 



h&ving been corered with a Bcrap of rag 
steeped in oil to prevent the plaster from 
adherine to the hau« of the lids. It shoald 
be noted that the dates given bj^ Dr. ScfaaaS'- 
haasen for the death of Count Franz Ton 
Eesselstadt (;November 18, 1841), that of 
the sale of hia effects (June 1842), and that 
of the purchase by Becker of the Eessel- 
vtadt picture (1846) differ from, and are 
earlier than those given by Mr. Hart. With 
respect to the picture of the dead poet lying 
crowned npon hia bier. Dr. Schaaffhansen's 
opinion is singnlor ; he behevea that it ia 
beyond question not painted from the mask ; 
and relying on the inscribed date 1637, the 
year in which Ben Jonson died, he conjec- 
tnrea that the portrait bo long held to be 
that of Shakspere is more probably a por- 
trait of JonsoD. Unterrified by our Shak- 
spere's cnrse, he aaggests, as the only means 
of ascertaining the genuineness of the death- 
mask, that it should be compared with the 
skull. Sorely it were better to remain curi- 
otiB and nnaatisfied, than taking advantage 
of the helplessness of death to violate a wish 
of one to whom the world owes almoat its 
moat precious possession. 

The remaining contributions include a 

gkper, admirable aa all hia work is, by 
eliufl on " The Test of King Lear " (trans- 
lated and read before the New Shakspere 
Society) ; a long and interesting study of 
" Shakspere'a Character," by Karl Elze (in 
which hia religious and political opinions are 
considered) ; a paper on " The Chronology of 
Shakspere's Plays," by Wilhelm Konig, 
making some fortunate points — anch as the 
close relationship of Hamlet and Julitis 
Caesar (independently made out by Mr. 
Hales), and falling into grave errors with 
respect to the dates of FerieUt and of Henry 
yni. ; a reprint, edited by Dr. W^ner, of 
a tmiqne oopy of the love-poems " Alcilia" 
(1595), by J. C. (or, as an old corrector of 
this copy writes, J. G.) ; and an intereating 
article on " Voltaire and Shakespeare," by 
Wilhelm Konig, jonior. Deling welcomes 
the New Shakspere Society with a word of 
kindly greeting. Statistics of the representa- 
tions of Shakspere's plays in Germany, from 
July 1, 1873, to June 30, 1874, are set forth : 
in thirty-two theatres 418 Shakspere per- 
formances were given in the year. Tu-elfth 
Night, the Merchant of Venice, and the Slireio 
appear to have been the most popular of the 
comedies, and of the tragedies Jvlius Caesar 
and Hamlet. 

It should be mentioned that by a new 
rale each purchaser of the Jahrbuch becomes 
ft member of the Society. 

Edwabd Dowdeit. 



Bhetchet of some dtttingvithed Angh-lndiana, 
with an Account of Anglo-Indian Periodicai 
LUerature. By Colonel W. F. B. Laurie, 
B«tired Boyal (Madras) Artillery, Author 
of " Orisaa and the Temple of Jagganath," 
*'A Narrative of the Second Burmese 
War," Ao. (London : Printed and pub- 
lished by John B. Day, 1875.) 
W^B were for some time in considerable 
donbt aa to whether the book before us was 
worth more than a " Current Literature " 
4u>tice. Not the merits of the book but the 
interest of the anlg'ect^ however, at length 



decided na to write a short review. The 
merits of the book are indeed few. The 
style is open to censure, there is consider- 
able repetition, the characters and careers 
of several of the Anglo-Indiana mentioned 
are dealt with in a sketchy, superficial 
manner, and much extraneous matter ia 
introduced. In short we are presented with 
the anther's scmp-book containing his differ- 
ent contributions &om time to time to cer- 
tain journals and magazines, with a few 
newspaper cuttings.- For instance, eight 
pages are taken up with Falcieri, the fevonrite 
attendant of Byron. Tita, as his master 
familiarly called him, can scarcely be styled 
a distinguished Anglo-Indian simply be- 
cause he was for several years a messenger 
at the India Office. Neither do we con- 
sider that padding with an extract from the 
Times' recent notice of Sir John (Eaye ia 
justifiable. We cannot find fault with his 
selection of heroes, for the author simply 
undertakes to give na sketches of some 
distingnished Anglo-Indians ; otherwise we 
might remark that the society is mixed, and 
that many omissions ore to be noticed. For 
example, the late Major-General Beatson's 
career is described. We know a good deal 
about that officer, and though we would not 
be hareh in speaking of one who can xto 
longer defend nimself, truth compels ns to 
say that he was not entitled to rank among 
the most distinguished of Indian officers. 
One way and another he saw a good deal of 
active service, but, at all events towards the 
close of his life, he was a pitiable tactician 
and a very bad man of business. He was 
to a certain extent a prominent Anglo- 
Indian, for he was, when in the Irregular 
Cavalry, remarkable for a showy coatmne, 
and at all times given to self- assertion. 
His great aim was effect, and he assumed 
a blnff manner which gave a false im- 
pression of his character. He was likewise 
deliberately eccentric, and as he throughout 
his life quarrelled with both bis inferiors 
and superiors, h.e became pretty well known 
in India. It was common talk that only one 
aide-de-camp was able to stop with him 
more than, at the outside, a few months. 
Indeed, he once informed us that he had 
discharged his A.D.C. in the tone which other 
men would adopt in speaking of the dismissal 
of a troublesome servant. Colonel Laurie 
thinks that ho ought to have risen higher 
and earlier, but the fact is he was a tho- 
roughly impracticable man ; and it was 
currently reported in India that Lord 
Strathnaim, when he retumsd to England, 
lott on record a minute to the effect that 
General Beataon was never on any account 
to be employed. We cannob vouch for the 
truth of this story, but it was believed in 

Notwithstanding certain defects, Colonel 
Laurie's scrap-book is worth skimming 
through. Some of the sketches contain 
items of information not generally known 
out of India, and of one or two of the per- 
sons named there are no biographies extant. 

Everyone has heard of Sir Alexander 
Bomea ; but, beyond a couLparatively limited 
Anglo-Indian circle, the veiy name of his 
disdnguished brother, Dr. Jamea Bnmes, 
K.H., F.B.S., is but little known. Tet the 
latter was a maji of mark, and rendered , 



good service in his day. Arriving in India 
with his brother Alexander in 1621, his abili- 
ties and energy soon attracted attention ; and 
in 1 82 7 the Amirs of Scinde, whose relations 
with the British had for some time been 
anything but cordial, sent an envoy to invite 
bim to come to their capital for the purpose 
of giving medical attendance to one of t^eir 
number. Dr. Bumes remained at Hydera- 
bad for several months, and so completely 
won the hearts of his hosts that they conld 
scarcely be induced to let him depart. He 
tamed his residence at Hyderabad to good 
account by writing a report on the then 
little-known country of Scinde and pre- 
senting it to Government. This report the 
Commander-in-Chief described as a most 
valuable addition to the geography of India ; 
and the Governor of Bombay directed it to 
be presented to the Boyal Asiatic Society 
through Sir John Malcolm, and printed at 
the expense of the State. The Narrative of a 
Vmt to Scinde alao drew from the Geographi- 
cal Society of France a declaration that Dr. 
Bumes had deserved well of Geography. 
After occupying a succession of important 
posts with equal credit to himself and ad. 
vantage to tlie State, he retired from the 
service in 1849 and settled in London. In 
1862 he died. 

The sketch of Neill contains little that is 
new save with regard to that distinguished 
officer's services during the second Burmese 
war, when be held an appointment in the 
Adjutant-General's department. His posi. 
tion on the Staff gave him a good oppor- 
tunity of knowing all that was going on 
and appreciating the nature of the oper^ 
tions. His not^ on the rehef of Pegu he 
gave to the author of the work before us, and 
they formed the basis of Pegu, a Narraiive, 
published by Colonel Laurie in 1858. 

Perhaps, however, the most interesting 
chapters of the collection of Sketches here 
under review are those devoted to Sir Arthur 
Phayre and General Fytche, respectively 
first and second Chief Commissioners of 
British Burmah, They are worth reading, 
especially at the present moment when a 
third Burmese war ia looming in the dis- 
tance. W. W. Khollts. 



Marie Aidoinette. Corretpondance Secrite enira 
Marie Therhe el le Conite de Mcrey-Argen- 
leaa, aoec les Lettres de Marie Theresa el de 
Marie Antoinette, Pnbli^e, avec une In- 
troduction et des Notes, par M. le Chevalier 
d'Ameth, Directeur des Archives de la 
Maison Imp^riale et de I'Etat d'Autriche; 
et par M. A, Ge&oy, Professeur k la 
Faculty des Lettres k Paris. (Paris: 
Firmin-Didot, 1874.) 
Qdebn Makie Aiitoinetti is one of the vic- 
tims of the French Bevolntion who most 
painfuUy affects the mind by the contrast 
between her exalted position and her mis- 
fortunes ; and she is also tlie one whom the 
Revolution, before inflicting the final stroke, 
had the most studionslv oppressed. What 
foundation is there for the accusations laid to 
her charge P How &r was she responsible 
for the events of which she bore the conse- 
quences f This problem has been diaouased 
with much energy, and with very different 
results. All the mcidents of her life have 



Jolt 24, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



83 



been narrowly examined, and in order more 
hUj to sppreciato the inflnence ehe exerted 
over othesn, those to which ehe was herself 
oblgect h*ve been scratinised, especially by 
An ez&mination of her correspondence. This 
le^timate curiosity has even led to tnmd 
letters have been invented with the aid o: 
contsmpoTary memoirs, and bononrable mei 
have aUowed themselves to be deceived by 
them. The most efiectnal method of neu- 
tralising' these false letters ascribed to Marie 
Antoinette was to pablisb her actual corre- 
spondence. One of the critics who had 
already attacked the anthesticity of the col- 
lection of MU. Fenillet de Conches and De 
BnoDolBtein, U. A. Gefiroi, has recently 
coatinned his task by pnblishing, in con- 
janctioa with M. le (Jhevalier d'Ameth, 
Director of the Archives of the Imperial 
Honse and State of Austria, the secret cor- 
respondence between Haria Theresa and the 
Coont de Mercy- Argentean, combiaing with 
them the letters of Maria Thereaa and of 
Marie Antoinette which had already been 
made known by M. d'Ameth. This corre- 
spondence might, at first, itself seem liable 
to Bospitnon. We here see Maria Theresa 
writing to her ambassador at the French 
conTt,Uercy-Argentean, and receiving letters 
from him in which she is fnlly informed of 
the oondnct of her danghter, and that at a 
time when it was considered &ir game to 
penetrate the secret of letters, yet this corre- 
spondence had remained nnknown, and it is 
only at tlie present day brought to light. 
And notwithstanding all this, its authenticity 
is alMolntely incontestable. After the deatii 
of Mercy, which occnrred at London in 
1791, his papers were carried te Vienna, and 
deposited in the archives. The copies, or the 
antograph minutes of his letters stgree exactly 
with the originals forming part of the ar- 
chives of the Imperial &mily, incorporated 
in 1865 with the archives of the State. Here 
then is a perfectly valid source of informa- 
tion concerning the life of Marie Anteiuette 
for the period from 1770 to 1780, when the 
Empress died ; and it is, at the same time, 
a t^t of the truth or falsehood of the letters 
hearing the name of Marie Antoinette. 

The three volnmea, therefore, recently pub- 
hahed by MM. d'Ameth and Gefiroi possess 
much interest ; and the editors themselves 
have pointed ont, in an Introduction, the 
principal conclusions to be drawn from them. 
In this correspondence Maria Theresa evinces 
ber great qualities as a wife, her solicitude 
as a mother, her prudence as a queen. She 
sent to Prance her danghter, a young pvin- 
oesa not yet fifteen years of age, aware of 
the dangers to which she wonid be exposed 
in a court where she would find an old King 
under the dominion of a mistress, a court 
^iH of intrigues and coteries ; and the prince, 
in whom the yonng princess should bave 
fonnd a support and guide as well as a 
hosband, treated her with a reserve little 
calculated to give confidence to a mother. 
Her principal care is to aSbrd her direction 
in the midst of these dangers. Bat the 
queen docs not neglect the advantages 
whicb she had sought for her crown in the 
marriage of her danghter with the future 
King of France. This may be seen at the 
time of tbe first division ot Poland in 1772, 
that great pnblio orime into which i^ had 



beenaeduced against her will by Fred erick n. 
and after the accession of Lonis XVI., in th 
afbir of the Bavarian suocession in 1777, ii 
which the Emperor Joseph IL, her son, had 
rashly involved Anstria. At the first epoch 
Marie Antoinette could have no possible in- 
fluence ; at the second, she could not &il to 
anticipate the rupture of the alliance between 
France and Austria ; bnt at that time 
Louis XVI. was reigning, and his minister, 
without breaking with Austria, made that 
conrii nnderstand that such designs inust be 
relinquished. 

The influence which Marie Antoinette at 
length attained over Lonis XVI, was more 
felt in matters of an internal character. 
She was attached to Ghoisenl, who had 
brought about her marriage ; slie was 
terested even in those who had no other 
claim than that of being the friends of 
the former minister of Lonis XV. Thest 
fricndshipe were the misfortune of the Queen, 
inasmuch as they frequently led her to inter- 
fere fatally in public affairs, as, for example, 
when she contributed to the disgrace of 
Malesherbes and of Turgot. It was this taste 
for gaiety which rendered her perhaps not 
so strict as she should have been in the 
selection of her intimate associates — an inti- 
macy all the more compromising because, 
confident in her own strength, she disregarded 
the danger; although she had been warned 
against it by Maria Theresa, a precious 
guardian of whom Marie Antoinette was 
deprived by death at the very time when 
her guidance was most urgeutly required. 

A correspondence, then, which throws so 
mnch light upon this important period of 
history will be read with the greatest in. 
terest. An extensive and well constructed 
table wilt enable the reader to refer to in- 
formation respecting individual persons or 
facts, necessarily scattered nnconnectedly 
in documents of this nature. A second 
edition, or rather a reprint, of this work 
in less than a year shows that the authors 
had formed no incorrect estimate of the 
public interest in the subject. 

H. Walion. 



Turn Yean t« Fiji. By Litton Forbes, M.D., 

(fee. (London: Longmans & Co., 1875.) 
Fiji ; our Neto Froviiiee in the Smith Seiu. 

By J. H. de Ricci, F.R.G.S., <fec. (London : 

E. Stanford & Co., 1875.) 
Or these two books about our new colony 
we shall give precedence to Dr. Forbes's as 
the more generally interesting, being the 
result of the author's personal experience. 
As a special interest attaches to these islands 
at present, not only owing to their recent 
annexation, but also owing to tbe so-called 
slave trade or " imported labour " qnestion, 
we welcome any addition to our stock of 
knowledge about them. It is perhaps a 
trite observation, but we may look with 
some complacency on the fact, that however 
remote or apparently nnknown a r^on 
may be, provided any interest, however 
transient, attaches to it, aome of our 
ubiquitous fellow-countrymen are sure to 
have been there and know alt alx)ut it, and 
are able to give us all essential particulars. 

Of Dr. Forbes's book we may say at once 
ihat it IB Tery readable, and conveys a 



lively idea of the social state of the islands 
during the time of his visit ; it appears also 
an honest book, written with impartiality 
and b^ a competent observer. Of the labour 
question we intend to say something at 
tiie conclusion of the article, taking the 
information contained in the two books 
together, and so shall for the present pass it 

Dr. Forbes arrived at Levuka, the capital, 
in January, 1871, and the personal narrative 
contains only the record of a few months, 
comprising a visit to Tavinni, another of 

the islands, and a cruise iu a "labour vessel" 
to the island of Rotnmah. We should, by 
the way, have liked a map to follow the 
routes with ; this want may, perhaps, be sup- 
plied iu a second edition. The oppressive 
heat of the weather, the oalras and land and 
SOB winds, the gorgeous tropical vegetation 
and grand mountains, as well as the queer- 
European society, and the appearance, dress 
(if it may be so called), and habits of the 
natives, are all graphically laid before us. 
We have also a scene of quiet femily life in 
a wealthy planter's house, and others in 
those of less fortunate colonists, whose posi- 
tion is not so much to be envied. 

The climate does not appear well suited 
to European constitutions for permanent 
colonisation, according to Dr. Forbes ; the 
strong man may get on, as be does in India 
and elsewhere, but " few European ladies 
can stand the climate of Fiji — his children 
are probably all sick and irritable to the last 
degree." This is only what one would ex- 
pect in lat. 18°, with the thermometer 
"night and day at 85° Fahr.," however 
pleasant and refreshing the sea-breezes may 
be. Any one who has been in India will 
know what climate is implied by such tem- 
perature, with a rainfall of 120 inches. It 
remains to be seen whether eventually sta- 
tions on the highlands may be found more 
suitable for European women and children. 

Tbe native as presented in these pages is 
not an interesting object, and appears to be 
disappearing at the tonch of civilisation as 
rapidly as in Australia and elsewhere. His 
cannibal propensities, scanty clothes, filthy 
coiffure, and contempt of human life may 
have been modified under the tuition of tho 
missionaries, but there remains an idle, dram- 
drinking, treacherous savage, of filthy and 
thieving propensities. Among the alluring 
habite described, is the preparation of the 
favourite intoxicating beverage called kava, 
which is extracted from the root of a plant 
by the process of vicarious chewing ; it is ex- 
plained that young people with good teeth are 
in request for tbe due concoction of this de- 
lightful fluid, which is described as tasting 
like weak soap-suds. The language is in 
Dr. Forbes's opinion neither rich nor flexible, 

ith a vocabulary which is strictly limited, 
and it is likely soon to become extinct, except 

a cariosity. 

The periodical desolation of the islands by 
hurricanes of great violence is a calamity 
for which settlers must be prepared, and 
which must be set off Against the wonderful 
fertility of the soil, and ite peculiar capabili- 
ties for cotton and sugar cultivation. It 
appeai-s that the future of these islands is 
more likely to approximate to the state of 
the Mauritius or tbe West India islands 



84 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JuLT 2*. 1B75. 



than to a. permatient borne and unreer}- of 
the Anglo-Saxon race. 

The voyage of Dr. Forbes to the island 
of Sotumah, his adventares there, and the 
termination of his visit, are like an Adelphi 
melodrama. The religions civil war in Uiis 
island, only nine miles by seven, described 
ae t)ie result of rival missionary ambition, 
may well bo pondered over by those earnest 
in the extension of onr religion among these 
primitive people. 

We can only cnrsorlly rafer to the account 
of the hnvleaqno of a constitutional govern- 
ment set np under the King of the Cannibal 
Islands, and which it is hardly possible to 
consider in a serious light, except so iar as 
it fifienis to have been by no moans a laugh- 
ing matter for the settlers. The book ends 
somewhat abruptly, and the latter part of 
King Cacobau's reign is apparently subse- 
quent in point of time to our author's de- 
parture. 

There is one subject wo can hardly pass 
over without a few words, namely, the re- 
marks contained in tliis book on missionary 
enterprise and the results obtained. While 
justice is done to the labours of many of 
these men, it is impossible not to feel a, 
certain amoont of disappointment at the 
actual state of the case, as we have hitherto 
been dependent on the somewhat sanguine 
reports supplied to the societies of the won- 
derful improvement effected in the compara- 
tively few years the missions have been esta- 
blished; and we commend this part of the 
book to onr readers' attention, as it appears 
written truthfully and without bias. 

Mr. de Bicci's book is a compilation from 
official reports and from other authors, and 
is interesting as an official record of the 
anneiation ; the great United States claim 
on poor King Cacoban, which reminds na of 
the " indirect Alabama claims " in its 
monstrosity ; and the state, past and present, 
of the " labour " question. Two long tables 
of botanical productions, pp. 139 and 307, 
we admit not having read through. This 
book contains two maps, which are par- 
ticularly useful in a book about a part of 
the world of which few people are likely to 
have maps ; the orthography does not, 
however, quite agree with that adopted 
in the text. The statistics of the com- 
merce of the islands, from official reports, 
are interesting, but might be condensed with 
advantage. 

The account of the climate and salubrity 
of the group la much more favonrabje in 
this book, and the language is described in 
less depreciatory terms; the reader must 
judge for himself which is probably more 
correct. Of the beauty of the foliage and 
scenery, which appears to resemble that of 
Ceylon in its style, there can be no donbt, 
any more than of the . fertility of the soil, 
and the oscellence of the cotton grown 
there ; and although the islands will proba- 
bly not be found suitable for other than 
native labour, the white settler or planter 
with some capital will doubtless prosper, 
especially under a settled government 

An historical notice compiled from, or 
rather consisting in a great measure of, 
official reports, concludes the book : an ap- 
pendix giving the legislative Act of Qneena- 
land and regulations about imported laboar. 



Tlie details of the United States' claim, aa 
made by one Captain Boatwell — how an 
American citisen B{>plied for compensation 
for articles stolen to the amonnt of 
5,001 dols. 88 cants, which was objected to 
as excessive ; how Captain Boatwell uwarded 
the modest snm of 15,000 dols. to the same 
individual, besides 15,000 more to other 
citizens for other potty damages ; how 
Captain Boutwell wrote the "tallest" of 
letters in saccession, all given at length ; and 
how he increased the award to 45,000 dols. 
withont any reason, and threatened to hang 
ilis King if he did sot agree to pay the claim, 
— are all to be found here set forth. Eventu- 
ally the greater part of this enormons 
demand seems to have bean extracted from 
the nn happy monarch. 

We wish, in conclusion, to say a few 
words on the "imported labour" question, 
which has excited perh^ts more attention in 
this countiy than any thing else, owing to 
the introdoction of themagic word " slavery," 
and to some highly regrettable scenes of 
massacre which are, however, liable to occur 
in any dealings with utter savaf^es, and 
have doubtless been much exaggerated. Br. 
Forbes, in a most dispassionate manner, on 
p. 24C deals with this question carefully. 
The missionaries are represented as opposed 
to labour emigration, for oonclusive reasons 
from their point of view, and as the planters 
"are more occupied in making a Hving by 
hard work than in writing articles, while the 
missionaries have made themselves loudly 
heard, especially among the English middle 
classes, the other side of the question has 
been left unrepresented." The democratic 
press and party in Australia are opposed 
to it as a competitioa with white labour, 
especially in Qneenaland. Finally, our au- 
thor attributes much mischief to the ex^. 
geration and " blowing," to use the colonial 
term, of sailors and loafers who have been 
engaged in it, and whose tales, as a rule, are 
quite unworthy of belief. Let any fair-minded 
man read and ponder over Dr. Forbes'a 
account (who, it must be remembered, has 
the right to speak fr^m personal experience 
of such a voyage), and not allowing himself 
to bo led away by a name — for " the very 
name of slavery attached to any cause is quite 
sufficient to oondenm it -unheard in the pre- 
sent temper of England " — oonsidcr whether 
this traffic altogether deserves its bad repute, 
and whether the B«v. L. Fison, a miaaionary 
and man of peace, is justified in using such 
language as, " What is wanted in the South 
Seas is not a law conrt, but a shotted gun 
and a rope at the yard arm," and more to 
the same pnrport. It appears that most 
careful regulations are in existence framed 
by the Government of Qneonsland, which 
will doubtless be made applicable to Fiji 
also, and which appear sufficiently stringent 
to prevent any abases is future. Finally, 
if abuses have hitherto occurred, as doubt- 
leas they have, owing to the absence of 
anthority or regulation, are wo, as a nation, 
altogether blameless for so long; shrinking 
from our responsibilities in this matter? 
Why has the action so tardily taken been 
deferred so many years ? We will, however, 
hope that a new day is to dawn over Fiji 
with the advent of order, peace, and govem- 
meut, and that in the end an improvod sys- 



tem of "imported labour" znay prove a 
powerful, if rough, dvilising ^«at ttaioDg 
the cannibal tnOe of the South Pacific. 

Abthur W. Stipfe. 



THE ElinCATIOH 07 PATrPEK Qm£. 

Education of Qirle in Pauper Schools. Keport 
to the President of the Local Govern- 
ment Board. By Mrs. Hassan Senior. 
1874. 
Ohservatiom on the Report of Mrg. Senior. 
By Edward Carleton Tufuell, late Inspec- 
tor of Poor Law Schools in the Metro- 
politan District. 1875. 
Letter addressed to the President of the Local 
Oovenutmnl Board by Mrs. N^assaw Senior, 
being a, Reply to the Observations of Mr. 
Tufuell. (Printed by Order of the House 
of Commons, 1875.) 
Boarding-out and Pauper Schools. Being a 
Reprint of the chief part of the Keport on 
Pauper Education in the Blue Book for 
1873^. Edited, with a Preface and ITotea, 
by Menella B. Smedley. (London : Heniy 
S. King & Co., 1875.) 
In 1873 Mrs. Kassan Senior was requested 
by Mr. Stansfcld, then President of the 
Local Government Board, to report on the 
effects upon pauper girls of the system of 
odncatiou under which they were trained, 
and that request has resulted in the Beport 
and pamphlets now before us. 

For it seems that Mrs. Nassan Senior, 
after careful and painstaking enquiry, oon- 
daoted with most satisfactory thorongfasess, 
came to the conclusion that the present 
system under which paapcr girls— whether 
ascertained orphans wholly dependent on 
the State, or " deserted " ctuldren whose pa- 
rents are not known, or "casuals," whose 
parents are constantly passing in and ont 
of the workhouse, taking their children 
along with them — are massed together in 
large schools, and subjected to the same 
unvaryii;g discipline, was not wholly satis- 
factory — and indeed was very snsoeptible of 
amendment. This conclusion appears to 
have been very unacceptable to Afi. Tu&ell, 
an old and experienced inspector ; and in 
his Obearvations he takes np the cudgels 
very warmly in defence of the arrangement 
which he seems to regard with an affection 
almost paternal. Now, if the subject vtme 
not one of snob great importance, and if it 
were not rather distressing to meet with so 
much misplaced auger and oncoarteons vitu- 
peration in a matl«r which emiuenUy needed 
to be treated in a calm and temperate spirit, 
we should say that we had seldom como 
across anything so fanny as Mr. Tn&ell's 
pamphlet. For Mr. Tufiiell writes too 
often in the spirit of a Bumble come again 
— Bumble moving, of course, in a loftier 
sphere, bat still conversant with workhouse 
matter!!, and dealing with them in the old 
way. When Oliver — or rather Oliver's little 
sister — asks through Mrs. Naasau Senior 
" (or more," Mr. Tufnell is absolutely aghast 
vrith indignation and surprise ; and he goes 
on, in the true spirit of his great original, io 
assure us that the London policemen, " usoally 
considered intelligent," and the Lord Mayor, 
and the Prince and Princess of Wales, amd the 
Dnke and Duchess of Sldinbin^h, and "sb> 



JplT 24, 1875.] 



THE ACADBMY. 



86 



Terat fbmgnafs," and (rianm tansaHi) itr. 
Ciiaples ZHckena himself, have, in TorionB 
direct or indirect TrayB, eipressed approval 
of the large district Bchools, where oar 
paaper cLUdren are educated, or of insti- 
tutioiis of a more or less kindred character ; 
and he crowns the edifice by aocDsing Mrs. 
Senior of misreptesentation, bad £Edtb, and 
absolate nstzntb^lneBs. 

A carefal atndy, however, of Mre, Senior's 
Report, and of her siipplenientaiT' " Reply " 
to Mr. To&ell's attack, leads ns to the con- 
elusion that her plan of enquiry was bo 
Boand, and her execution so thorough, that 
her conclasiotts are oertainly not to be upset 
by the vagae and slipshod statements and 
angry declamation with which Mr. Tuftiell 
strives to refn.t« them. Mrs, Senior, aided 
by a staff of competent aaRifltantfi, made en. 
quiries which resulted in her receiving 
information as to 400 girls who had gone to 
service &om Metropolitan Pauper Schools 
during the years 18 71 and 1872 ; and farther 
herself investigated the history of fifty-one 
girls who had left school in 1868, after five 
years ab least of the school training. Her 
methods of enquiry are fully detailed in her 
Reply, and seem as satisfiictory as under the 
circumstaoces was possible. Of the 490 
girls, 79 are classed ss "good," 145 as "fair," 
188 as " unsatis&otory," and 78 as " bad." 
That this classification has not been adopted 
with the view of making out a ca.se, and does 
not press hardly on those brought within it 
may be jndged from the f^t that a girl who 
is described as of " very bad temper and not 
truthful," is classed "fair," while another 
who is " a. pilferer, untruthful, idle, incor. 
rigtbly dirty in habits," and " can scrub a 
floor but has no other aceomplishment," ia 
labelled " nnsatisfiictory " only, and not ab- 
solutely "bad." Of the fifty-one girls whose 
histories Mrs. Senior herself undertook to 
trace, it may be enough to say that thirteen 
were "reported to have fallen;" and when 
this istberesaltof a patient and honest inves- 
tigation, we venture to think (pace Mr, Tnf- 
nell) that the system is not qnite satisfactory 
which yields anch fruits and turns out girls, 
tlie greater part of whom seem justly de- 
scribed a« " apathetic," " helpless," " ill- 
tempered," and "untruthfiil." Bat Mrs. 
Senior not only calls attention to the evil 
bat HUggesta the remedy ; and while point- 
ing out various expedients which, supposing 
the large school system to be retained, might 
modify and alleviate its deadening effects, 
she expresses herself strongly in favour of 
the boarding-ont plan, by which pauper 
children are distributed in decent cottages 
and there brought up and educated like the 
children of the honse, but at the expense of 
the gnardians, till tliey are of age to earn 
their own living. We confess that d priori 
this seems to us au, admirable plan. In the 
small cottage homes we shonld expect the 
^irls to learn more of household matters and 
domestic life than is possible in a large 
school ; their affections would be stimulated 
and their sympathies widened; they would 
become more s^-reliant and helpful, more 
prompt to meet sudden emei^nctes, less 
ignorant and less apathetio, and often they 
woald come to take a place in the &mily of 
the foster-parent hardly less secure than that 
of the natud child ; and it seems from the 



facts addooed by M». Senior and Miss 
Smedley, that where bowdiBg ont is carried 
out under the aedutary restrictions of the 
Local Grovernment Board, these d priori ex- 
pectations are fidly realised. 

We have hardly left onrselves space to 
deal separately with the little work of Miss 
Smedley, who was one of Mrs. Senior's 
chief assistants in her work of investigation. 
To fill who are interested in the very grave 
question of the best means of dealing with 
our pauper children it will prove a very 
oseftil mannal, bringing together as it does 
the latest infovmation on the subject, and 
enabling those who use it to face the rather 
pathetio accusation of Ur. Browne, an in. 
specter whose report is included in the 
volume — "There is reason to believe that 
many who talk about paaperism never open 
a volnmc of the reports of the Local Govern- 
ment Board." These reports »l exl«nto u% 
not always or everywhere obtainable, but 
Miss Smedtey's handy compilation of ex- 
cerpts will deprive these unenquiring spirits 
of their last excuse for talking without 
knowledge. EdwaRD Bond. 



Religion and Sciettce, By Joseph le Conte, 
Professor of Geology and Natural Etabory 
in the University of California. (London: 
Bickers and Son.) 
" A SERIES of Sunday Lectures on the relation 
of Natural and Revealed Religion, or the 
truths revealed in Nature and Scripture," 
originally composed for a young men's 
Bible Class, and afterwards delivered more 
publiclyin the lecture-room of (shades of Hudi- 
bras and Ralpho !) an "Independent Pres- 
byt«rian Church," is not a title promising 
much philosophical interest ; and Professor 
Le Conte's singalarly modest pre&ce will 
not dispel any prejudices that this programme 
may arouse, whatever effect his name and 
reputation may have. A more excusable 
prejudice, at any rate, is excited when, ^ter 
a few pages, we find quoted " the language 
of Scripture," that " w« underBtand with the 
heart more IJian with the head." 

And yet, paradoxical as it may seem, ibis 
blunder is closely connected with the chief 
excellence of a very excellent book. It is 
jnst because the author is not a trained 
theologian — becanse his religious views have, 
apparently, been fiarmed tinder no other dis- 
cipline than that of an earnest personal 
piety— that his work show* so little of the 
characteristic weaknesses of most attempts 
at the same "reconciliation." In Hugh 
Miller's Te»timonij of the Rocks, the voice 
is rather that of the Editor of the W'dnesK 
than of the self-trained geologist : besides 
that when he wrote, the qnestion was less 
complicated, and &r less fundamental — the 
relations of palaeontology and physiology to 
mental acience being less understood, at 
least by those whose acquaintance with 

Ehysical science is confined to afi much as 
as been "popularised." At any rate, all 
throngh the book we feel that the Wost- 
minster Confession was with him a foregone 
conclusion, for which he sought illustrations 
and found them, not a result suggested to 
him by evidencs which he fonnd unsought, 
or a;t least un&roed. Even wiUi so different 
a writer as Mr. Fowle or Mr. Murphy, 



fJie religious side of the question is that from 
which Ee approaches it : it is reUgion, not 
science, to which ho not only aacribos 
primary importance, but in which he feels 
primary interest. He pays homa^ to Bcienoe 
in hopes to conciliate her: urges theology to 
adopt, for her own sake, a conciliatory atti- 
tude : and then declares that there is no 
reason why the high contracting powers 
.shonld not live together in peace. 

The result of such treatment as the qncs- 
tion hsiB hitherto received has hardly been 
satisfectory, at any rate, no solution of it has 
been final, and wo look with interest to an 
attempt towards one from the other side. 
There are, no donbt, disadvantages in its 
being treated by a man who does not know 
the Bible as well as he values it; but there 
is some compensation when he has a com- 
petent or even eminent knowledge of biology 
and geology, which are things much less 
generally known. When a careful and 
subtle thinker, and a clear-headed rca.soner, 
having his mind formed and filled entirely by 
the influence of these studies, is led by them 
to the acceptance of substantially orthodox 
Christianity, and retains hearty belief in the 
Christian Scriptures — this mere fiict has of 
itself some value, as proving that the Chris- 
tian Scriptures and scientific truth can be 
harmonised, and even aSbrding some pre- 
sumption, that it can be done in a way not 
arbitrary nor nnreasonable. Whether the 
author be held to have established his belief 
or no, he has justified his holding it, when 
he shows that he holds it on evidence, of 
which he is competent to judge. 

It ia no more than the common fate of all 
Christian apologists, that the weakest jiart of 
the work ia the foundation — the argnment 
for the being of a God. The reasoning 
applied to the anbject shows much scattered 
ability, and a really scientific temper ; but 
we miss, for instance, an answer to the 
objection of the n'iw((;;'t(/7it'M of natural selec- 
tion, if regarded as an instrument of " con- 
trivance." It is scarcely a sufficient one to 
say that, while the hypothesis of evolution ia 
probable, natural selection ia not alone ade- 
quate to account for it. Moreover, there is 
some loss unavoidable in attempting to deal 
with abstract subjects without a crrtain ac- 
quaintance with mental science. One would 
expect Berkeley to be a popular author in 
America ; bat it ie curious that Professor le 
Conte, who has re-discovered the bssia of 
hia ontology (Lecture VI. p. i>H), writes 
elsewhere (Lecture II. p. 41) in manifest 
ignomnce of the Theory of Vision — a mat- 
ter of pure psychology, which can hardly 
be affected by discoveries in optica, nud has 
not been by any discoreries yet made in 
physiology. 

But a certain weakness in first principles 
mflst be tolerated, until some founder of a 
system shall be as judicious in the choice of 
his foundations as the greatest thinkers have 
been in ordering the strnctnre renred upon 
theirs. The most that con be expected in 
this unsatisfactory world is, that a jihiloso- 
pher nnable to prove his first principlcR shall 
yet show real facts in a light pointing to 
their truth : and so much at least may be 
said to be done at the end of the first 
Lecture: — 
" Thus, then, you will obaerve that Bkepticism " 



86- 



THE ACADEMY. 



[JpiT 24,1875. 



((h: the Bpellingr.word-l'oTmatiaii, andgnmiu&r are 
throughout American nthei thsn English) " t&kea 
its fint rafuge in the past eUrnit; of eiiating 
oontriTances, or else, in the case of organisms, iu 
the eternity of tha tpedes. Driven from this by 
geology it tabes its next refuge in the eternity of 
the ornnic kingdom. Driven again from this it 
takes its next refuge in the eteniit; of the cosmos. 
Driven from this also, as it has Men, it takea its 
iaat refuge heyonil the domain of Science, in the 
eternity of matter and muterial forces. Thus, id 
CTorj case it seeks refuge in our ignorance — it 
flies eTor before the light of Science, and tiuda 
safety and rest only beyond her domain," 

The Lectares on the Divine ftttribntes, 
especially that on " Trnth," are the fairest 
repreaentatives of the Tolnme, both in its 
strength and in its weakness. These ara 
followed by an attempt to deal with the 
comparatively few cases whore a scientific 
truth comes into direct collision with a 
statement of Scriptnre or a theological 
dogma; thongh he doclinos to discuss them 
in detail, and attempts to sapersede' such 
discuBsion by an "adjastment of the gene- 
ral relations of science and theology." 
There is a perfectly jnst criticism " of so- 
called schemes of reconciliation," sncb as 
have been advanced from time to time, and 
have to be modified ae science advances ; 
but here, and nowhere else in the book, 
we seem to be in the atmosphere of snch 
schemes, and Professor le Conte, while 
refosing to advance any definitely, yet 
shows a hankering for their being sug- 
gested provisionally, as a proof that the 
two " revelations " are not necessarily con- 
tradictory, "Let ufl compare," he says, 
" divine things with divine things, and human, 
things with boman things, the Scriptures 
with nature, our interpretation of Scriptnre, 
theology, with our interpretation of nature, 
science." But ho blinks rather than faces 
the question — what if the correct interpreta- 
tion of Scripture contradict the correct in- 
terpretatioa of nature ? Exegesis is jnst as 
much a science as geology (whetijer theology 
be so or no), and aometimes gives as cer- 
tain results : it may be possible to ascertain 
what Moses or some one else meant to assert 
was the origin of the earth, as surely as we 
can ascertain what was ; and if the two dis- 
agree, are we to believe our own reasoning 
or his authority ? And there is a certnin 
timidity in the remarks on " questions 
which physical facts and physical statements 
seem to involve also moral and spiritual 
truth ; " such as snrely is, if not " the 
question of origin of species," yet that of 
" the unity or diversity of the human race " 
— involving as it does the whole of St. 
Paul's as well as St. Angnstine's doctrine 
of the Fall. On these he has nothing better 
to say, than that the an ti- scriptural doctrines 
are not demonstrated — jnst yet— so as to be 
placed beyond the range of controversy. ■ 

These two Lectures, however, be their 
intrinsic value greater or less, serve to some 
extent as an introduction to the following 
one, " Man : his place in Natnre ; " in which 
all the merits of the volume a« to be found 
in a concentrated form. It is' too complete 
and coherent to need analysis, or to be 
represented by extracts : bnt it is seldom 
indeed that one meets with reasoning on 
such a snbject so forcible, and at the same 
time so plainly derived from the evidence. 



not forced npon it : while the small compaaa 
it occupies is perhaps disappointing to the 
reader, but certainly gives tue greater proof 
of the writer's ability. 

There is less originality in the Lectures 
k " the Probation of Man," and " Pre- 
destination and Free Will ; " but they are 
on the whole powerful and judicious — the 
latter especially shows much untrained power 
of thought, though near the end it is dis- 
figured by the attempt to present as an 
argoment the natural aversion felt to neces- 
sarianism, as destructive to " all our moral 
ideas." The last Lecture, on "Prayer in 
relation to invariable Law," is perhaps less 
able ; bnt, if the being of a God and the 
fr-ee will of Man be admitted, it is of course 
obvious that there is a sphere within which 
prayer may be legitimate and profitable: 
and there is a certain subtlety and beauty 
in the view, that prayer may be legitimate 
even when hopelesBly unprofitable — that 
when the material conditions of our life are 
such as we cannot alter, and know that God 
will not, our prot«st against them, if ad- 
dressed to Him, thongh a proof of infirmity 
may be not displeasing to Him, It may be 
questioned whether this view is adequate to 
the teaching of Scriptnre or the practice 
of Christendom : bnt the objections to it lie 
rather within the range of Natural and Re- 
vealed Religion than in the controversy 
between Theism and Materialism. 

On the whole, it is hardly too mnch to 
say, that this is the ablest attempt that has 
been made to reinstate " Natural Theology " 
in the position it held in the beginning of 
the century, since the changes in the con- 
ditions of the question that have come in 
with the advances of physical science. Per- 
haps the author wonld have done better to 
confine his plan within this scope — to 
omit his attempts to find in the natural 
world support for the distinctive doctrines 
of the Christian Revelation ; even as it is, 
he barely touches upon the question of the 
miraculous. But most certainly there is 
nothing in the book unworthy of^his reputa- 
tion within his special sphere : and the book 
will have great effect, and ought to obtain 
great credit, as a plea adapted to our time 
for the religions solution of the fondamcntal 
and recurrent problems of thought. 

William Henry Simcox. 



CURRBHI LITERArURE. 
Protection and Free Trade. By Isaac Butts. 
(Sampson Low & Oo.) Mr. Butts was an able 
and influential journalist who for twenty years 
edited one of the leading newspapers of the State 
of New York, and who also took a prominent and 
highly successful part as one of the directors of 
the Western Union Company, in the introduction 
of the electric telegraph into pracUcal use in the 
United Statesi Aiter his retirement from jour- 
nalism and husineBB in 18S1, he gave, down to hie 
death at the end of Isst rear, much of bis time 
to political economy, and the jpresent essay, which 
has been posthumoosly published, is one of the 
fruits of his study of that science. He inveslj- 
gatea in it the elements of value, and the condi- 
tions most favourable to the production of wealth. 
Thence he deducM an argument for free trade, on 
tha ground that protection violates the conditions 
essential to the maximum production of values. 
It is of good omen to find complete commercial 
liberty advocated so earnestly by an American 



jonmaUst of so much ability, thoo^ smd* of b 
arguments may be disputed without iunliditiw 
his concluuon. Ha lays down two propoaitica! I 
first, that the co-operation of two cjements,lihn 
and the forces of nature — labour includiiig the 
exertion of all the powers of human volitioii uj 
intelligence — is necesaary for the productioii d 
value ; and secondly, that individual interast nil 
give the most productive direction to laboor. It i 
the disquisition on Value, which aims at eBlal>£^ ' 
ing the first of these propogitions, Mr. Bun 
appears to confound wealth m relatiaa to aliii> 
duice with wealth in relation to value, lbs ral 
object of free trade is to create abundance, m 
value, of which limitation of supply is a ge- 1 
ceasary condition. Mr. Butts urees that nlix 
can be created only by the help of uumsn Ishn ' 
or skill, and therefore not by protective lef^tin, 
which can only trausfer labour from one indiuDr 
to another. But in feet protection may augum: 
value by limiting supply and dimini^ing sbiu- 
dance. Fond rises m value in a scarcity out ( 
all proportion to the defect of supply ; C1JDi^ 

Suently a law which in time of dearth shulf tit 
oreign supplies mAy more than quadrapk tit 
value of the food in the country, although thm 
may be only half as much as usual. Could i 
mode of procuring heat ad tibitum from the fia 



though the country would gain enormoL^v in 
real affluence. A bsd argument, as Archbi^bin 
Whatelv says, ought logically to count for tc- 
thing, but practically often counts agsbat ik 
conclusion wnich it is used to support ; and tlnrn- 
fore we notice this flaw in Mr, Butta'a nma<X. 
although his conclusion is not really shaken hiL 
and HOiue of his arguments are unanewenR^ 
Itastiat too was a zealous free trader, wbo snEir 
times rested his cause on a false principle, and i' 
Butts juatiy criticises his doctrine that the lij :' 
nature is always gratuitously given, and tbaic; 
services rendered by human labour alone peas 
value. If it he true, Mr, Butts replies, toitU' 
tural agencies never create value, it must Iw iw 
aUo ot human agency, Man's mental and w^ 
eutar powers are natural powers as much u i" 
powers of the soil. The owner of a vtierfiC 
the owner of a steam engine, and the omiti ii: 
an inventive brain, all posaess value-crestk; 
powers. It is surprising that Mr. Butts did ik^ 
see that his own instance of the wsterM proni 
that labour is not a necessary condition of ti1ik> 
and that any productive power which is lindtid 
in supply may constitute it. 

Site and Devflopment of Jadaitm from .Vom 
to our J)ay». By A. Benisch. (London: Loiff- 
mans & Co,) On the Judaism of the OU 
Testament Dr. Benisch throws less light than n 
should perhaps have expected ; he treats all Ptt- 
tiona of bibhcal criticism as secondary, snd v- 
serves the question of revelation altogether, vtiirt 
ceases to be surprising when we obeerre thit 
from his point of view Judaism both as a Isii^ 
and a polity rests upon the hving law actatli; 
in force among the J ewe of the present daj, bw 
only rests upon the Pentateuch in the same KXt 
of sense aa the British Constitution may be ti^ 
to rest npon Magna Charta. Thia makea tb« 
first lecture, occupying rather more than s thiiJ 
of the hook, on the period from Moaes to Em, * 
little difficult to Oentile readers, though there li 
something not unimpressive in the account of > 
fine sober generous morality based on the » 
Humption of a free and lofty Theism. Still ii 
is impossible to agree with the author that MoM 
laid no stress on the immortahty of the soul 
becauae the doctrine had been made an instr'i' 
ment of Egyptian priestcraft ; it is surely mt^<^ 
to Huppoae that he regarded hia own doctrinecl 
present retribution a religious advance od ti< 
Egyptian doctrine of iuikment after death, an" 
ao had no occasion to dweU on the belief in ^ 
mortality which every sifted primitive iW 
Bntertoina of course; nor u it really poaaible V 



JpIpT Si, 1875.] 



THE ACADEMY. 



87 



E'vo tBj^ ntioiuJa 'whatever of the leviticttl 
WB until we know whether they are Mosaic in 
suhatoiice, or took their present ahape after the 
Elxile. Ills aecond lecture deala with the period 
from Ena to the destruction of the Second Tem- 
ple, and contains a very inteiestin^^ account of the 
action of the PhanBees, who, according to the 
author, deliberately put the law into a practicable 
ebape ns a preliminary to enforcing its eDthuuaatic 
obserTaiice, in which thej ware much aided hj a 
test in Deuteronomy, which, by making the deci- 
eiona of tha Supreme Oourt final, invested them 
with practical infallibility. In fact, it may be 
said lliat the Pharisees made tha same of the 
Sanhedrim that tha Jesuits have made of the 
Fapacy. The Sadduceee, according to the writer, 
"were aimply a party of rigid conservatives, who 
adhered to the old institutions without regard to 
their spirit (this antithesis of the spirit and the 
letter, the principles and the institutions of 
Judaism, piays a great part throughout), and that 
s only a subordinate incident of this bigotry 



the doctrine of immortaliW in order to miiintain 
the popular belief in Divine justice, which, ac- 
cording to the author, was no longer sufficiently 
manifested in the present hfe; while the Snddu- 
cees insisted that if the law were strictly en- 
forced. Divine justice would be vindicated, and 
that At any rate immortality must remain an open 
question. The writer thinks that but for St. Paul 
Christianity would have remained a new and 
fruitful school of Juduam ; he is more instructive 
in his guarded account of the origin and growth 
of the Messianic expectation : it will be new 
to most renders that iu periods of compaiativs 
prosperity Jewish expectation has turned cnietl^ to 
the promise of a Messianic time ; while in periods 
of adversity it has dwelt more on the texts which 
may be read of a personal King and Deliverer. 
The third lecture, which deals with the period 
from the Destruction of the Second Temple to 
Moses Mendelssohn, is less ffeuetally interesting. 
"We learn, indeed, that the Karaites, who follow 
Scripture to the exclusion of tradition, are actually 
under more burdensome obligations as to the 
Sabbath and ceremonial undeaunesa than Bab- 
binical Jews; but we are told nothing whatever 
of how Jewish speculation was influenced by 
foreign ideas during the period between the second 
century and the thirteenth, though we are told on 
the authority of Zunz, that Ecclesiastic us in 
Hebrew was only removed from the Jewish canon 
in the fourth centiOT A.D., and that polygamy 
was finally aboli^ed by the authority of a number 
of Rabbins, who met at Mayence under the presi- 
dency of a certain Gershon, who died 1028 a.d. 
In fact, throughout the writer gives rather dispr^)- 
portionate relief to the power Judaism has shown 
of transforming itself in obedience to authorised 
or self-authorised eipoeitors, and — after an ex- 

flanation of how Mendelssohn succeeded inplAcina; 
ia people in rapport with modem culture, and 
ho'w severely Judaism wss tried by the ingienuitv 
of fTOvemments which offered Jews education and 
refiiaed them careers, except upon the condition, 
often accepted, of conformity — we come to the 
main purpose of the book — a recommendation that 
a synod now should constitute itself, if necessary 
by its own authority, in order firstly to liberate 
the spirit of Judaism from obsolete institutions ; 
secondly and chiefly, to revive the order of Pro- 
eelytee of the Gate, which the writer beiievee 
mifrht serve as an ark of refuge to Ciiristians and 
Mohammedans dissatisfied with their own pro- 
viaional religions, or brought by them to long for 
ADTuetbing higher and deeper and more perfect ; 
ys-hile at any rate the childran of mixed marriages 
jaigbt be saved to Judaism, if the Oantile parent 
could be persuaded to become a proselyte to this 
very mild extent The writer faUs to persuade 
na that his religion has a future. 

Ei*tni»,Oriiieal and BioffrajAical. ByH. Rogera. 
^Xiongmans & Co.) These esnys may be recom- 



mended, almoet without reserve, to hard-headed 

and half-culti vatod readers, who will get &om them 
a great deal of wholesoma mental exercise and 
accurate information, and will not miss the Aibtlety 
which is sometimea neceiaary to trace the real 
connexion of things. There is one essay in each 
volume which may be considered as impiesaivs 
and fine — that in the first volume on Psscal, 
that in the second on the vanity and glory of 
literature. Tha latter illiiatratea with abundant 
variety and sufiicieDt depth of feeling the two 
propositions, that no book can continue to be read 
in its inlegri^ for long, and that it is always an 
elevating and profitable employment to write a 
harmless book that is read at all. The former 
treats with a good deal of dignity and grave emo- 
tion of the moral ^d spiritual problems presented 
by Pascal's life, and contains, perhaps, the best 
statement of the writer's view of the power we 
actually have over our lives, though the subject 
is dealt with more fully in the essay on Locks, 
whom Mr. Rogers undertakes todefend against the 
strictures of Cousin, who had accused him of 
fatalism and of being the father of French sensa- 
tionalism. As an argumentative exercise, Air. 
Rogers' defence ma^ be satisfactory, but it does 
not show much sense of the real connexion of 
the subject, or any appreciation of the &ct that 
Locke makes so little use of reflection, his second 
principle of knowledge, that his successors might 
well suppose thay ware introducing a simplifica- 
tion by raducing it to the first. The same remark 
applies to the essays on Descartes and Leibnitz : 
it would be amusing and instructive to a boy 
who was leaving school and going into business 
to see how vigorously Mr. Rogers can gntpple 
with hypotheses like the pre-established harmony 
or the automatic life of animals, and how cleverly 
he can demolish them, especially if he also learns 
how very barren such logic is, and how much 
more influence a man has who suggests a fruitful 
idea in a form that is open to cheap criticism than 
the man who critiuses it. And a similar lesson 
might be learnt from the isolated way in which 
Mr. Rogers is always insisting on the limita- 
tions of human knowledge, as if it did us go id 
to know we cannot know everything without 
knowing how this knowledge affects what wu are 
able to know. The fact is, that though Mr. 
Rogers underrates Confucius (as we learn from a 
very well-turned essay on Hue's Travfh in China, 
now first republished), upon this point ba agrees 
with him more than he thinks. According to 
Confucius," when you understand a thing to think 
that you understand it, and when you do not un- 
derstand it to think that vou do not understand 
it, that is knowledge ; ' but according to an 
author from whom Mr. Rogers would be sorry to 
differ, " If a man thinketh that he knoweth any- 
thing, he knoweth nothing yet aa be ought to 
know," The essay on Luther is chiefly remark- 
able for the unexpressed assumption that calcu- 
lated and successful bluster is a sure mark of 
genius. The essays on the history and structure of 
the English language are surely as obsolete as 
those on prison discipline and reform and revolu- 
tion, which have disappeared from the present 
edition. It is, perhaps, noticeable that none of 
the essays seem to have been seriously revised 
since their original publication. iclniTOK. 



NOTES AND 2fSWS. 
Wb nnderatand that the Lord Clerk Register 
of Scotland will shortly publish tha Index to the 
Acts of the Fariiameots of Scotland, which has 
been in course of preparation for some years, and 
ia now approaching completion. There will also 
be published at the same time three new volumes 
of Uieee Acts, embracing tha period of Charles I. 
and the Protectorate. The new volumes have 
been printed t^m the original records of Partiii- 
ment, once supposed to have been lost, and will 
supsnede the two old volumes referring to the 
same poiod. The work was edited by tha late 



Professor Cosmo Innas down to the period of hia 
death in 1874, and has been completed by Mx. 
Archibald Anderson, M.A., advocate, and othem 
of Profewor Innee's asnstants. 

ViuroB Huoo's new volume will be called 12 Art 
d'etrt grand-Bire. No poet has ever written ao 
charmingly aoout children as ha has. The suc- 
cessive deaths of his sons, Charles and Francois, 
made his two grandchildren, Jeanne and Georges, 
especially dear to him. He had already made 
them the subject of his verso in L'AmUe TrrrOk. 
And in this new volume they are alluded to 
ahnost in every page j now directly with reference 
to thoir childish games and sayings; now indirectiy, 
as when they are made a pielait for his philo- 
sojAical speculations. One evening lately, Victor 
Hugo road out to some of his friends half a doien 
pieces which he took at random from the manu- 
script: in one, called "La Femme de Georges, 
he sees his grandson, in imagination, grown up 
and in love, and worthy of the woman whose fate 
he has linked to his ; m another, called " L'lm- 
macul^ Conception," which is very striking in 
form, and sociaDy extremely interesting, he sees a 
number of beantifiil children playing in the Tuil- 
eries gardens beside their young mothers ;^ tha 
whole atmosphere is one of 'purity and happiness 
and trust in tha highest laws of nature and 
society. Suddenly a voice is heard, saying to 
the mothers, "You are prostitutes, you have 
sinned agunst the fleqb, your children are stained 
with a spot that nothing can wipe away. The 
Immaculate Conception condemns you all to 
shame, only by celibacy can you attain everlast- 
ing salvation." His auditors were touched and 
amazed, for they recognised the old genius (M, 
Victor Hugo was bom in 1802) fresh and vigorous 
as it was when the Oritntalet were written. The 
book will exercise new power over the public 
mind on account of the maturity of thought 
which characterises it. L'Art fetrt fftand-p^ra 
will probably be published this autumn. M. 
Victor Hugo feels himself in full possession of the 
gift of production, and works every day with tha 
utmost regularity, but he withholds his manu- 
scripts from tha printer aa long as ha possibly can. 
Ha corrects with extreme care, and is often not 
saUalied until he has had as many as five proofs. 
Under the Empire he had hie own special corrector 
at Claye's — tha printer — who was accustomed to 
his punctuation, which ia well known to be quite 
peculiar to himselt 

The above will be followed, either by two new 
yolun.M of tha Ugende de* Siidn. or by two other 
volun:es, the Quatre VcjiU de CEeprit, consisting 
of four books, each in a dilferent kay : satirical, 
dramatic, lyrical, and epic. 

Om the first four days of the present week tie 
congress of " Americanists " was announced to 
be held at Nancy. No less than 1,200 names are 
mentioned by the Trmpi m hiiving been sent in 
by members from Canada, Japan, Norway, and 
many other distant parts of the world. Papers 
were to be i-ead and discussions held on ethno- 
logical and archaeological questions presented by 
the races and history of the American continent. 

Tee death is anno^ced, on the I7tli instant, 
of the Rev. Samuel Clark, of Eaton Bishop, near 
Hereford, the author of several geo^phical worka, 
as well as of various articles in Dr. William 
Smith's Dictumar^ of tie £ibU. 

Ik view of the appointment of a syndicate at 
Cambridge to consider what additional teachers 
or appliances for teaching are required in the 
different dapartments of university study, an 
urgent appeal for the encouragement of tha study 
of the English language and literature, and its in- 
clusion in the curriculum, has been circulated in 
Cambridge, by Rev. W. W. Skeat, towards the 
close of last^term. The subject of this appeal 
cannot be discussed before the beginning of next 
term (in October), at the earliest It deaervea to 
b3 conndered, howerer, not only I7 the UiiiTer- 



88 



THE ACADEMY. 



[Jolt 24, 1875. 



ioa to it. 

IiT leFerence to tha coatroTeray between Qio 
Bojol Irish Academy and Mr. Whitley Stokes, 
the gentleman irbo levised the copy of the MS. 
has compkined of our note of June 26. We 
answer that it waa not our intention in that 
Bot« to make any persoaal attack upon him. 
The personal form in which our criticism was 
expressed was due to the accident thftt the 
writer had at tlie moment before him a com- 
municatioD of Mr. Whitley Stokea printed in the 
ifenu Celtique, in which the criticism of the re- 
vieer'B work took that form. We apolopse, as 
"we feel bonnd to do, for implyiog that the reviser 
of the MS. was a person Imowinjf but little of the 
Iriah language, hut we reassert as strongly as may 
bo OUT former criticism in refbrence to the un- 
Batisfactory character oi'the revision iteelf, as thia 
opinion ie founded upon a minute examination of 
the work OD the part of the writer of the note. 

Mbbbbb. Chatto ahd Winbds have in the 
press a new work hy Mr. Hspworth Dixon, en- 
titled WAite Cbaquesi: Americain 1675. 

Thb same firm have in preparation Jotepfi and 
hit Brttkrm : •• S<-npCu>-al Drama, by C. O. WeUs. 
The work will have prelixed aa an Introduction 
Mr. Swinburne's article in the FortrugHlij Raeieip 
entitled " An Unknown FoeL" 

Wis understand that a second series of poami 
entitled Nitoea ItiiUa, by Kr. John M'Cosh, is to 
1m published in Uctolier by Messrs. Chapman and 
Hall, the author havinjj; dropped the incognito of 
* Nimentdno." 

A C0RBESC0I1DE.VT St Lima writes under dale 
June 12:— 

"Dr. Kewmsii's 'abjure pri<»C of Lima' haa 
passed anar, touring n Toid ia the literary and 
religio-palitical rikokit of Peru which no ono at pro- 
flsnt seems competont tu fill. Francisco de Puula 
GorraUi Vigil was born in T^tona in 1703, and, after 
pursuing hia studiL-a in Artiquipa was orJainni a 
priest in tlie Ronuin Cntliotic Church. In 1826 ha 
was choBon to rtpresent his native provinee in the 
first Congress of the 3'oung Republic, and at once 
allieil himaelf with the liberal party. In 1848 was 
pabiidied in six volumes his defence of gorero- 
menti against the prelonsions of the Boman Curia, 
Ihis work was in^bibiteU by the Pope. In 1852 
Hjpenred his ndditinnii 1o the same vaA. In 18(>£ 
the defence of tbo nuthoriiy of bishops was published 
in four votumcs. In lBe3, also in four Tolumes, The 
Jtsvitt wnB given to the public. Bcsidi'S these ho 

K.bliihed works on liberty of worship, on the Jew 
ertara attktr. on thu oiitlenco of God and the future 



life, I 



if diMth ; and ii 



1 the pui 
to Pope Hat IX 

Tolomee in maiiti>KTtpt remain unpublished. The 
Church antliorttii<s hnvo denied him Christinn bttriHl. 
but eould not prevent hii interment iu consecratHl 
ground. The funcrnl wnHtskm advantsj^of to make 
a kind of silent proti-st agninst the Choreh. The 
HMona of hU nntionaliiii'S miistned iu grrat nQin- 
bers, although thu decensvd did not belong to that 
body. Thi- Italians, th" French, and Ihe German 
Msidonte nlw np|»Tati!d in force, while England vna 
represi-Bted by hir minister resident. Mr. St. John. 
It is ostimntcd thnt some. 2^.000 persons were pre- 
■enb, Cotigress hnrl fssucd a decree suspending all 
buainesa in tlie two cities of Lima and Gillao. Dur- 
ing some twunty-Sre years Dr. Vigil filled the offic« 
of Dircclur of the Saiional Library in Lima." 

The third field meeting of the Woolhope Na- 
taralists' Olub was held on Tuesday, July 13, in 
tho Ysle of the Motmuw. The curious colum- 
baria of the Kni);hts Hospitallers at Onrway 
were inspected, and a visit paid to the sdjoiniDg 
church, which contains among other features of 
intereet a chancel arch, the outline of the soiFit of 
which is cut so as to form a series of projecting 
trefoils. It has rather a Ijaracenic look, and is 
Krobablj unique in construction. In the passage 
Icnduig to the detached fortrees-belfry a stone 



cross has been fimod of unusual chanuter. In 
ite cenbe is a lozenge, within which is canted a 
baud in tlu> form known as the " manua benadic- 
tionis," The same emblem hsa bean fband on 
establishments of the Knights Templars in the 
south of Suiope, but we are not aware of any 
other instancs of ita occunence in England. The 
OLub next proceeded to Scen&ith Castle and 
Church — the former a border-forCreas of traparium 
shape, with a circular keep ; the latter a very in- 
teresting' huildiDg, chiefly in the Decorated style, 
and coataimng, as an altar~clath, a velvet cope of 
si ngiUai beauty. Scenfrith Castle was often visited 
hy John and Henry III., and probably fell into 
ruins after Glyndwr's rebellion. The same &te 
befell the neighboiuing and tnore important for- 
treee of Grosmont, witliin the walls of which was 
bom the heroic Duke of Lancaster, known as 
" Henry of Grosmont," and beside which Prince 
Henry (afterwards Henry V.) defeated the in- 
surant Welsh in I40e. The entire district of 
Gwent is one of remarkable beauty, and full of 
historic sites, but its comparative maccessihillty 
has hitherto preserved it from the profane foot of 
the mere tourist. 

Pridcb Lvciek Bonaparte has been making a 
tour through Herefordahira and the Welsh Border 
for the purpose of investigating the dialects of the 
district. 

Mb. Abbbr has nearly finished the second 
volume of hie Trmacr^t of the Regittett of the 
StrUionert' Company. It will be issued next 
month. The third volume is also in hand. 

Dk, Bbinsi.e; Kicholsox has Just pointed out 
three linee in Shakspere's Venua and .^fjonts which 
may perhaps be taken to establish the writing of 
the poem in 169S, the year of its registry on the 
Btationats' Company's books, and of its publication. 
These lines are 608-610, in which Venus, speak- 
of Adonis's lips, eays:^ 

" 0, neser let their crimson liusries weare '. 
And OS they lest, their vetdour still endure, 
To driu) in/eclum froai l/te dangennu yean! 
That the star-gazers, hnuing writ on deatlii 
May toy, the plagac ia baniihl by thy breath," 
Now we know from Stone's Annaiet, p. 1,274, that 
in 1603 the pest or plague " was verie hot in that 
citie" (Landon),Bnd that from December 29, 15iJ2, 
to December 30, 16U3, there died of the plague 
"within the Citie and liberties" 10,675 pareons. 
We know also from the Semembraneia Record* 
of the City, that on February 3, 1603, the Lards 
of the Council wrote " to the Lord Mayor to 
restrain until further order all public plays and 
interludes within live miles of the City of liondon, 
on account of the plague " (Overall's tnd^, p. 5d) : 
and we may thus perhaps assume that Shakspere's 
dramaljc work being stopped, he at once wrottt hie 
first poem, in March to April 1603 — it was regis- 
tered on April 18 — and that in his retirenient at 
Stratford, of hie country life at which the poem 
is so full (AcADEitx, August 16, 1674, p. 170, 
col. 1). If Shakspere's choice of Venns'a amour 
as hie subject at such a time reminds us un- 
pleaauitlv of Boccaccio's stury-telJers in his Decn- 
merone Juring the plague at Florence in 134d, 
we cannot help it. But there is another side to 
the question. Mr. Richard Simpson urges that 
the I'envt lines rBfar, not to a deadly year in 
which the plague was actually rasing, like 1603, 
but to a " dangerous " one for which the plague 
was prophesied but d id not appear, so that the 
Zadkiele of tbo time could rightly excuse the falsi- 
fication of tiieir prophecies, and say, " tbo plague 
is banished by thy [.4donis'] breath." Huch a 
vear, for instance, was 168>!, "the wonderful 
year," when disasters dire were to happen, but did 
not--though the Armada came and went — and, 
as Gabriel Harvey wrote, the only wonder was 
that no wonder came about. 



Mr. W. Nivbrs, whose lUitlratum* <f OW 
WonittttrAire Zfousss we reviewed some time ago, 
is DOW engaged in a similar work on the old 



bonaes of Warwickshire. It will ba in two 
volumes each taking one of the pariiamentBTT' 
divisions of tbe coun^. Moat of toe plates fat 
the first volume are finished and tbe prospectus 
will be issued in a few days. 

TsB eoKteuts of the current